Tordylium

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Tordylium
Tordylium apulum (13605778393).jpg
Tordylium apulum
Scientific classification Red Pencil Icon.png
Kingdom: Plantae
Clade: Tracheophytes
Clade: Angiosperms
Clade: Eudicots
Clade: Asterids
Order: Apiales
Family: Apiaceae
Genus: Tordylium
L. [1] or Tourn. ex L. [2]
Species

See text

Tordylium is a genus of flowering plants in the carrot family (Apiaceae). Members of the genus are known as hartworts. [1]

Contents

Description

Tordylium species are annuals or biennials, covered in long hairs. Their stems may be hollow or almost solid. The basal leaves are more-or-less undivided, and have usually disappeared when the plant flowers. The stem leaves are once pinnate. The flowers have persistent sepals and white petals, with those on one side much longer than the other. The fruits are about as long as they are wide. Their side ridges have whitish wings. [1]

Taxonomy

Species assigned to the genus were first described by Carl Linnaeus in 1753 in Species Plantarum . [2] [3]

Species

The number of species in the genus varies widely between sources. Ainsworthia and Synelcosciadium were included in Tordylium by El-Aisawi & Jury (1998). [4] Gömürgen et al. (2011) say there are 17 species in Turkey alone. [5] As of February 2015, The Plant List accepts only six species in total, keeping Ainsworthia and Synelcosciadium separate: [6] [7] [8]

Uses

Tordylium apulum, the Mediterranean hartwort or Roman pimpernel, is used as a vegetable in Greece and as a flavouring in Italy. [9]

Tordylium officinale, the Officinal or Cretan Hartwort ( also a Mediterranean species ) , bears fruit formerly used as an emmenagogue, and the plant ( plant part unspecified ) has formed one of the ingredients of Theriac, a preparation believed to be an antidote to snake and other venoms. Courchet further states of the genus Tordylium in general that the various species bear fruits that - like those of many other Umbellifers - are aromatic and carminative, but that those of Tordylium are seldom used. [10]

Notes

  1. The epithet is misspelt "byzantirum" in version 1.1 of The Plant List.

Related Research Articles

Apiaceae Family of flowering plants

Apiaceae or Umbelliferae is a family of mostly aromatic flowering plants named after the type genus Apium and commonly known as the celery, carrot or parsley family, or simply as umbellifers. It is the 16th-largest family of flowering plants, with more than 3,700 species in 434 genera including such well-known and economically important plants such as ajwain, angelica, anise, asafoetida, caraway, carrot, celery, chervil, coriander, cumin, dill, fennel, lovage, cow parsley, parsley, parsnip and sea holly, as well as silphium, a plant whose identity is unclear and which may be extinct.

<i>Bellis</i> Genus of flowering plants

Bellis is a genus of flowering plants in the daisy family.

<i>Lamium</i> Genus of flowering plants

Lamium (dead-nettles) is a genus of about 40–50 species of flowering plants in the family Lamiaceae, of which it is the type genus. They are all herbaceous plants native to Europe, Asia, and northern Africa, but several have become very successful weeds of crop fields and are now widely naturalised across much of the temperate world.

<i>Anthoxanthum</i> Genus of grasses

Anthoxanthum, commonly known as hornworts, vernal grasses, or vernalgrasses, is a genus of plants in the grass family.

<i>Ligusticum</i> Genus of plants

Ligusticum is a genus of about 60 species of flowering plants in the family Apiaceae, native to cool temperate regions of the Northern Hemisphere. Its name is believed to derive from the Italian region of Liguria.

Ainsworthia is a genus of two species of plants in the family Apiaceae, all of which are endemic to Southwest Asia, Cyprus, Israel and European Turkey.

<i>Chaerophyllum</i> Genus of flowering plants

Chaerophyllum is a genus of flowering plant in the family Apiaceae, with 35 species native to Europe, Asia, North America, and northern Africa. It includes the cultivated root vegetable Chaerophyllum bulbosum.

<i>Peucedanum</i> Genus of flowering plants

Peucedanum is a genus of flowering plant in the carrot family, Apiaceae.

<i>Filago</i> (plant) Genus of flowering plants

Filago is a genus of plants in the sunflower family, native to Europe, Asia, and North Africa. They are sometimes called cottonroses or cudweeds.

<i>Salsola</i> Genus of plants

Salsola is a genus of the subfamily Salsoloideae in the family Amaranthaceae. The genus sensu stricto is distributed in central and southwestern Asia, North Africa, and the Mediterranean. A common name of various members of this genus and related genera is saltwort, for their salt tolerance. The genus name Salsola is from the Latin salsus, meaning "salty".

<i>Sternbergia</i> Genus of flowering plants in the family Amaryllidaceae

Sternbergia is a genus of Eurasian and North African plants in the Amaryllis family, subfamily Amaryllidoideae.

<i>Rondeletia</i> (plant) Genus of flowering plants

Rondeletia is a genus of flowering plants in the family Rubiaceae. It is endemic to the Neotropics. There are around 160 species.

<i>Tordylium apulum</i> Species of herb

Tordylium apulum, commonly known as the Mediterranean hartwort, is an annual forb or herb. It is classified within the family Apiaceae, the carrot family. It is native to Europe and Western Asia, but has been introduced to the United States, where it is now found only in Arizona. It is suggested as the plant model used for the famous gold "Malia Pendant", a jewel of high quality gold-smithery of the Minoan times now on display at the Heraklion Archaeological Museum.

<i>Vella</i> (plant) Genus of flowering plants

Vella is a genus of plants in the family Brassicaceae, under which there are no fewer than six species. Species are many branched, and have hairy, sessile, entire leaves that are narrower in width at their bases, widening out to form ovals. Fruits are stiff follicles. Vella is endemic to that area of land encompassing Algeria, Morocco, and Spain.

<i>Silaum silaus</i>

Silaum silaus, commonly known as pepper-saxifrage, is a perennial plant in the family Apiaceae (Umbelliferae) found across south-eastern, Central and Western Europe, including the British Isles. It grows in damp grasslands on neutral soils.

<i>Tordylium maximum</i> Species of flowering plant

Tordylium maximum, known as hartwort, is an annual or biennial flowering plant in the carrot family (Apiaceae).

<i>Cistus albidus</i> Species of flowering plants in the rock rose family Cistaceae

Cistus albidus, the grey-leaved cistus, is a shrubby species of flowering plant in the family Cistaceae, with pink to purple flowers, native to south-western Europe and western north Africa.

<i>Cistus crispus</i> Species of flowering plants in the rock rose family Cistaceae

Cistus crispus is a shrubby species of flowering plant in the family Cistaceae, with pink to purple flowers, native to south-western Europe and western north Africa.

<i>Mandragora</i> (genus) Genus of plants

Mandragora is a plant genus belonging to the nightshade family (Solanaceae). Members of the genus are known as mandrakes. There are between three and five species in the genus. The one or two species found around the Mediterranean constitute the mandrake of ancient writers such as Dioscorides. Two or three further species are found eastwards into China. All are perennial herbaceous plants, with large tap-roots and leaves in the form of a rosette. Individual flowers are bell-shaped, whitish through to violet, and are followed by yellow or orange berries.

Tordylium elegans is a species of flowering plants in the family Apiaceae. It is endemic to Turkey.

References

  1. 1 2 3 Stace, Clive (2010), New Flora of the British Isles (3rd ed.), Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press, ISBN   978-0-521-70772-5 , p. 828
  2. 1 2 "IPNI Plant Name Query Results for Tordylium", The International Plant Names Index , retrieved 2015-02-27CS1 maint: discouraged parameter (link)
  3. Carl Linnaeus (1753), "Tordylium", Species Plantarum, vol. 1, pp. 239–240
  4. Al-Eisawi, D. & Jury, S.L. (1988), "A taxonomic revision of the genus Tordylium L. (Apiaceae)", Botanical Journal of the Linnean Society, 97: 357–403, doi:10.1111/j.1095-8339.1988.tb01066.x
  5. Gömürgen, Ayşe Nihal; Doğan, Cahit; Özmen, Edibe; Başer, Birol & Altınözlü, Haşim (2011), "Chromosome number, karyotype analysis and pollen morphology of Turkish endemic Tordylium elegans (Boiss. & Bal.) Alava & Hub.-Mor. (Apiaceae)" (PDF), Pakistan Journal of Botany, 43 (4): 1803–1807, retrieved 2015-02-28CS1 maint: discouraged parameter (link)
  6. "Search results for Tordylium", The Plant List, retrieved 2015-02-27CS1 maint: discouraged parameter (link)
  7. "Search results for Ainsworthia", The Plant List, retrieved 2015-02-28CS1 maint: discouraged parameter (link)
  8. "Search results for Synelcosciadium", The Plant List, retrieved 2015-02-28CS1 maint: discouraged parameter (link)
  9. Facciola, Stephen (1998), Cornucopia II: A Source Book of Edible Plants (2nd (paperback) ed.), Vista, CA: Kampong, ISBN   978-0-9628087-2-2 , p. 22
  10. Courchet, Lucien Désiré Joseph. 1882 Les Ombellifères en général et les espèces usitées en pharmacie en particulier, pub. Montpellier : Imprimerie Cristin, Serre & Ricome, pps. 162-3. Viewable online at http://www.biusante.parisdescartes.fr/histoire/medica/resultats/index.php?p=164&cote=pharma_p5292x1882x06&do=page Retrieved 11.13 on 20/8/18. Cited in Ethnobotany of the Umbelliferae : paper by David French forming part of The Biology and Chemistry of the Umbelliferae, ed. V.H. Heywood, pub. for Linnaean Society by Academic Press 1971.