Tordylium apulum

Last updated

Tordylium apulum
Tordylium apulum (13605778393).jpg
Scientific classification Red Pencil Icon.png
Kingdom: Plantae
Clade: Tracheophytes
Clade: Angiosperms
Clade: Eudicots
Clade: Asterids
Order: Apiales
Family: Apiaceae
Genus: Tordylium
Species:
T. apulum
Binomial name
Tordylium apulum
L.

Tordylium apulum, commonly known as the Mediterranean hartwort, [1] is an annual forb or herb. It is classified within the family Apiaceae, the carrot family. It is native to Europe and Western Asia, but has been introduced to the United States, where it is now found only in Arizona. It is suggested as the plant model used for the famous gold "Malia Pendant", a jewel of high quality gold-smithery of the Minoan times now on display at the Heraklion Archaeological Museum. [2]

Contents

Derivation of English Common Name

The name Hartwort, meaning ‘Deer plant’ is a scholarly coinage from the belief, first recorded by Aristotle that female deer sought out the leaves of the plant to eat, after giving birth. [3] If true, this observation might indicate medicinal or nutritive properties in the plant preventative of post-partum haemorrhage.

Description

The Mediterranean hartwort usually grows to 20-50 centimeters in height. It has an erect stem that is branched with soft, spreading hairs at the base, and scattered hairs along the rest of the stem. The leaves are softly hairy and pinnate, with the lower leaves being oval with toothed segments, and the upper leaves having linear segments. It has 2-8 primary rays. The marginal flowers each have 1 white petal, enlarged, and uniformly deeply 2-lobed. The bracts and bracteoles are linear long-pointed with spreading hairs. The fruit is orbicular and flattened, and usually is 5-8 millimeters in size. [4]

Habitat

Mediterranean hartwort is found as a weed of cultivation, on waste land, and by waysides. The plant is equally at home in sandy, loamy and clay soils. Hartworts may be found growing on acid, neutral and basic soils, but will not thrive in shade. [5]

Reproduction

The flowers are hermaphrodite and are pollinated by Insects. The plant is self-fertile. [6]

Uses

The leaves of the plant are edible and are used as a potherb and salad vegetable in Greece. [7] In Italy it is used as a condiment. The essential oil composition of aerial parts of Tordylium apulum L. from Italy was analyzed. Sixty-seven compounds were identified representing 96.5% of the oil. The most abundant compounds were (E)-β-ocimene (17.3), α-humulene (11.4%) and octyl octanoate (8.8%). Essential oil from aerial parts of T. apulum from Greece was reported to have α-humulene (28.7%) and octyl hexanoate (11.7%) as the main constituents. There are no known medicinal uses for this plant. [8]

Related Research Articles

Lemon balm Lemon balm, a species of plant

Lemon balm, balm, common balm, or balm mint, is a perennial herbaceous plant in the mint family and native to south-central Europe, the Mediterranean Basin, Iran, and Central Asia, but now naturalized elsewhere.

Oregano Perennial herb

Oregano is a flowering plant in the mint family (Lamiaceae). It is native to temperate Western and Southwestern Eurasia and the Mediterranean region.

Tarragon Species of flowering plant in the daisy family Asteraceae

Tarragon, also known as estragon, is a species of perennial herb in the sunflower family. It is widespread in the wild across much of Eurasia and North America, and is cultivated for culinary and medicinal purposes.

Thyme Herb with culinary, medicinal and ornamental uses

Thyme is the herb of some members of the genus Thymus of aromatic perennial evergreen herbs in the mint family Lamiaceae. Thymes are relatives of the oregano genus Origanum. They have culinary, medicinal, and ornamental uses, and the species most commonly cultivated and used for culinary purposes is Thymus vulgaris.

Fennel flowering plant species in the carrot family

Fennel is a flowering plant species in the carrot family. It is a hardy, perennial herb with yellow flowers and feathery leaves. It is indigenous to the shores of the Mediterranean but has become widely naturalized in many parts of the world, especially on dry soils near the sea-coast and on riverbanks.

<i>Vitex agnus-castus</i> Species of flowering plant in the mint family Lamiaceae

Vitex agnus-castus, also called vitex, chaste tree, chasteberry, Abraham's balm, lilac chastetree, or monk's pepper, is a native of the Mediterranean region. It is one of the few temperate-zone species of Vitex, which is on the whole a genus of tropical and sub-tropical flowering plants. Theophrastus mentioned the shrub several times, as agnos (άγνος) in Enquiry into Plants. It has been long believed to be an anaphrodisiac – leading to its name as chaste tree – but its effectiveness for such action remains unproven.

<i>Coleus amboinicus</i> Species of plant

Coleus amboinicus, synonym Plectranthus amboinicus, is a semi-succulent perennial plant in the family Lamiaceae with a pungent oregano-like flavor and odor. The origin of Coleus amboinicus is unknown, but it may be native to Africa, and possibly India. Coleus amboinicus is widely cultivated and naturalized elsewhere in the tropics where it is used as a spice and ornamental plant. Common names in English include Indian borage, country borage, French thyme, Indian mint, Mexican mint, Cuban oregano, soup mint, Spanish thyme. The species epithet, amboinicus refers to Ambon Island, in Indonesia, where it was apparently encountered and described by João de Loureiro.

<i>Eleutherococcus senticosus</i> Species of flowering plant

Eleutherococcus senticosus is a species of small, woody shrub in the family Araliaceae native to Northeastern Asia. It may be colloquially called devil's bush, Siberian ginseng, eleuthero, ciwujia, Devil's shrub, shigoka, touch-me-not, wild pepper, or kan jang. E. senticosus has a history of use in folklore and traditional Chinese medicine. Root extracts of E. senticosus are sold as a dietary supplement or cosmetic, usually under the name Siberian ginseng.

<i>Tagetes erecta</i> Species of flowering plant

Tagetes erecta, the Mexican marigold or Aztec marigold, is a species of flowering plant in the genus Tagetes native to Mexico. Despite its being native to the Americas, it is often called African marigold. In Mexico, this plant is found in the wild in the states of México, Michoacán, Puebla, and Veracruz.

Humulene Chemical compound

Humulene, also known as α-humulene or α-caryophyllene, is a naturally occurring monocyclic sesquiterpene (C15H24), containing an 11-membered ring and consisting of 3 isoprene units containing three nonconjugated C=C double bonds, two of them being triply substituted and one being doubly substituted. It was first found in the essential oils of Humulus lupulus (hops), from which it derives its name. Humulene is an isomer of β-caryophyllene, and the two are often found together as a mixture in many aromatic plants.

Cannabis flower essential oil

Cannabis flower essential oil, also known as hemp essential oil is an essential oil obtained by steam distillation from the flowers, panicles, stem, and upper leaves of the hemp plant. Hemp essential oil is distinct from hemp seed oil and hash oil: the former is a vegetable oil that is cold-pressed from the seeds of low-THC varieties of hemp, the latter is a THC-rich extract of dried female hemp flowers (marijuana) or resin (hashish).

<i>Monarda fistulosa</i> Species of flowering plant

Monarda fistulosa, the wild bergamot or bee balm, is a wildflower in the mint family (Lamiaceae) widespread and abundant as a native plant in much of North America. This plant, with showy summer-blooming pink to lavender flowers, is often used as a honey plant, medicinal plant, and garden ornamental. The species is quite variable, and several subspecies or varieties have been recognized within it.

<i>Tagetes lucida</i> Species of flowering plant

Tagetes lucida Cav. is a perennial plant native to Mexico and Central America. It is used as a medicinal plant and as a culinary herb. The leaves have a tarragon-like flavor, with hints of anise, and it has entered the nursery trade in North America as a tarragon substitute. Common names include sweetscented marigold, Mexican marigold, Mexican mint marigold, Mexican tarragon, sweet mace, Texas tarragon, pericón, yerbaniz, and hierbanís.

<i>Monodora myristica</i> Species of tree

Monodora myristica, the calabash nutmeg, is a tropical tree of the family Annonaceae or custard apple family of flowering plants. It is native to Angola, Benin, Cameroon, the Central African Republic, the Democratic Republic of the Congo, Equatorial Guinea, Gabon, Ghana, Guinea-Bissau, Ivory Coast, Kenya, Liberia, Nigeria, the Republic of the Congo, Sierra Leone, Sudan, Tanzania, Togo and Uganda. In former times, its seeds were widely sold as an inexpensive nutmeg substitute. This is now less common outside its region of production. Other names of calabash nutmeg include Jamaican nutmeg, African nutmeg, ehuru, ariwo, awerewa, ehiri, airama, African orchid nutmeg, muscadier de Calabash and lubushi.

<i>Lactuca canadensis</i> Species of lettuce

Lactuca canadensis is a species of wild lettuce known by the common names Canada lettuce, Canada wild lettuce, tall lettuce, and Florida blue lettuce. Its true native range is not clear, but it is considered to be a native of the eastern and central parts of North America. It naturalized in the western part of the continent as well as in Eurasia.

<i>Cyperus scariosus</i> Species of plant

Cyperus scariosus, commonly known as cypriol or nutgrass, is a plant of the family Cyperaceae. It is a perennial herbaceous riverbed plant native to India's Madhya Pradesh state. It is one of the most invasive weeds known, having spread out to a world-wide distribution in tropical and temperate regions.

<i>Pistacia atlantica</i> Species of plant

Pistacia atlantica is a species of pistachio tree known by the English common name Mt. Atlas mastic tree and as the Persian turpentine tree. Pistacia ranges from shrubs to trees adapted to drought and the Mediterranean climate. P. atlantica has three subspecies or varieties which have been described as cabulica, kurdica, and mutica.

<i>Cladanthus mixtus</i> Species of flowering plant

Cladanthus mixtus, commonly known as the Moroccan chamomile, is a Mediterranean species of flowering plant in the aster family, often considered a weed but is also distilled for essential oil, which changes in composition depending on where it grows.

<i>Tordylium</i> Genus of flowering plants

Tordylium is a genus of flowering plants in the carrot family (Apiaceae). Members of the genus are known as hartworts.

<i>Satureja thymbra</i> Species of plant

Satureja thymbra, commonly known as savory of Crete, whorled savory, pink savory, and Roman hyssop, is a perennial-green plant of the family Lamiaceae, having strongly scented leaves, endemic to Libya, southeastern Europe from Sardinia to Turkey; Cyprus, Lebanon and Israel (Palestine). The dwarf shrub is noted for its dark-green leaves, and grows to a height of 20–50 cm., bearing pink to purple flowers which blossom between late March and late May to early June.

References

  1. "Tordylium apulum". Natural Resources Conservation Service PLANTS Database. USDA . Retrieved 11 December 2015.CS1 maint: discouraged parameter (link)
  2. Nelson, E. C., Mavrofridis, G., & Anagnostopoulos, I. T. (2020). NATURAL HISTORY OF A BRONZE AGE JEWEL FOUND IN CRETE: THE MALIA PENDANT. The Antiquaries Journal, 1–12. http://doi.org/10.1017/S0003581520000475
  3. https://kopiaste.wordpress.com/2012/04/12/spaghetti-aglio-e-olio-with-spinach-courgettes-and-kafkalithres-and-myronia-pesto-σπαγγέτι-με-σκορδόλα/ Retrieved 10.22 on 16/8/18.
  4. Schonfelder, Ingrid and Peter. Wild Flowers of the Mediterranean. Germany: Kosmos-Verlag, Stuttgart, 1990. Print
  5. Polunin, Oleg. A Field Guide to Flowers of Europe. London: Oxford University Press, 1969. Print.
  6. United States Department of Agriculture, “Tordylium apulum L., http://plants.usda.gov/java/profile?symbol=TOAP2, 2009. Print.
  7. https://www.kopiaste.org/2011/05/kagianas-me-kafkalithres-myronia-and-pasto-lakonias/ Retrieved 9.55 on 16/8/18.
  8. Tirillini, Brittany. “Essential Oil Composition of Tordylium apulum L. from Italy,” Journal of Essential Oil Research, Jan/Feb 2006. Print.