Last updated

El Salvador location map.svg
Red pog.svg
Location in El Salvador
Coordinates: 13°47′N89°07′W / 13.783°N 89.117°W / 13.783; -89.117
CountryFlag of El Salvador.svg  El Salvador
Department San Salvador Department
1,978 ft (603 m)

Tonacatepeque is a municipality in the San Salvador department of El Salvador. It has a population of 90,896 inhabitants according to the 2007 Census. [1] This makes this municipality twelfth largest in terms of population in El Salvador.



According to archeological findings, Tonacatepeque was first founded as a small settlement by the Pipil people in mountains just south of its current location. Under the Pipil people, Tonacatepeque was likely a small, minor chiefdom threatened by possible incursions by the Señorío de Cuscatlán (Lordship of Cuscatlán). During the conquest and settlement of the newly discovered Americas, an order of Franciscan missionaries attempted to convert the indigenous people, establishing a new church. The patron saint of Tonacatepeque under the Franciscan order was San Nicolás Obispo de Mira (Saint Nicholas Bishop of Myra). Hence, the burgeoning settlement took on the name San Nicolás Tonacatepeque. According to local history, around 1880 the foundations and ruins of that first Franciscan church were still visible.

The current location of Tonacatepeque was established in 1560. By 1770, the town had its own established church and included annexed areas such as Soyapango, Ilopango, and the San José Guayabal Valley. At this point, the town was home to 96 families, comprising 628 people. In 1786, Tonacatepeque was integrated within the jurisdiction of San Salvador. In 1807, following a census done by Intendent Don Antonio Gutiérrez Ulloa, Tonacatepque was classified as a "pueblo" or small village, inhabited by 17 Spaniards, 718 natives, and 619 mestizos. Almost seven decades later, on March 7, 1874, the Salvadoran Legislature (under the administration of Field Marshal Santiago González) authorized the reclassification of Tonacatepeque from "pueblo" to "Villa." The title of City was conferred by legislative decree on February 6, 1878, during the administration of Dr. Rafael Zaldívar. On March 17, 1892, Tonacatepeque was made District Center by legislative decree under the administration of General Carlos Ezeta. The new administrative district included the populations of Toncatepeque, Apopa, Ilopango, San Martín, Nejapa, Guazapa, Aguilares, and El Paisnal.

Geography and Climate

The city of Tonacatepeque is situated on a plateau about 600 meters above sea level. It lies 18 kilometers to the northeast of El Salvador's capital, San Salvador.

Generally, the region's climate is cooler and less humid than its surrounding neighbors due to its mountainous location. However, during the months of March and April there can be influxes of heat and humidity. The region's minimum temperature is 22 °C (71.6 °F) with a maximum temperature of 28 °C (82.4 °F).

Related Research Articles

El Salvador Country in Central America

El Salvador, officially the Republic of El Salvador, is the smallest and the most densely populated country in Central America. It is bordered on the northeast by Honduras, on the northwest by Guatemala, and on the south by the Pacific Ocean. El Salvador's capital and largest city is San Salvador. As of 2018, the country had a population of approximately 6.42 million, mostly consisting of European and Native American descent.

San Salvador Capital of El Salvador

San Salvador is the capital and the most populous city of El Salvador and its eponymous department. It is the country's political, cultural, educational and financial center. The Metropolitan Area of San Salvador, which comprises the capital itself and 13 of its municipalities, has a population of 2,404,097.

Pipil people Ethnic group

The Nahuas of El Salvador (Kuskatan), better known as "Pipiles" in the academic literature, are an indigenous people who live in western El Salvador, which they call Kuskatan. The Pipil language, or Nawat, belongs to the Nahuatl dialect group, which stretches from Durango in Mexico to El Salvador, and historically as far as the Nicoya Peninsula of Costa Rica. It is thought that the Pipil, along with the neighbouring Nicarao people, migrated from Central Mexico to their present location around 900 AD, after the Chichimeca-Toltec civil war. As they settled in the area, they founded the city-state of Kuskatan, absorbed many other preexisting polities, and intermarried with the native peoples, mostly Lenca, Poqomam, and Xinca.

San Salvador Department Department of El Salvador

San Salvador is a department of El Salvador in the west central part of the country. The capital is San Salvador, which is also the national capital. The department has North of the Rio Lempa Valley, the "Valle de las Hamacas" and a section of Lake Ilopango. Some of the department's cities that are densely populated are: San Salvador, Ciudad Delgado, Mejicanos, Soyapango, Panchimalco and Apopa. The department covers an area of 886.2 square kilometres (342.2 sq mi) and the last census count in 2017 reported 2,404,097 people. It was classified as a department on June 12, 1824. During the time of the colony, the department was the San Salvador Party, from where territory was taken to make the departments of Chalatenago, La Libertad, Cuscatlán and La Paz. This department produces beans, coffee, sugar cane, etc. for agriculture, on the other hand San Salvador Department holds many headquarters for banking companies in El Salvador and Central America, and for many communication services, also the headquarters of the electric companies are located in the San Salvador Department, last years these companies took a step and started exporting electricity to all Central America. The current mayor of the department is Ernesto Muyshondt (2015-2019)

Culture of El Salvador pattern of human activity and symbolism associated with El Salvador and its people

The culture of El Salvador is a Central American culture nation influenced by the clash of ancient Mesoamerica and medieval Iberian Peninsula. Salvadoran culture is influenced by Native American culture as well as Latin American culture. Mestizo culture and the Catholic Church dominates the country. Although the Romance language, Castilian Spanish, is the official and dominant language spoken in El Salvador, Salvadoran Spanish which is part of Central American Spanish has influences of Native American languages of El Salvador such as Lencan languages, Cacaopera language, Mayan languages and Pipil language, which are still spoken in some regions of El Salvador.

Lepaera Municipality in Lempira, Honduras

Lepaera is a municipality in the Honduran department of Lempira. It has tropical climate all year round.

Ilopango Municipality in San Salvador Department, El Salvador

Ilopango is a town in the San Salvador department of El Salvador. It is a few miles east of the nation's capital, San Salvador. It is located near Lake Ilopango, the country's largest lake at 72 square kilometers.

San Martín, San Salvador Municipality in San Salvador Department, El Salvador

San Martín is a municipality in the San Salvador department of El Salvador. According to the 2007 Population and Housing Census, it has 72,758 inhabitants. The municipality is limited by San José Guayabal and Oratorio de Concepción to the North; San Bartolomé Perulapía and San Pedro Perulapán to the East; by Ilopango and the Lake of Ilopango to the South; and to the West by Tonacatepeque. For its administration it is divided into 8 cantons and 37 hamlets. Its main river is the Chunchucuyo; in terms of its orographyits main elevations are Las Delicias, Chuchutepeque, La Tigra and Teguantepeque hills. Its climate is warm and belongs to the type of hot earth and its annual rainfall amount varies between 1,750 and 1970 mm. The vegetation is constituted by humid subtropical forest. The locality covers an area of 55.8 km² and the headland has an elevation of 725.0 meters above sea level. The municipality belongs to the Metropolitan Area of San Salvador.

Soyapango Municipality in San Salvador Department, El Salvador

Soyapango is a municipality in the San Salvador department of El Salvador. Soyapango is a commercial center. The municipality is the third most populated area in the country, with 290,412 inhabitants. Soyapango is a satellite city of San Salvador and it is the main thoroughfare between San Salvador and the eastern part of the country, and nearly 70,000 vehicles travel through it every day. The nickname for this satellite city is Soya. The city is infamously and notoriously known for being the most dangerous city of the Central America region, and also for being a breeding ground for the Mara gangs and the place where gang members first arrive after being deported to El Salvador from Los Angeles, reason why these two locations evoke a similar resemblance to each other.

Antiguo Cuscatlán Place in La Libertad Department, El Salvador

Antiguo Cuscatlán, (known colloquially as Antiguo) is a municipality in the La Libertad department of El Salvador, and its eastern tip lays in San Salvador Department part of the Metropolitan Area of San Salvador, southwest of San Salvador and southeast of Santa Tecla. The population was 48,027 at the 2010 census. Antiguo Cuscatlán can be translated as Old Jeweled City: Antiguo means ancient or old in Spanish, and Cuscatlán means jeweled city in Nahuat. The city used to be the capital of the Pipil or Cuzcatecs, before the Spanish conquest of the New World.

Nahuizalco human settlement in El Salvador

Nahuizalco is a municipality in the Sonsonate department of El Salvador. It lies on the "flowers route", 9 km from Sonsonate and 74 km from San Salvador, at 540 m above sea level on the southern part of the Apaneca-Ilamatepec mountain range. Per the population and housing census of 2007, Nahuizalco has 49,081 residents.

Concepción de Ataco Municipality in Ahuachapán Department, El Salvador

Concepción de Ataco is a municipality and city within the Ahuachapán Department, El Salvador. It has an area of 61.03 km ² and a population of 18,101 inhabitants.

Kuskatan/Cuzcatan (Cuzcatlan)

Cuzcatan was a pre-Columbian Nahua state confederation of the postclassical period that extended from the Paz river to the Lempa river ; this was the nation that Spanish chroniclers came to call the Pipils or Cuzcatlecos. No codices survive that shed light on this confederation except the Annals of the Cakchiquels, although Spanish chroniclers such as Domingo Juarros, Palaces, Lozano, and others claim that some codices did exist but have since disappeared. Their Nawat language, art and temples revealed that they had significant Mayan and Toltec influence from the ties they had with the Itza in Yucatan. It is believed that the first settlers to arrive came from the Toltec people in central Mexico, mostly Puebla during the Chichimeca-Toltec civil wars in the 10th century AD.

Nicolás Espinoza President of El Salvador

Nicolás Espinoza, general and licenciado, governed the State of El Salvador from April 10, 1835 to November 15, 1835. At the time, El Salvador was a constituent state of the Federal Republic of Central America.

Salvadorans Central American modern ethnic group

Salvadorans, also known as Salvadorians, are people who identify with El Salvador, a country in Central America. Salvadorans are mainly Mestizos who make up the bulk of the population in El Salvador. Most Salvadorans live in El Salvador, although there is also a significant Salvadoran diaspora, particularly in the United States, with smaller communities in other countries around the world.

Nueva Esparta, El Salvador Municipality in El Salvador

Nueva Esparta is a municipality in the northeasternmost zone of El Salvador, inside La Unión Department. The municipality is politically divided into the central Pueblo Nueva Esparta, six outlying canton communities and 31 caserios.

Battle of Acajutla Battle during the conquest of the region of El Salvador

The Battle of Acajutla was a battle on June 8, 1524, between the Spanish conquistador Pedro de Alvarado and the standing army of Cuscatlan Pipils, an indigenous state, in the neighborhood of present-day Acajutla, near the coast of western El Salvador.

Metropolitan Area of San Salvador Metropolitan Area in El Salvador

The Metropolitan Area of San Salvador is a metropolitan area formed by San Salvador, the capital of El Salvador, and thirteen of its surrounding municipalities. It was instituted in 1993 through Legislative Decree No. 732 of the Law on Territorial Development and the Metropolitan Area of San Salvador and neighboring municipalities. The Act defines that, based on their urban development, these cities form a single urban unit.

Spanish conquest of El Salvador campaign undertaken by the Spanish conquistadores

The Spanish conquest of El Salvador was the campaign undertaken by the Spanish conquistadores against the Late Postclassic Mesoamerican polities in the territory that is now incorporated into the modern Central American nation of El Salvador. El Salvador is the smallest country in Central America, and is dominated by two mountain ranges running east–west. Its climate is tropical, and the year is divided into wet and dry seasons. Before the conquest the country formed a part of the Mesoamerican cultural region, and was inhabited by a number of indigenous peoples, including the Pipil, the Lenca, the Xinca, and Maya. Native weaponry consisted of spears, bows and arrows, and wooden swords with inset stone blades; they wore padded cotton armour.


  1. "Plan de Competitividad Municipal de Tonacatepeque 2012 - 2016" (PDF). USAID . Fundación Nacional para el Desarrollo. 2012. Retrieved 8 February 2017.

Coordinates: 13°47′N89°07′W / 13.783°N 89.117°W / 13.783; -89.117