Timeline of Amazon Web Services

Last updated

This is a timeline of Amazon Web Services , which offers a suite of cloud computing services that make up an on-demand computing platform.

Contents

AWS Prelude

YearMonth and date (if available)Event typeDetails
2000Prelude Amazon.com, the parent company of the as yet nonexistent AWS, begins work on merchant.com, an e-commerce platform intended for use by other large retailers such as Target Corporation. In the process, Amazon's team realizes that they need to decouple their code better, with cleaner interfaces and access APIs. Around the same time, the company also realizes the need to build infrastructure-as-a-service internally, to improve the speed of development and not have it bottlenecked by infrastructure availability. All these changes help pave the way for AWS. [1] [2]
2003PreludeBenjamin Black and Chris Pinkham write a short paper describing a vision for Amazon infrastructure that, in Black's words, "was completely standardized, completely automated, and relied extensively on web services for things like storage." [3] [4] [5] [6] [7]
2004Prelude Jeff Bezos approves the idea of experimenting with Amazon infrastructure. Pinkham leaves for South Africa to set up a satellite development office. While there, he works on a pilot along with help from Chris Brown and Willem van Biljon. Although the team works from South Africa, the servers are hosted in the United States. [5] [6] [8]
2004November 9Customer outreachThe Amazon Web Services blog is launched, with a first blog post by Jeff Barr. [9] [10] At the time, the name Amazon Web Services refers to a collection of APIs and tools to access the Amazon.com catalog, rather than the Infrastructure as a Service it would eventually become. [10] [11] [12] [13]
2005PreludeA private precursor to AWS launches, with a small number of customers. [6] At the same time, Amazon begins planning for a public launch of AWS. Based on internal discussions, they decide to launch storage, compute, and database offerings so that developers can use all of them together. [2]

Full timeline

YearMonth and date (if available)Event typeDetails
2006March 14Product (storage) Amazon Web Services launches by releasing the Simple Storage Service (S3). [14] [15]
2006July 13Product (data flow) Amazon Simple Queue Service (SQS) is released in production. [16] SQS had been around (but not available in production) since 2004. [10]
2006August 25Product (compute)Amazon launches Amazon Elastic Compute Cloud (EC2), which forms a central part of Amazon.com's cloud-computing platform, Amazon Web Services (AWS), by allowing users to rent virtual computers on which to run their own computer applications. The service initially includes machines (instances) available for 10 cents an hour, and is available only to existing AWS customers rather than the general public. The EC2 region is us-east-1, also known as compute-1, and is located in North Virginia. [17] [18]
2007August 22Product (compute)Amazon EC2 is now available in unlimited public beta, so that anybody can sign up and start using it. It also launches new instance types. [19]
2007November 6Regional diversificationAmazon launches S3 in Europe, reducing latency and bandwidth for European users and helping them comply with privacy requirements. [20]
2007December 13Product (database)Amazon launches Amazon SimpleDB, which allows businesses, researchers, data analysts, and developers to easily and cheaply process vast amounts of data. It uses a hosted Hadoop framework running on the web-scale infrastructure of EC2 and Amazon S3. [21] [22]
2008March 26Product, regional diversificationAmazon announces Elastic IPs, IP addresses that can be decoupled from physical EC2 machines, as well as availability zones, clusters of one or more data centers in a region such that different availability zones are isolated from each other in terms of power and water sources. [23] [24]
2008April 7CompetitionGoogle launches Google App Engine, a platform as a service (PaaS) cloud computing platform for developing and hosting web applications in Google-managed data centers. [25] This is part of the Google Cloud.
2008August 20Product (storage)Amazon announces the launch of Amazon Elastic Block Store (EBS), which provides raw block-level storage that can be attached to Amazon EC2 instances. [26]
2008October 23Product (service)Amazon EC2 exits beta and begins offering a service level agreement. [27]
2008November 18Product (Internet delivery)AWS launches Amazon CloudFront, a content delivery network (CDN). [28]
2008December 10Regional diversificationAmazon launches EC2 in Europe (specifically, the region eu-west-1 in Ireland), making it easier for European customers to run their instances locally and benefit from higher bandwidth and lower latency. This comes a year after the setting up of S3 in Europe. [29] [30]
2009AprilProduct (compute)Amazon launches Amazon Elastic MapReduce (EMR), which allows businesses, researchers, data analysts, and developers to easily and cheaply process vast amounts of data. It uses a hosted Hadoop framework running on the web-scale infrastructure of EC2 and Amazon S3.
2009May 18Product (compute)Amazon introduces Elastic Load Balancing (ELB) (which makes it easy for users to distribute web traffic across Amazon EC2 instances), Auto Scaling (which allows users to scale policies driven by metrics collected by Amazon CloudWatch), and Amazon CloudWatch (for tracking per-instance performance metrics including CPU load). [31]
2009May 21Product (data migration)AWS announces an Import/Export service, whereby people can send their storage device to AWS and AWS will upload the data to S3. This is a predecessor of the Snowball service that they would launch in October 2015. [32]
2009Aug 25Product (networking)AWS launches Virtual Private Cloud (VPC), allowing customers launch EC2 instances into their own logically isolated networks, with the ability to define subnets, routing and access control lists. [33]
2009October 22Product (database)Amazon launches Amazon Relational Database Service (RDS), a web service running "in the cloud" designed to simplify the setup, operation, and scaling of a relational database for use in applications. It starts out by supporting MySQL databases. [34] [35]
2009December 3Regional diversificationAWS launches in a second region in the United States called us-west-1, located in Northern California. [36]
2009December 13Product (compute)AWS announces EC2 Spot Instances, allowing users to bid for one or more EC2 instances at the price they are willing to pay. [37]
2010FebruaryCompetitionMicrosoft launches Microsoft Azure, its foray into cloud computing. [38]
2010April 7Product (Internet delivery)AWS launches Simple Notification Service (SNS), a tool to allow developers to push messages generated from an application to other systems and people (by methods such as email or webhooks). [39]
2010April 29Regional diversificationAWS launches a region, called ap-southeast-1, in Singapore. This is its first region in the Asia-Pacific, and is intended to meet the demand for lower latency and better bandwidth for the growing customer base in the Asia-Pacific region. [40]
2010May 15Product (management)Amazon launches AWS CloudFormation, its tool to help customers define collections of AWS resources (called stacks) with AWS taking care of using the definitions to provision and configure the required resources. CloudFormation is an early example of a declarative Infrastructure as Code tool. [41]
2010Sep 2IAM (security)AWS launches identity and access management (IAM) Preview Beta. [42]
2010NovemberProductAmazon announces that Amazon.com has migrated its retail web services to AWS. [43]
2010December 5Product (Internet delivery)AWS launches Amazon Route 53, a scalable and highly available Domain Name System that can be accessed via programmatic APIs. [44] [45]
2011January 19Product (management)AWS launches AWS Elastic Beanstalk, an orchestration service for deploying infrastructure which orchestrates AWS services including EC2, S3, SNS, CloudWatch, autoscaling, and Elastic Load Balancers. [46] [47]
2011January 25Product (Internet delivery)AWS announces the launch of Amazon Simple Email Service (SES), a service for large-scale email delivery. [48] [49] A week later, MailChimp announces its own Simple Transaction Service (STS) for bulk email delivery using SES. [50]
2011March 2Regional diversificationAWS launches a new region, named ap-northeast-1 in Tokyo, Japan, its second in the Asia-Pacific region. The region is launched to meet the needs of AWS' current and potential Japanese customer base for low latency and better bandwidth. [51]
2011June 21Competition DigitalOcean launches. [52] By November 2015, it becomes the second largest hosting company in the world in terms of web-facing computers. [53] [54]
2011July 19EcosystemNetflix announces its suite of tools ("Simian Army") including Chaos Monkey, that randomly terminates EC2 instances within an autoscaling group during working hours so that the company is forced to design its systems with fault tolerance and rapid recovery. [55]
2011November 9Regional diversificationAWS launches a new region called us-west-2 and located in Oregon, its third region in the United States for general public use. [56] [57]
2011September 1Ecosystem Cloudyn, which provides cloud monitoring and cost optimization for cloud infrastructure (like that of Amazon AWS), launches.[ citation needed ]
2011December 14Regional diversificationAWS launches a new region, called sa-east-1, in Sao Paulo, Brazil. This is its first region in South America. [58]
2012January 18Product (database)Amazon launches Amazon DynamoDB, a fully managed proprietary NoSQL database service that is offered by Amazon.com as part of the Amazon Web Services portfolio. [59]
2012April 29EcosystemAWS Marketplace is "an online store where customers can find, buy, and quickly deploy software that runs on AWS." [60] [61]
2012June 11Product (security)Amazon launches AWS Identity and Access Management (IAM) for EC2. [62]
2012July 30EcosystemNetflix open sources Chaos Monkey, its tool for simulating outages by randomly terminating EC2 instances, to help other companies build fault tolerant systems in the AWS cloud. [63] [64] [65]
2012July 30Product (storage)Provisioned IOPS (PIOPs) are a new EBS volume type designed to deliver predictable, higher performance for I/O intensive workloads. [66] [67]
2012August 21Product (storage)Amazon launches Amazon Glacier, an online file storage web service that provides storage for data archiving and backup. [68]
2012NovemberProduct (storage)AWS announces Amazon Redshift, a cloud-based data warehouse service. [69]
2012November 12Regional diversificationAWS launches a region, ap-southeast-2, in Sydney, Australia. This is its third region in the Asia-Pacific and its eighth public region (excluding AWS GovCloud). [70]
2013March 26ProductAWS CloudHSM [71]
2013May 13RecognitionAWS is awarded an Agency Authority to Operate (ATO) from the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services (HHS) under the Federal Risk and Authorization Management Program (FedRAMP). [72]
2013June 4Competition IBM acquires SoftLayer, which marks IBM's entry into cloud computing. [73]
2013October 10Customer outreachAWS announces AWS Activate, a global program for startups. Participating startups receive promotional credits that can be spent within AWS, as well as training, support, and access to a forum. [74]
2013November 4Product (compute)Amazon announces G2 instances, a new Amazon Elastic Compute Cloud (EC2) instance type designed for applications that require 3D graphics capabilities. [75]
2013November 13Product AWS CloudTrail [76] web service that records API calls made on your account and delivers log files to your Amazon S3 bucket
2013December 17Product (data flow)Amazon releases Amazon Kinesis, a service for real-time processing of streaming data. [77] [78]
2013December 18Regional diversificationAWS launches in China, with a limited preview of its Beijing region. [79] [80] However, due to Internet censorship in China, its China data center is not part of the global AWS network. Rather, it is a standalone region with the same APIs and services as available in other AWS regions, but a user must create a separate AWS account for AWS China and cannot use the AWS Global account. The service operator is Beijing Sinnet Technology Co. [81]
2014AugustSecurity CertificationAWS first to achieve MTCS Level 3 Certification. [82]
2014October 23Regional diversificationAWS launches its second region in Europe, specifically, eu-central-1 in Frankfurt, Germany. [83]
2014November 12Product (database)AWS announces Amazon Aurora, a MySQL-compatible database offering enhanced high availability and performance. [84] [85] The feature becomes available to all AWS customers on July 27, 2015. [86] [87]
2014November 12Product (security)AWS Key Management Service [88]
2014November 13Product (compute)AWS launches a preview of EC2 Container Service (ECS), facilitating the use of container infrastructure on AWS. Third-party integration such as those with Docker are available at the time of release. [89] [90] [91] [92]
2014November 13Product (compute)AWS launches AWS Lambda, its Functions as a Service (FaaS) tool. With Lambda, AWS customers can define and upload functions with specific triggers and execution code. AWS takes care of executing the function on the trigger occurring, and the AWS customer does not have to provision or manage the compute resources. [93] [94] Lambda is an early harbinger of the concept of "serverless architecture", referring to the idea of providing services without having dedicated servers to provide those services. [95] [96] [97]
2014December 17ProductIntroduction of Resource Groups and Tag Editor in AWS Management Console [98]
2015February 12ProductIntroduction of permission and privileged policies managed by Amazon in AWS Identity & Access Management (IAM). [99]
2015April 9ProductAWS announces a new machine learning platform at the AWS Summit in San Francisco, specifically suited to machine learning without requiring specific expertise. [100]
2015April 28AcquisitionsAWS acquires ClusterK, a startup that allows users to run apps on Amazon's cloud for 1/10th of the regular price. [101]
2015May 19Evaluation Gartner releases an updated version of its Magic Quadrant, evaluating Infrastructure as a Service (IaaS) offerings. Amazon Web Services and Microsoft Azure are the only two services in the top right quadrant ("Leaders") with AWS higher up. A number of services are in the bottom right and bottom left quadrants. [102] [103] [104]
2015July 9ProductAWS CodePipeline continuous delivery service [105]
2015July 9ProductAWS launches AWS API Gateway Service. [106]
2015October 1ProductAWS launches AWS Elasticsearch Service. [107]
2015October 7ProductAWS Inspector preview will be available soon. [108]
2015October 7QuickSightAmazon QuickSight – Fast & Easy to Use Business Intelligence for Big Data at 1/10th the Cost of Traditional Solutions. [109]
2015October 7Product (data migration)AWS launches Snowball, a physical appliance with 50 TB of storage and a Kindle on the side. Customers can get a Snowball for 10 days for $200, during which they can fill it with data and then ship it back to Amazon. The Snowball costs $15 for every additional day kept. [110] [111] This is the second generation of their data import/export hardware after a previous release in 2009. [111]
2015October 8Product (Internet of Things)AWS announces its managed cloud platform for the Internet of Things. [112] [113] The platform becomes generally available on December 18, 2015. [114]
2015December 21ProductAWS announces an Amazon Elastic Container Registry (ECR), a fully managed Docker container registry. [115]
2016January 6Regional diversificationAWS launches a new region, called ap-northeast-2, in Seoul, the capital city of South Korea. The region is the fourth in the Asia-Pacific. [116]
2016MarchPartnerships, Competition Dropbox announces that it now stores over 90% of its user data on its own infrastructure stack as it continues to transition from Amazon S3. [117] [118] [119]
2016May 18Product (Computing)AWS announces Automatic Auto Scaling for Amazon EC2 Container Service (ECS) services. [120]
2016June 21Product (Computing)AWS announces AWS Certificate Manager (ACM) to provisioning and managing SSL/TLS certificates. [121]
2016June 27Regional diversificationAWS launches its first region in India, located in Mumbai, and called ap-south-1. [122] [123] [124] [125]
2016June 28Product (storage)AWS launches Elastic File System (EFS) in production in three AWS regions (us-east-1, us-west-2, and eu-west-1). EFS allows customers to create POSIX-compliant file systems that can be attached to multiple EC2 instances. The file system grows and shrinks as needed and performance scales with storage size. [126] [127] [128] The service was originally announced on April 9, 2015. [129] [130]
2016July 14AcquisitionsAWS acquires Cloud9, a San Franciscobased startup that has built an integrated development environment (IDE) for web and mobile developers to collaborate.
2016August 4Evaluation Gartner publishes an update to its Magic Quadrant for Infrastructure as a Service (IaaS) offerings. The top right quadrant (for leaders) has only two players: Amazon Web Services and Microsoft Azure, with AWS significantly higher. The only other player on the right half is Google Cloud Platform (a change from last year, when there were many others in the right half as well), and all other players are in the bottom left. [131] [132]
2016October 13Partnerships VMWare, a company that provides cloud and virtualization services, announces a partnership with AWS, under which all of VMware's infrastructure will soon be available on AWS. [133] [134] [135]
2016October 17Regional diversificationAWS launches its fourth public region in the United States, called us-east-2, in Ohio, with three availability zones. AWS also announces that it will treat this region and the North Virginia region as one region when considering transfer pricing (for instance, EC2 to EC2 transfer will be charged at the inter-availability zone price, and S3 to EC2 transfer will be free), allowing its customers to have more regional redundancy and to migrate data off of the North Virginia data center. [136] [137] [138]
2016November 30Product (data migration)AWS announces the AWS Snowmobile, a secure data truck that can store up to 100 PB of data and supports data transfer at a rate of 1 Tb/second across multiple 40 Gb/second connections (so the truck can be filled in 10 days). [139] [140] [141] [142]
2016November 30Product (Internet of Things, data migration)AWS announces Snowball Edge, an augmentation of its previous device Snowball. Snowball Edge is a piece of hardware with 100 TB of storage and an attached Kindle, as well as the capability to run AWS Lambda functions with the compute capability of the m4.4xlarge EC2 instance. Customers can request a Snowball Edge at $300 for ten days with an additional charge of $30 per day; after shipping it back the data can be uploaded to S3 as with the original Snowball. [142] [143] [144]
2016November 30ProductAWS announces Amazon Lightsail, intended to compete against existing virtual private server offerings such as those by Linode and DigitalOcean. Lightsail packages together a compute server, storage, and transfer into fixed-price plans, like VPS providers do. [145] [146] [147] Lightsail is a little more expensive than but otherwise comparable to similarly priced plans offered at the time by Linode and DigitalOcean. Linode is cheaper in terms of RAM and both Linode and DigitalOcean are cheaper in terms of network overage costs, but Lightsail costs less if the server is being spun up for only a few hours. [148]
2016November 30Product Amazon Polly text-to-speech product [149]
2016November 30Product (AI) Amazon Rekognition pre-trained computer vision API [149]
2016November 30Product (AI) Amazon Lex chatbot builder [149]
2016December 1Product Amazon Pinpoint [150] tool designed to let developers send targeted push notifications.
2016December 1ProductAmazon Step Functions [151] tool design to coordinate the components of distributed applications and microservices using visual workflows.
2016December 8Regional diversificationAWS launches its first region in Canada, called ca-central-1 for Canada (Central). [152] [153]
2016December 13Regional diversificationAWS launches its London region (eu-west-2). This is its third region in Europe and first in the United Kingdom, the other two regions being in Frankfurt (Germany) and Ireland. [154] [155] [156] Plans for the region had been announced in November 2015. [157]
2016December 22Product (Compute)AWS EC2 Systems Manager management service to automate configuration and magament of EC2 and On-Premises Systems. [158]
2017February 23Product (compute)AWS launches i3 instances, a new generation of instances with large SSDs intended to be used for high-throughput datastores. The instances are more than 50% cheaper than the corresponding previous generation i2 instances, and have larger memory. [159] [160] [161]
2017August 14Product (database) Amazon Glue a fully managed extract, transform, and load (ETL) service [162]
2017August 30Product (database) Amazon Aurora with PostgreSQL Compatibility [163] [164]
2017October 24Product (database) Amazon Aurora Fast Database Cloning feature [165]
2017November 8ProductAmazon MQ fully managed service for open source message brokers [166]
2017November 9ProductAWS Privatelink [167]
2017November 29Product Amazon Systems Manager user interface to view operational data and automate operational task. [168]
2017November 29ProductAWS Fargate service for deploying and managing containers without having to manage any of the underlying infrastructure [169]
2017November 29Product (AI) Amazon SageMaker managed machine learning service [170] [171]
2017November 29Product (AI)Amazon Translate provides natural language translation. [172] [173]
2017November 29Product (AI)Amazon Transcribe is an automatic speech recognition software. [173] [174]
2017December 14ProductAWS CloudWatch agent for Linux and Windows which allows collection of disk and memory metrics as well as logs. [175]
2017December 18Regional diversificationAWS launches its Paris region (eu-west-3). Paris joins Ireland, Frankfurt, and London as the fourth AWS Region in Europe. [176]
2017December 18ProductAWS OpsWorks for Chef Automate and AWS OpsWorks for Puppet Enterprise become available in nine regions. [177]
2018April 4Product (security)AWS Secrets Manager which makes it easy to store and retrieve your secrets via API or the AWS Command Line Interface (CLI) and rotate your credentials with built-in or custom AWS Lambda functions [178] [179]
2018June 5Product (compute)AWS Elastic Kubernetes Service (EKS) available in the US East (N. Virginia) and US West (Oregon) Regions. [180]
2018September 11–12AcquisitionsAmazon acquires the aws.com domain from Earth Networks, formerly known as Automated Weather Source. [181]
2018NovemberProductAWS Ground Station is released. [182]
2018November 26ProductAWS Global Accelerator, a network service used to route data over Amazon's private network [183]
2018November 26Product (CPU)AWS Graviton CPU powered EC2 A1 instances are publicly available in 4 regions. [184]
2018November 28Product (compute)AWS launches hibernation for EC2 instances. [185]
2018November 28Product (AI)Amazon Textract is a "service that automatically extracts text and data from scanned documents." [186] [187]
2018November 28ProductAWS Lake Formation simplifies the process of setting up and maintaining a data lake. [188] [189]
2018November 28Product (AI)Amazon Personalize enables developers to create their own recommendation engines. [190] [191]
2018November 28Product (AI)Amazon Forecast allows customers to use their historical data produce forecasts for topics such as inventory levels and product demand. [192] [193]
2018November 29Product (AI)Amazon DeepLens is a wireless video camera. DeepLens is designed such that customers can deploy their own deep learning models for computer vision onto the camera. [194] [195]
2018November 29Product (compute)Amazon MSK: Amazon Managed Streaming for Kafka in Public Preview [196]
2019January 16Product (compute)Amazon Backup service for Amazon EBS volumes, RDS databases, DynamoDB tables, EFS file systems and AWS Storage Gateway volumes limited to a given AWS region. [197] [198]
2019MarchProductAWS App Mesh, [199] a service mesh that provides application level networking [200]
2019July 29Regional diversificationAmazon launches me-south-1 in Bahrain. [201]
2019September 10ProductAmazon Quantum Ledger Database [202]
2019December 3Product (CPU)AWS Graviton2 CPU powered EC2 M6g, C6g, and R6g instances are launched. [203]
2019December 3Product (compute)AWS Outposts allows AWS services to run in non-AWS datacenters. [204] [205]
2019December 3ProductAWS Wavelength [206]
2020April 22ProductAmazon AppFlow, a fully managed integration service to securely transfer data between third-party SaaS offerings and AWS services. [207]
2020April 22Regional diversificationAmazon launches af-south-1 in Cape Town. [208]
2020April 27Regional diversificationAmazon launches eu-south-1 in Milan. [209]
2020May 11ProductAmazon Kendra, an intelligent enterprise search service powered by machine learning [210] [211]
2020June 24ProductAmazon Honeycode, a no-code platform for web and mobile application development [212]
2020July 9Product AWS Copilot [213]
2020September 30Product (database) Amazon Timestream, a time series database [214]
2020December 1Product Amazon CodeGuru, a developer tool that uses machine learning-based recommendations to improve code quality [215]
2021March 1Regional diversificationAWS expands Osaka Local Region (ap-northeast-3) to a standard AWS region with 3 Availability Zones [216]
2021May 18Product AWS App Runner, a fully managed container application service [217]
2021August 19ProductAmazon MemoryDB, an in-memory database service with API compatible with that of Redis. [218]
2021November 30Product (CPU)AWS Graviton3 CPU powered EC2 C7g instances are launched in preview. [219]
2021December 6Regional diversificationAmazon launches AWS Top Secret-West. [220]
2022July 7Product (CPU)Apple M1 System on Chip powered EC2 M1 Mac instances launched. [221]
2022November 22Regional diversificationAmazon launches ap-south-2 in Hyderabad. [222]
2023January 23Regional diversificationAmazon launches ap-southeast-4 in Melbourne. [223]
2023April 13ProductAmazon CodeWhisperer, real-time AI coding companion. [224]
2023April 20ProductAmazon CodeCatalyst, unified software development service. [225]
2023May 30ProductAmazon Security Lake, centralized data lake for cloud and on-premises security data. [226]
2023August 1Regional diversificationAmazon launches il-central-1 in Israel (Tel Aviv). [227]
2023September 28Product (AI)Amazon Bedrock, a fully managed service for AI foundation models. [228]

Partnerships

YearMonth and date (if available)Event typeDetails
2007June 1Partnerships Dropbox is founded. [229] Dropbox, a storage and backup service aimed at ordinary consumers and businesses, would grow into one of the biggest users of Amazon S3.
2008AugustPartnershipsNetflix announces it will start moving all its data to the Amazon Web Services cloud. It finally shifts all its data to the cloud by January 2016. [230]
2009June 15Partnerships Zynga announces that it will move its data to AWS. [231]
2009NovemberPartnerships reddit announces that it has finished decommissioning its physical servers and moves its data to AWS. [232]
2010MarchPartnershipsPinterest launches the first prototype of its product. [233] Pinterest would grow into one of AWS's most famous customers and a case study in how a startup can grow extremely quickly by relying on the cloud. [234]
2011JunePartnerships Zynga CEO Allan Leinwand announces that Zynga will shift its data from AWS to its own zCloud. It moves from 20% to 80% of its data being stored on the zCloud from the beginning to the end of 2011. [235]
2011August 16PartnershipsAWS launches AWS GovCloud, a US region designed to meet the regulatory requirements of the United States government, and intended for use by United States government agencies. [236] [237]
2014JanuaryPartnershipsMoz announces its decision to move off AWS, citing expenses. [238]
2014August 25Partnerships Amazon.com acquires Twitch Interactive for US$970 million. [239] [240] The ability to store Twitch data on AWS is specifically cited as one of the major reasons why Twitch decided to go under Amazon.
2015May 8Partnerships Zynga announces that it will move all its data back to AWS, after diversifying away from AWS in 2011. [241]
2016FebruaryPartnerships, Competition Spotify announces it will move its data to Google Cloud. [242]
2016May 25Partnerships Salesforce.com, a cloud computing company that makes money primarily through its customer relationship management product suite, selects Amazon Web Services as its preferred public cloud infrastructure provider. However, Salesforce.com does not plan to move entirely to Amazon, but rather use Amazon only to meet infrastructure expansion needs in new geographical areas and for specific use cases. [243] [244] [245] On December 2, 2016, the partnership is extended and it is announced that Salesforce will use AWS infrastructure in Canada. [246] [247]
2017AprilPartnerships DXC Technology announces it will increase integration with AWS for its enterprise clients. [248]
2020MayPartnerships Kyvos BI acceleration platform announces availability on AWS. [249]

Amazon Web Services outages

YearMonth and date (if available)Event typeDetails
2011April 21OutageAt 12:47 am PDT on April 21, an invalid traffic shift prior to network upgrade caused EBS instances to lose connectivity to one another with an availability zone of US-East-1 region. Once the errors were localized to just one availability zone, the EBS recovery These connectivity errors impacted EBS volume and EC2 instances in multiple availability zones and caused issues for customers until full recovery at 3:00 pm PDT on April 24. [250] [251]
2011August 7OutagePower lost in Ireland, EU West region, causing disruption and outage "service disruption began at 10:41 AM PDT on August 7th" [252] (also mentioned but distinct from the outage mentioned above; it happened around the same time as the US outage). Due to followup issues, full restoration of e g EBS and RDS took in the order of days. [253]
2011August 8OutageEC2 went down around 10:25 p.m. Eastern in Amazon's U.S. East Region. The cloud outage lasted roughly 30 minutes, but took down the Web sites and services of many major Amazon cloud customers, including Netflix, Reddit and Foursquare. The issue happened in the networks that connect the Availability Zones to the Internet and was primarily caused by a software bug in the router. [254]
2012June 29Service disruptionA major disruption occurs to the EC2, EBS, and RDS services in a single availability zone (due to a large scale electrical storm which swept through the Northern Virginia area). [255]
2012October 22OutageA major outage occurs (due to latent memory leak bug in an operational data collection agent), affecting many sites such as Reddit, Foursquare, Pinterest, and others. [256]
2012December 24OutageAWS suffers an outage, causing websites such as Netflix instant video to be unavailable for customers in the Northeastern United States. [257] [258]
2013September 13OutageAWS US-East-1 region experienced network connectivity issues affecting instances in a single Availability Zone. We also experienced increased error rates and latencies for the EBS APIs and increased error rates for EBS-backed instance launches. [259]
2014November 26Service disruption Amazon CloudFront DNS server went down for two hours, starting at 7:15 p.m. EST. The DNS server was back up just after 9 p.m. Some websites and cloud services were knocked offline as the content delivery network failed to fulfill DNS requests during the outage. Nothing major, but worthy of this list because it involved the world's biggest and longest-running cloud. [260]
2015September 20OutageThe Amazon DynamoDB service experiences an outage in an availability zone in the us-east-1 (North Virginia) region, due to a power outage and inadequate failover procedures. The outage, which occurs on a Sunday morning, lasts for about five hours (with some residual impact till Monday) and affects a number of related Amazon services include Simple Queue Service, EC2 autoscaling, Amazon CloudWatch, and the online AWS console. [261] A number of customers are negatively affected, including Netflix, but Netflix is able to recover quickly because of its strong disaster recovery procedures. [262]
2016June 5OutageAWS Sydney experiences an outage for several hours as a result of severe thunderstorms in the region causing a power outage to the data centers. [263] [264] [265]
2017February 28OutageAmazon experiences an outage of S3 in us-east-1. [266] There are also related outages for other services in us-east-1 including CloudFormation, autoscaling, Elastic MapReduce, Simple Email Service, and Simple Workflow Service. A number of websites and services using S3, such as Medium, Slack, Imgur and Trello, are affected. AWS's own status dashboard initially fails to reflect the change properly due to a dependency on S3. [267] [268] [269] On March 2, AWS reveals that the outage was caused by an incorrect parameter passed in by an authorized employee while running an established playbook, that ended up deleting more instances than the employee intended. [270]
2018March 2Service degradationStarting 6:25 AM PST, Direct Connect experienced connectivity issues related to a power outage issue in their US-East-1 Region. This caused customers to have service interruptions in reaching their EC2 instances. Issue was resolved fully by 10:26 AM PST. [271]
2018May 31OutageBeginning at 2:52 pm PDT a small percentage of EC2 servers lost power in a single Availability Zone in the US-EAST-1 Region. This resulted in some impaired EC2 instances and degraded performance for some EBS volumes in the affected Availability Zone. Power was restored at 3:22 pm PDT. [272]
2019August 23OutageA number of EC2 servers in the Tokyo region shut down due to overheating at 12:36 pm local time, due to a failure in the datacenter control and cooling system. [273]
2019August 31Outage and data lossThe US-EAST-1 data center suffered a power failure at 4:33 am local time, and the backup generators failed at 6 am. According to AWS, this affected 7.5 percent of the EC2 instances in one of the ten data centers in one of the six Availability Zones in US-EAST-1. However, after restoring power, a number of EBS volumes, which store the filesystems of the EC2 cloud servers, were permanently unrecoverable. This caused downtime for companies such as Reddit. [274] [275] [276]
2019October 22–23Service degradation from DDoSAWS sustained a distributed denial of service attack which caused intermittent DNS resolution errors (for their Route 53 DNS service) from 10:30 am PST to 6:30 pm PST. [277]
2020November 25OutageBeginning at 9:52 am PST the Kinesis Data Streams API became impaired in the US-EAST-1 Region. This prevented customers from reading or writing data. [278]
2021December 7OutageBeginning at 10:45 am PST "an impairment of several network devices" in the US-EAST-1 Region caused widespread errors in all AWS services. The root cause has been mitigated by 4:35 PM PST, but service recovery was still underway causing localized ongoing impairment. [279]
2021December 15OutageRegion us-west-1 was unavailable for about 30 minutes. [280]
2021December 22Outage and potential data lossPower loss in us-east-1 for about 1 hour, followed by extended recovery procedures. [280] AWS attributed the failure to a single availability zone, USE1-AZ4. [281]
2023June 13OutageBeginning at 11:49 am PDT, customers experienced increased error rates and latencies for AWS Lambda function invocations within the Northern Virginia (US-EAST-1) Region. By 3:37 pm PDT, the AWS Lambda service and all dependent service resumed normal operations. [282]

See also

Related Research Articles

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Amazon Web Services</span> On-demand cloud computing company

Amazon Web Services, Inc. (AWS) is a subsidiary of Amazon that provides on-demand cloud computing platforms and APIs to individuals, companies, and governments, on a metered, pay-as-you-go basis. Clients will often use this in combination with autoscaling. These cloud computing web services provide various services related to networking, compute, storage, middleware, IoT and other processing capacity, as well as software tools via AWS server farms. This frees clients from managing, scaling, and patching hardware and operating systems. One of the foundational services is Amazon Elastic Compute Cloud (EC2), which allows users to have at their disposal a virtual cluster of computers, with extremely high availability, which can be interacted with over the internet via REST APIs, a CLI or the AWS console. AWS's virtual computers emulate most of the attributes of a real computer, including hardware central processing units (CPUs) and graphics processing units (GPUs) for processing; local/RAM memory; hard-disk/SSD storage; a choice of operating systems; networking; and pre-loaded application software such as web servers, databases, and customer relationship management (CRM).

Amazon S3 or Amazon Simple Storage Service is a service offered by Amazon Web Services (AWS) that provides object storage through a web service interface. Amazon S3 uses the same scalable storage infrastructure that Amazon.com uses to run its e-commerce network. Amazon S3 can store any type of object, which allows uses like storage for Internet applications, backups, disaster recovery, data archives, data lakes for analytics, and hybrid cloud storage. AWS launched Amazon S3 in the United States on March 14, 2006, then in Europe in November 2007.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Amazon Elastic Compute Cloud</span> Cloud computing platform

Amazon Elastic Compute Cloud (EC2) is a part of Amazon.com's cloud-computing platform, Amazon Web Services (AWS), that allows users to rent virtual computers on which to run their own computer applications. EC2 encourages scalable deployment of applications by providing a web service through which a user can boot an Amazon Machine Image (AMI) to configure a virtual machine, which Amazon calls an "instance", containing any software desired. A user can create, launch, and terminate server-instances as needed, paying by the second for active servers – hence the term "elastic". EC2 provides users with control over the geographical location of instances that allows for latency optimization and high levels of redundancy. In November 2010, Amazon switched its own retail website platform to EC2 and AWS.

Eucalyptus is a paid and open-source computer software for building Amazon Web Services (AWS)-compatible private and hybrid cloud computing environments, originally developed by the company Eucalyptus Systems. Eucalyptus is an acronym for Elastic Utility Computing Architecture for Linking Your Programs To Useful Systems. Eucalyptus enables pooling compute, storage, and network resources that can be dynamically scaled up or down as application workloads change. Mårten Mickos was the CEO of Eucalyptus. In September 2014, Eucalyptus was acquired by Hewlett-Packard and then maintained by DXC Technology. After DXC stopped developing the product in late 2017, AppScale Systems forked the code and started supporting Eucalyptus customers.

An Amazon Machine Image (AMI) is a special type of virtual appliance that is used to create a virtual machine within the Amazon Elastic Compute Cloud ("EC2"). It serves as the basic unit of deployment for services delivered using EC2.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Amazon Virtual Private Cloud</span> Cloud-based service

Amazon Virtual Private Cloud (VPC) is a commercial cloud computing service that provides a virtual private cloud, by provisioning a logically isolated section of Amazon Web Services (AWS) Cloud. Enterprise customers can access the Amazon Elastic Compute Cloud (EC2) over an IPsec based virtual private network. Unlike traditional EC2 instances which are allocated internal and external IP numbers by Amazon, the customer can assign IP numbers of their choosing from one or more subnets.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">AppScale</span> American cloud infrastructure software company

AppScale is a software company offering cloud infrastructure software and services to enterprises, government agencies, contractors, and third-party service providers. The company commercially supports one software product, AppScale ATS, a managed hybrid cloud infrastructure software platform that emulates the core AWS APIs. In 2019, the company ended commercial support for its open-source serverless computing platform AppScale GTS, however, its source code remains freely available to the open-source community.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Amazon Elastic Block Store</span> Cloud-based raw storage service

Amazon Elastic Block Store (EBS) provides raw block-level storage that can be attached to Amazon EC2 instances and is used by Amazon Relational Database Service (RDS). It is one of the two block-storage options offered by AWS, with the other being the EC2 Instance Store.

Amazon Relational Database Service is a distributed relational database service by Amazon Web Services (AWS). It is a web service running "in the cloud" designed to simplify the setup, operation, and scaling of a relational database for use in applications. Administration processes like patching the database software, backing up databases and enabling point-in-time recovery are managed automatically. Scaling storage and compute resources can be performed by a single API call to the AWS control plane on-demand. AWS does not offer an SSH connection to the underlying virtual machine as part of the managed service.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Elasticsearch</span> Search engine

Elasticsearch is a search engine based on the Lucene library. It provides a distributed, multitenant-capable full-text search engine with an HTTP web interface and schema-free JSON documents. Elasticsearch is developed in Java and is dual-licensed under the source-available Server Side Public License and the Elastic license, while other parts fall under the proprietary (source-available) Elastic License. Official clients are available in Java, .NET (C#), PHP, Python, Ruby and many other languages. According to the DB-Engines ranking, Elasticsearch is the most popular enterprise search engine.

A cloud database is a database that typically runs on a cloud computing platform and access to the database is provided as-a-service. There are two common deployment models: users can run databases on the cloud independently, using a virtual machine image, or they can purchase access to a database service, maintained by a cloud database provider. Of the databases available on the cloud, some are SQL-based and some use a NoSQL data model.

Amazon S3 Glacier is an online file storage web service that provides storage for data archiving and backup.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">NuoDB</span>

NuoDB is a cloud-native distributed SQL database company based in Cambridge, Massachusetts. Founded in 2008 and incorporated in 2010, NuoDB technology has been used by Dassault Systèmes, as well as FinTech and financial industry entities including UAE Exchange, Temenos, and Santander Bank.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">VNS3</span>

VNS3 is a software-only virtual appliance that allows users to control access and network topology and secure data in motion across public and private clouds. VNS3 is a virtual router, switch, firewall, protocol re-distributor, and SSL/IPSec VPN concentrator. The Network Virtualization Software creates a customer-controlled overlay network over top of the underlying network backbone.

Autoscaling, also spelled auto scaling or auto-scaling, and sometimes also called automatic scaling, is a method used in cloud computing that dynamically adjusts the amount of computational resources in a server farm - typically measured by the number of active servers - automatically based on the load on the farm. For example, the number of servers running behind a web application may be increased or decreased automatically based on the number of active users on the site. Since such metrics may change dramatically throughout the course of the day, and servers are a limited resource that cost money to run even while idle, there is often an incentive to run "just enough" servers to support the current load while still being able to support sudden and large spikes in activity. Autoscaling is helpful for such needs, as it can reduce the number of active servers when activity is low, and launch new servers when activity is high. Autoscaling is closely related to, and builds upon, the idea of load balancing.

Amazon Elastic File System is a cloud storage service provided by Amazon Web Services (AWS) designed to provide scalable, elastic, concurrent with some restrictions, and encrypted file storage for use with both AWS cloud services and on-premises resources. Amazon EFS is built to be able to grow and shrink automatically as files are added and removed. Amazon EFS supports Network File System (NFS) versions 4.0 and 4.1 (NFSv4) protocol, and control access to files through Portable Operating System Interface (POSIX) permissions.

Amazon Polly is a cloud service by Amazon Web Services, a subsidiary of Amazon.com, that converts text into spoken audio. It allows developers to create speech-enabled applications and products. It was launched in November 2016 and now includes 60 voices across 29 languages, some of which are Neural Text-to-Speech voices of higher quality. Users include Duolingo, a language education platform.

Amazon SageMaker is a cloud based machine-learning platform that allows the creation, training, and deployment by developers of machine-learning (ML) models on the cloud. It can be used to deploy ML models on embedded systems and edge-devices. SageMaker was launched in November 2017.

AWS Graviton is a family of 64-bit ARM-based CPUs designed by the Amazon Web Services (AWS) subsidiary Annapurna Labs. The processor family is distinguished by its lower energy use relative to x86-64, static clock rates, and omission of simultaneous multithreading. It was designed to be tightly integrated with AWS servers and datacenters, and is not sold outside Amazon.

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