Tordylium maximum

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Tordylium maximum
Tordylium maximum Sturm30.jpg
Scientific classification Red Pencil Icon.png
Domain: Eukaryota
Kingdom: Plantae
Clade: Tracheophytes
Clade: Angiosperms
Clade: Eudicots
Clade: Asterids
Order: Apiales
Family: Apiaceae
Genus: Tordylium
T. maximum
Binomial name
Tordylium maximum
Synonyms [1]
  • Caucalis maxima(L.) Vest
  • Heracleum tordyliumSpreng.
  • Pastinaca maxima(L.) Koso-Pol.
  • Selinum tordyliastrumE.H.L.Krause, nom. illeg.

Tordylium maximum, known as hartwort, is an annual or biennial flowering plant in the carrot family (Apiaceae). [2]



Tordylium maximum is a hairy or bristly biennial or annual, growing to about 30–130 cm (1.0–4.3 ft) tall, with a hollow ridged stem that is usually branched. The lower leaves are pinnate, with two to five pairs of coarsely toothed leaflets. The upper leaves may be reduced to a single leaflet. The flowers are arranged in flat umbels, with 5–15 rays. Like other members of the genus Tordylium , the flowers are white, with the outer flowers having some much longer petals on the outer side of the umbel. The fruits are 5–8 mm (0.20–0.31 in) long. [3] [2]


Tordylium maximum was first described by Carl Linnaeus in 1753 in Species Plantarum . [4] [5]


Tordylium maximum is a species of south and south central Europe, probably not native in the northern parts of its range. [3] It has been found in south-east England, but only in one location in south Essex since 1875. [2]

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  1. 1 2 "Tordylium maximum", The Plant List, retrieved 2015-02-27
  2. 1 2 3 Stace, Clive (2010), New Flora of the British Isles (3rd ed.), Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press, ISBN   978-0-521-70772-5 , p. 828
  3. 1 2 Tutin, T.G. (1968), "Tordylium", in Tutin, T.G.; Heywood, V.H.; Burges, N.A.; Valentine, D.H.; Walters, S.M. & Webb, D.A. (eds.), Flora Europaea, Volume 2: Rosaceae to Umbelliferae, Cambridge University Press, p. 367, ISBN   978-0-521-06662-4
  4. "IPNI Plant Name Query Results for Tordylium maximum", The International Plant Names Index , retrieved 2015-02-28
  5. Carl Linnaeus (1753), "Tordylium", Species Plantarum, vol. 1, pp. 239–240