Timeline of Kosovo history

Last updated

This is a timeline containing events regarding the history of Kosovo.


Prehistory, Roman era – 13th century AD

14th century

15th century

16th century

Mosque of Kuklibeu PrizrenCollection2 2010 IMG 0695.JPG
Mosque of Kuklibeu
Mosque of Muderis Ali Efendi PrizrenCollection2 2010 100 2517.JPG
Mosque of Muderis Ali Efendi
Mustafe Pashe Prizrenit Mustafe Pashe Prizrenit.jpg
Mustafe Pashe Prizrenit

17th century

1615 building of Sinan Pasha Mosque (Prizren) SinanPasha.JPG
1615 building of Sinan Pasha Mosque (Prizren)

18th century

19th century

Lidhja e Prizrenit Lidhja e Prizrenit.jpg
Lidhja e Prizrenit

20th century

The time period, 1919 – 1926 was characterized by massive deportation of Kosovar Albanians [82]

The time period, 1927 – 36 was characterized by massive migrations of Kosovars [82]

The time period, 1952 – 1965 was characterised by massive migrations of Kosovars [82]

21st century

Geographical map of Kosovo Kosovo map-sq.svg
Geographical map of Kosovo
Map of the Republic of Kosovo, as proclaimed in 2008 Kosovo rep en.png
Map of the Republic of Kosovo, as proclaimed in 2008

See also

Related Research Articles

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Kosovo</span> Country in Southeastern Europe

Kosovo, officially the Republic of Kosovo, is a partially recognized country in Southeast Europe. Kosovo lies landlocked in the centre of the Balkans, bordered by Serbia to the north and east, North Macedonia to the southeast, Albania to the southwest, and Montenegro to the west. Most of central Kosovo is dominated by the vast plains and fields of Metohija and the Kosovo field. The Accursed Mountains and Šar Mountains rise in the southwest and southeast, respectively. Its capital and largest city is Pristina.

This article includes information on the demographic history of Kosovo.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Prizren</span> Second largest city of Kosovo

Prizren is the second most populous city and municipality of Kosovo and seat of the eponymous municipality and district. It is located on the banks of the Prizren River between the foothills of the Sharr Mountains in southern Kosovo. Prizren experiences an oceanic climate under the influence of the surrounding mountains.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Metohija</span> Geographical and historical region of Kosovo

Metohija or Dukagjin is a large basin and the name of the region covering the southwestern part of Kosovo. The region covers 35% (3,891 km2) of Kosovo's total area. According to the 2011 census, the population of the region is 700,577.

The history of Kosovo dates back to pre-historic times when the Starčevo culture, Vinča culture, Bubanj-Hum culture, and Baden culture were active in the region. Since then, many archaeological sites have been discovered due to the abundance of natural resources which gave way to the development of life.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Kosovo vilayet</span> Administrative division (vilayet) of the Ottoman Empire from 1877 to 1913

The Vilayet of Kosovo was a first-level administrative division (vilayet) of the Ottoman Empire in the Balkan Peninsula which included the current territory of Kosovo and the north-western part of the Republic of North Macedonia. The areas today comprising Sandžak (Raška) region of Serbia and Montenegro, although de jure under Ottoman control, were in fact under Austro-Hungarian occupation from 1878 until 1909, as provided under Article 25 of the Treaty of Berlin. Üsküb (Skopje) functioned as the capital of the province and the midway point between Istanbul and its European provinces. Üsküb's population of 32,000 made it the largest city in the province, followed by Prizren, also numbering at 30,000.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Kosovo Albanians</span> Ethnic group in the Balkans

The Albanians of Kosovo, also commonly called Kosovo Albanians, Kosovan Albanians or Kosovars, constitute the largest ethnic group in Kosovo.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Drenica</span> Historical region of Kosovo

Drenica, also known as the Drenica Valley, is a hilly region in central Kosovo, covering roughly around 700 square kilometres (270 sq mi) of Kosovo's total area (6%). It consists of two municipalities, Drenas and Skenderaj, and several villages in Klina, Zubin Potok, Mitrovica and Vushtrri. It is located west of the capital, Pristina.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Kosovo Serbs</span> Ethnic group in the Balkans

Kosovo Serbs are one of the ethnic groups of Kosovo. There are around 100,000 Kosovo Serbs as of 2014 and about half of them live in North Kosovo. Other Kosovo Serb communities live in the Southern provinces of Kosovo. After Albanians, they form the largest ethnic community in Kosovo (6–7%).

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Turks in Kosovo</span> Ethnic group in Kosovo

The Turks in Kosovo, also known as Kosovo Turks, and Kosovan Turks, are the ethnic Turks who constitute a minority group in Kosovo.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Pristina</span> Capital of Kosovo

Pristina is the capital and largest city of Kosovo. It is the administrative center of the eponymous municipality and district.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Prizren Fortress</span> Historical landmark in Kosovo

Prizren Fortress is a hilltop fortification in Prizren in Kosovo. It overlooks the Prizren River which flows through Prizren, which developed around the fortress. The site of the fortress of Prizren has seen habitation and use since the Bronze Age. In late antiquity it was part of the defensive fortification system in western Dardania and was reconstructed in the era of eastern Roman Emperor Justinian. Byzantine rule in the region ended definitively in 1219–20 as the Serbian Nemanjić dynasty controlled the fort until 1371.

The history of Skopje, North Macedonia, goes back to at least 4000; remains of Neolithic settlements have been found within the old Kale Fortress that overlooks the modern city centre. The settlement appears to have been founded around then by the Paionians, a people that inhabited the region. It became the capital of Dardania, which extended from Naissus to Bylazora in the second century BC. Roman expansion east brought Scupi under Roman rule on the eve of the 1st century AD. When the Roman Empire was divided into eastern and western halves in 395 AD, Scupi came under Byzantine rule from Constantinople. During much of the early medieval period, the town was contested between the Byzantines and the Bulgarian Empire. It served as Bulgarian capital from 972 to 992. After 1018, it was a capital of Byzantine theme of Bulgaria after the fall the First Bulgarian Empire. In 1189 the town was part of the Serbian realm later becoming the capital of the Serbian Empire. In 1392 the city was conquered by the Ottoman Turks and they named the town Üsküb. The town stayed under Ottoman rule for over 500 years. During that period it was famous for its oriental architecture.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Cultural heritage of Kosovo</span> Overview of the cultural heritage

Kosovo is a partially recognized state and disputed territory located in the Balkan Peninsula in Southeastern Europe. The majority of Kosovars are ethnically Albanian. Kosovo has an expansive cultural heritage, including monuments, clothing items, museums, and traditional food.

Monuments of Kosovo comprise all the monuments that are located in Kosovo.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Deçan Municipality</span> Municipality in District of Gjakova, Kosovo

Deçan Municipality or Dečani Municipality is a municipality located in the District of Gjakova of Kosovo. The seat is the town of Deçan. According to the 2011 census, the municipality has 40,019 inhabitants, with 3,803 inhabitants in the town of Deçan.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Historical monuments in Pristina</span>

Historical monuments in Pristina are made up of 21 monuments out of a total of 426 protected monuments all over Kosovo. A large number of these monuments date back to the Byzantine and Ottoman periods. Since 1945, the Yugoslav authorities followed the idea of constructing a modern Pristina by relying in the urban development motto “destroy the old, build the new” and this resulted with major changes in the structure of the buildings, their function and their surrounding environment. However, numerous types of monuments have been preserved, including four mosques, a restored orthodox church, an Ottoman bath, a public fountain, a clock tower, several traditional houses as well as European-influenced architecture buildings such as the Museum of Kosovo. These symbolize the historical and cultural character of Pristina as it was developed throughout centuries in the spirit of conquering empires.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Kosovo field</span> Plain in eastern Kosovo

Kosovo field is a large karst field, located in the middle part of Kosovo. It is mostly known for being the site of the Battle of Kosovo (1389) between the Balkan Alliance led by Lazar of Serbia and Ottoman armies led by Murad I, and many other battles.

Kosovo is the birthplace of the Albanian nationalist movement which emerged as a response to the Eastern Crisis of 1878. In the immediate aftermath of the Russo-Ottoman war, the Congress of Berlin proposed partitioning Ottoman Albanian inhabited lands in the Balkans among neighbouring countries. The League of Prizren was formed by Albanians to resist those impositions. For Albanians those events have made Kosovo an important place regarding the emergence of Albanian nationalism. During the remainder of the late Ottoman period various disagreements between Albanian nationalists and the Ottoman Empire over socio-cultural rights culminated in two revolts within Kosovo and adjacent areas. The Balkan Wars (1912–13) ending with Ottoman defeat, Serbian and later Yugoslav sovereignty over the area generated an Albanian nationalism that has become distinct to Kosovo stressing Albanian language, culture, and identity within the context of secession from Serbia. Pan-Albanian sentiments are also present and historically have been achieved only once when part of Kosovo was united by Italian Axis forces to their protectorate of Albania during the Second World War.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Destruction of Albanian heritage in Kosovo</span>

The architectural heritage of the Kosovo Albanians during Yugoslav rule was shown institutionalised disregard for decades prior to outright conflict at the end of the 20th century. Numerous Albanian cultural sites in Kosovo were destroyed during the period of Yugoslav rule and especially the Kosovo conflict (1998-1999) which constituted a war crime violating the Hague and Geneva Conventions. In all, 225 out of 600 mosques in Kosovo were damaged, vandalised, or destroyed alongside other Islamic architecture during the conflict. Additionally 500 Albanian owned kulla dwellings and three out of four well-preserved Ottoman period urban centres located in Kosovo cities were badly damaged resulting in great loss of traditional architecture. Kosovo's public libraries, of which 65 out of 183 were completely destroyed, amounted to a loss of 900,588 volumes, while Islamic libraries sustained damage or destruction resulting in the loss of rare books, manuscripts and other collections of literature. Archives belonging to the Islamic Community of Kosovo, records spanning 500 years, were also destroyed. During the war, Islamic architectural heritage posed for Yugoslav Serb paramilitary and military forces as Albanian patrimony with destruction of non-Serbian architectural heritage being a methodical and planned component of ethnic cleansing in Kosovo.


  1. Chapman 2000 , p. 239
  2. Edwards, Iorwerth Eiddon Stephen; Boardman, John; Gadd, Cyril John; Lewis, D. M.; Hammond, Nicholas Geoffrey Lemprière; Hornblower, Simon; Ostwald, M.; Walbank, Frank William; Astin, A. E.; Bowman, Alan K.; Lintott, Andrew William; Crook, John Anthony; Garnsey, Peter; Champlin, Edward; Rawson, Elizabeth; Cameron, Averil; Rathbone, Dominic; Ward-Perkins, Bryan; Whitby, Michael (13 October 1994). The Cambridge Ancient History. Cambridge University Press. ISBN   9780521233484. Archived from the original on 23 January 2016. Retrieved 29 October 2015., The Cambridge ancient history: The fourth century B.C. Volume 6 of The Cambridge ancient history, Iorwerth Eiddon Stephen Edwards, ISBN   0-521-85073-8, ISBN   978-0-521-85073-5, Authors: D. M. Lewis, John Boardman, Editors: D. M. Lewis, John Boardman, Edition 2, Publisher: Cambridge University Press, 1994 ISBN   0-521-23348-8, ISBN   978-0-521-23348-4.[ clarification needed ]
  3. Adams, Douglas Q. (1997). James P. Mallory (ed.). Encyclopedia of Indo-European Culture. Fitzroy Dearborn. ISBN   9781884964985.
  4. Wilson, Nigel Guy (2006). Encyclopedia Of Ancient Greece. Taylor & Francis Group. ISBN   9780415973342.
  5. Stipčević, Aleksandar (1977). The Illyrians: history and culture History and Culture Series. ISBN   978-0-8155-5052-5.
  6. The Journal of Hellenic Studies by Society for the Promotion of Hellenic Studies. 1973. p. 79.
  7. 1 2 3 Wilkes, John J. (1992). The Illyrians. Wiley. ISBN   0-631-19807-5.[ page needed ]
  8. Papazoglu, Fanula (1978). The central Balkan tribes in pre-Roman times: Triballi, Autariatae, Dardanians, Scordisci and Moesians. Translated by Mary Stansfield-Popovic. Amsterdam: Hakkert. p. 265. ISBN   90-256-0793-4.
  9. Pannonia and Upper Moesia: a history of the middle Danube provinces of the Roman Empire, The Provinces of the Roman Empire Tome 4, ISBN   0-7100-7714-9, ISBN   978-0-7100-7714-1, 1974, p. 9
  10. 1 2 3 4 Dušan T. Bataković, ed. (2007). BALCANICA XXXVII (PDF). Belgrade: Institute for Balkan Studies, Serbian Academy of Sciences and Arts. Archived (PDF) from the original on 23 September 2015. Retrieved 13 September 2015. ...the Triballi who were Bastarnae neighbours, and the Dardani living in their (Triballian) land.[ full citation needed ]
  11. Wilkes 1992 , p. 85: "... Whether the Dardanians were an Illyrian or a Thracian people has been much debated and one view suggests that the area was originally populated with Thracians who were then exposed to direct contact with Illyrians over a long period..."
  12. Papazoglu 1978, p. 243.
  13. Miller, Norma (2002). Tacitus: Annals I. Bloomsbury Academic. ISBN   978-1-85399-358-9.
  14. Adrian Keith Goldsworthy, Ian Haynes, Colin E. P. Adams, The Roman army as a community, ISBN   1-887829-34-2, 1997, p. 100
  15. Hauptstädte in Südosteuropa: Geschichte, Funktion, nationale Symbolkraft by Harald Heppner, p. 134
  16. Velimirovic, 1985–1986, no. 3, p. 209-210
  17. Jan N. Bremmer, The apocryphal acts of Thomas, Peeters Publishers, 2001, ISBN   90-429-1070-4. p. 56
  18. Wilkes 1992, p. 210.
  19. Ronald Syme, Anthony Richard Birley: The provincial at Rome: and, Rome and the Balkans 80BC-AD14, p. 131
  20. 1 2 3 Elsie, Robert. Historical Dictionary of Kosovo. p.  61.
  21. J.B. Bury, The Cambridge Medieval History volumes 1–5, p. 237
  22. The Princeton Encyclopedia of Classical Sites Archived 23 September 2012 at the Wayback Machine ,"ULPIANA (Gračanica) Yugoslavia.
  23. Wolfram, Herwig; Dunlap, Thomas J. (1990). History of the Goths. University of California Press. p. 269. ISBN   978-0-520-06983-1.: "... Along the way the cities of Castrum Herculis-Kurvingrad Clisura, Ulpiana- Lipljan, Stobi near Gradsko, and Heraclea-Bitola, fell into his hands. ..."
  24. 1 2 Evans 1883 , p. 63
  25. A History of the Later Roman Empire, AD 284–641: The Transformation of the Ancient World (Blackwell History of the Ancient World) by Stephen Mitchell, ISBN   1-4051-0856-8,2006,page 363,"... Procopius claimed that Justinian also improved the city walls of Ulpiana (modern Ljubljana), Serdica, Naissus, and Pautalia, and refurbished the forts ..."
  26. Evans 1883 , p. 137
  27. Hupchick, Dennis P. The Balkans: From Constantinople to Communism. Palgrave Macmillan, 2004. ISBN   1-4039-6417-3
  28. Fine 1991, p. 31.
  29. Janković Đorđe N., On the church of Raška in pre-Nemanjić times Archived 17 March 2012 at the Wayback Machine , Glasnik Srpskog arheološkog društva 2004, vol. 21, iss. 20, pp. 63–80, University of Belgrade, Faculty of Philosophy
  30. Milin, Milena (2002). "Article". Starinar (52): 171–174. doi: 10.2298/STA0252171M . Retrieved 20 October 2011.
  31. Constantine Porphyrogenitus de Administrando Imperio, ed. Gyula Moravcsik, p. 161
  32. Relja Novakovic, Gde se nalazila Srbija od VII do X veka (Where Serbia was situated from the 7th to 10th centuries) [Serbia, Belgrade: Narodna knjiga, 1981], pp. 61–63.
  33. Vojislav Korac, "Architecture In Medieval Serbia", Serbian Academy of Sciences and Arts
  34. Fine 1991, p. 225.
  35. The Serbs, p. 31.[ full citation needed ]
  36. István Vásáry, Cumans and Tatars: Oriental military in the pre-Ottoman Balkans, 1185–1365, p. 100-101
  37. Serbia: the history behind the name, p. 11 Archived 27 April 2016 at the Wayback Machine
  38. Radivoje Ljubinković, The Church of the Apostles in the Patriarchate of Peć, p. viii
  39. The wars of the Balkan Peninsula: their medieval origins by Alexandru Madgearu, Martin Gordon,2008, ISBN   0810858460,page 26,"The first mention of the Albanians in this region comes from 1325 (inserted in a report of Venetian Marino Sanudo), who wrote that the Albanians had occupied"
  40. Fine 1994, p. 309.
  41. Fine, John Van Antwerp (1994). The Late Medieval Balkans: A Critical Survey from the Late Twelfth Century to the Ottoman Conquest. University of Michigan Press. p. 309. ISBN   978-0-472-08260-5. Archived from the original on 4 January 2016.
  42. Михаило Милинковић, New archeological excavation of St. Archangel complex near Prizren Archived 7 October 2011 at the Wayback Machine (in Serbian).
  43. Fine 1994, pp. 325–326.
  44. Fine 1994, p. 380.
  45. J. Jovanovic, Stvaranje Crnogorske Drzave i Razvoj Crnogorske Nacionalnosti, Obod, Cetinje 1947, p. 36)
  46. Warrander 2011 , p. 196
  47. Milinković 1996 , pp. 208–219
  48. 1 2 3 4 "Komuna-prizreni.org". Komuna-prizreni.org. Retrieved 20 October 2011.
  49. "Medresetë E Prizrenit". Zeri Islam.com. Archived from the original on 8 October 2011. Retrieved 20 October 2011.
  50. "Kosova' da Turk Kulturu". Scribd.com. 15 July 2009. Archived from the original on 5 November 2012. Retrieved 20 October 2011.
  51. (para 2 muajve). "Prizren – Cities and Places – Kosovo". KosovoGuide. Archived from the original on 16 July 2011. Retrieved 20 October 2011.
  52. "Index of Cultural Property" (PDF). Archived (PDF) from the original on 7 March 2012. Retrieved 28 December 2010.
  53. Igla, Birgit; Boretzky, Norbert; Thomas, Stolz (24 October 2001). Was ich noch sagen wollte. Akademie Verlag. Akademie Verlag. p. 43. ISBN   978-3-05-003652-6.
  54. "[see picture here]". Archived from the original on 22 July 2011. Retrieved 26 December 2010.
  55. [ dead link ]
  56. Warrander, Gail; Knaus, Verena (2007). Kosovo (1st ed.). Bradt Travel Guides. p. 200. ISBN   9781841621999.
  57. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 Selim Islami; Kristo Frashëri (1969). Historia e Popullit Shqiptar (Përgatitur nga një kolektiv punonjësish shkencorë të sektorëve të historisë së kohës së lashtë dhe të kohës së mesme) (in Albanian) (II ed.).
  58. "Komuna Prizren – Komuna Prishtine". Kk.rks-gov.net. Archived from the original on 7 March 2012. Retrieved 20 October 2011.
  59. "Prizreni në Retrovizore Prizren through the Retro-Visor" (in Albanian and English). Archived from the original on 26 August 2011. Retrieved 26 December 2010.
  60. "Prizren Roma Oral Histories". Balkanproject.org. Retrieved 20 October 2011.
  61. "Archives in Sremski Karlovc" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on 24 September 2015. Retrieved 13 March 2014.
  62. Cleveland, William L & Bunton, Martin (2009). A History of the Modern Middle East: 4th Edition. Westview Press. p. 82.
  63. "The Tanzimat (final)" (PDF). Archived (PDF) from the original on 17 October 2016.
  64. Vickers, Miranda (1999). The Albanians: a modern history, Edition 3, revised, illustrated, reprint. I.B.Tauris. ISBN   978-1-86064-541-9.
  65. Schmitt, Oliver Jens; Frantz, Eva Anne (2009). Albanische Geschichte: Stand und Perspektiven der Forschung Volume 140 of Südosteuropäische Arbeiten. Oldenbourg Wissenschaftsverlag. p. 168. ISBN   978-3-486-58980-1.
  66. Historia e Shqipërisë. Vëllim i dytë / Instituti i historisë Akademia e Shkencave e RPS të Shqipërisë. Tiranë, Akademia e Shkencave e RPS të Shqipërisë. 1984. p. 127.
  67. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 Aleks Buda; Kristo Frashëri; Stefanaq Pollo; Jusuf Alibali (1979). Historia e Popullit Shqiptar II (Përgatitur nga një kolektiv punonjësish shkencorë të sektorëve të historisë të Institutit të Historisë dhe të Gjuhësisë.
  68. 1 2 Vincent Ferraro (1918). "The Austrian Occupation of Novibazar, 1878-1909". In Frank Maloy Anderson; Amos Shartle Hershey (eds.). Handbook for diplomatic history of Europe, Asia and Africa 1870-1914. Prepared for the National Board for Historical Service. Archived from the original on 22 April 2014.
  69. Trencsényi, Balázs; Ersoy, Ahmet; Kopeček, Michal; Górny, Maciej; Kechriotis, Vangelis (2006). Hungary: Central European University Press. Central European University Press. ISBN   978-963-7326-52-3.
  70. Elsie, Robert. "1878 The Resolutions of the League of Prizren". Archived from the original on 8 September 2010.{{cite web}}: CS1 maint: unfit URL (link)
  71. Elsie, Robert (2013). A Biographical Dictionary of Albanian History. I.B.Tauris. pp. 148–. ISBN   978-1-78076-431-3.
  72. Elsie, Robert. "1912 Aubrey Herbert: A Meeting with Isa Boletini". Archived from the original on 22 October 2012.
  73. Malcolm, Noel (1999). Kosovo: A Short History. Harper Perennial. p. 226. ISBN   978-0-06-097775-7.
  74. 1 2 "Albania 1878-1912". Archived from the original on 17 June 2008.
  75. 1 2 Elsie, Robert (2004). Historical Dictionary of Kosova. The Scarecrow Press. p. 63. ISBN   978-0-8108-5309-6.
  76. Gawrych, George (27 October 2006). The Crescent and the Eagle: Ottoman Rule, Islam and the Albanians, 1874–1913. Bloomsbury Academic. p. 125. ISBN   9781845112875.
  77. Elsie, Robert (2004). Historical Dictionary Of Kosovo. Scarecrow Press. ISBN   9780810853096.
  78. Jaques, Tony (2007). Dictionary of Battles and Sieges. Bloomsbury Academic. ISBN   9780313335389.
  79. Pollo, Stefanaq (1983). The Proclamation of Independence of Albania. 8 Nëntori.
  80. "(HIS,P) Treaty of Peace between Greece, Bulgaria, Montenegro, Serbia on the one part and Turkey on the other part. (London) May 17/30, 1913". Archived from the original on 6 April 2009. Retrieved 29 January 2010.
  81. Vickers, Miranda (1999). The Albanians: A Modern History. I.B.Tauris. p. 91. ISBN   978-1-86064-541-9. Archived from the original on 31 December 2015.
  82. 1 2 3 4 5 6 Bajrami, Hakif (2001). Kosova, Njëzetë shekuj të identitetit të saj, (Argumente Historike). Era. pp. 83, 84, 85, 87, 88.
  83. 1 2 Elsie, Robert (2013). A Biographical Dictionary of Albanian History. Bloomsbury Academic. p.  93. ISBN   9781780764313.
  84. Tomasevich, Jozo (1975). War and Revolution in Yugoslavia, 1941–1945: The Chetniks. Palo Alto: Stanford University Press. ISBN   978-0-8047-0857-9.
  85. Tomašević, Jozo (October 2002). War and Revolution in Yugoslavia, 1941–1945: Occupation and Collaboration. Stanford University Press. ISBN   9780804779241.
  86. Elsie, Robert (2004). Historical Dictionary Of Kosovo. Scarecrow Press. p. 137. ISBN   9780810853096.
  87. Clark, Howard (2000). Civil Resistance in Kosovo. p. 29.
  88. "Konferenca e Bujanit" (in Albanian). Archived from the original on 15 September 2012.
  89. "University of Prishtina" (in Albanian). Archived from the original on 7 September 2008.
  90. 1 2 3 4 5 Elsie, Robert (2004). Historical Dictionary Of Kosovo. Scarecrow Press. ISBN   9780810853096.
  91. "Encyclopædia Britannica Online". Archived from the original on 1 May 2010.
  92. Mertus, Julie (9 August 1999). Kosovo: How Myths and Truths Started a War . University of California Press. p.  29, 30,31,32. ISBN   9780520218659. 1981 student protest kosovo.
  93. "Context of 'March 1981 and after: Kosovo Communist Leadership Blamed for Demonstrations'".
  94. "Presidential candidate for Serbian LC named; Source: Belgrade home service 1800 gmt 21 February 1986". BBC Summary of World Broadcasts. 27 February 1986.
  95. "BBC Summary of World Broadcasts". 30 May 1986.
  96. Rogel, Carole (September 2003). International Journal of Politics, Culture, and Society. Vol. 17. pp. 167–82. doi:10.1023/A:1025397128633. ISSN   0891-4486. S2CID   141051220.
  97. "Slobodan Milosevich's Kosovo Polje Speech June 28, 1989". Archived from the original on 20 September 2013.
  98. Simons, Marlise; Smale, Alison (12 March 2006). "Slobodan Milosevic, 64, Former Yugoslav Leader Accused of War Crimes, Dies". The New York Times. Archived from the original on 20 December 2014.
  99. 1 2 Malcolm, Noel. Kosovo: A Short History. p. 346.
  100. "Yugoslavia Human Rights Abuses in Kosovo". Archived from the original on 11 October 2012.
  101. Rogel, Carole (2003). "Kosovo: Where It All Began". International Journal of Politics, Culture and Society. 17: 167–182. doi:10.1023/A:1025397128633. S2CID   141051220.
  102. "VIOLATIONS OF THE RULES OF WAR BY GOVERNMENT FORCES". Archived from the original on 7 March 2016.
  103. "Under Orders (Human Rights Watch)". Archived from the original on 4 March 2016.
  104. "Reconsidering Rambouillet".
  105. "Frontline". PBS . Archived from the original on 4 March 2016.
  106. "Human Rights in Kosovo: As Seen, As Told. Volume I, October 1998 – June 1999". Archived from the original on 4 December 2016.
  107. "NATO's role in relation to the conflict in Kosovo". Archived from the original on 23 January 2012.
  108. "Relations between the EU and Kosovo under UN Security Council Resolution 1244/99". Archived from the original on 19 January 2013.
  109. "Konacni Rezultati Kosovskih Izbor". Archived from the original on 23 October 2012.
  110. "Bajram Rexhepi Prime Minister of Kosovo". Archived from the original on 13 February 2010.
  111. Warrander, Gail; Knaus, Verena (2010). Kosovo (Second ed.). Bradt Travel Guides. ISBN   9781841623313.
  112. "Profile: Ramush Haradinaj". BBC News. 29 November 2012. Archived from the original on 29 November 2012.
  113. "Kosovo leader Ibrahim Rugova dies". BBC News. 21 January 2006. Archived from the original on 2 September 2011.
  114. "H.E. Dr. Fatmir Sejdiu". Archived from the original on 27 June 2013.
  115. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 "BBC Timeline: Kosovo, A chronology of key events". BBC News. 28 June 2013. Archived from the original on 1 June 2013.
  116. "Two Kosovo Parties To Form Government". 14 March 2012. Archived from the original on 28 December 2007.
  117. "UN Security Council greenlights Kosovo plan". Archived from the original on 5 November 2012.
  118. "What is EULEX". Archived from the original on 23 December 2014.
  119. "Serbia, Russia fury as Kosovo independence draws near". 15 February 2008. Archived from the original on 3 June 2013.
  120. "The identity of the authors of the declaration of independence, ICJ ruling, par.102–109" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on 21 August 2010.
  121. "Republic of Kosovo". Archived from the original on 8 December 2013.
  122. "Kosovo's security force launched". BBC News. 21 January 2009. Archived from the original on 3 April 2013.
  123. "Kosovo, (IFES Election Guide)". Archived from the original on 15 December 2011.
  124. "Kosovo's declaration of independence did not violate international law – UN court". Archived from the original on 5 March 2016.
  125. Bilefsky, Dan (22 July 2010). "World Court Rules Kosovo Declaration Was Legal". The New York Times. Archived from the original on 3 April 2017.
  126. "Accordance with international law of the unilateral declaration of independence in respect of Kosovo, Summary of the Advisory Opinion" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on 4 March 2011.
  127. "Kosovo president resigns over breach of constitution". BBC News. 27 September 2010. Archived from the original on 3 November 2010.
  128. "Kosovo president resigns". Reuters. 27 September 2010.
  129. "Kosovo profile - Timeline". BBC News. 23 July 2019. Archived from the original on 7 March 2013.

Further reading