| Preferred IUPAC name |
|Other names |
3D model (JSmol)
CompTox Dashboard (EPA)
|Molar mass||386.645 g·mol−1|
|Appearance||White, opaque crystals|
|Melting point||50 to 54 °C (122 to 129 °F; 323 to 327 K)|
|Boiling point||411.2 °C (772.2 °F; 684.3 K)at 760 mmHg|
|GHS Signal word||Danger|
|P264, P280, P302+P352, P305+P351+P338, P310, P332+P313, P362|
|NFPA 704 (fire diamond)|
|Flash point||110 °C (230 °F; 383 K)|
Except where otherwise noted, data are given for materials in their standard state (at 25 °C [77 °F], 100 kPa).
|(what is ?)|
Trioctylphosphine oxide (TOPO) is an organophosphorus compound with the formula OP(C8H17)3. Frequently referred to as TOPO, this compound is used as an extraction or stabilizing agent. It is an air-stable white solid at room temperature.
TOPO is usually prepared by oxidation of trioctylphosphine, which in turn is produced by alkylation of phosphorus trichloride.
The main use of TOPO is in solvent extraction of metals, especially uranium. The high lipophilicity and high polarity are properties key to this application. Its high polarity, which results from the dipolar phosphorus-oxygen bond, allows this compound to bind to metal ions. The octyl groups confer solubility in low polarity solvents such as kerosene.
In the research laboratory, both trioctylphosphine and TOPO are frequently useful as a capping ligand for the production of quantum dots such as those consisting of CdSe. In these cases, TOPO serves as solvent for the synthesis and solubilizes the growing nanoparticles. TOPO-coated quantum dots are typically soluble in chloroform, toluene, and (to a lesser extent) hexane. These quantum dots are also used in biological applications as part of the protective barrier to prevent degradation as it travels through the harsh climate of the body.
Inorganic chemistry deals with synthesis and behavior of inorganic and organometallic compounds. This field covers chemical compounds that are not carbon-based, which are the subjects of organic chemistry. The distinction between the two disciplines is far from absolute, as there is much overlap in the subdiscipline of organometallic chemistry. It has applications in every aspect of the chemical industry, including catalysis, materials science, pigments, surfactants, coatings, medications, fuels, and agriculture.
Solvation describes the interaction of solvent with dissolved molecules. Both ionized and uncharged molecules interact strongly with solvent, and the strength and nature of this interaction influence many properties of the solute, including solubility, reactivity, and color, as well as influencing the properties of the solvent such as the viscosity and density. In the process of solvation, ions are surrounded by a concentric shell of solvent. Solvation is the process of reorganizing solvent and solute molecules into solvation complexes. Solvation involves bond formation, hydrogen bonding, and van der Waals forces. Solvation of a solute by water is called hydration.
In chemistry, solubility is ability of a substance, the solute, to form a solution with another substance, the solvent. Insolubility is the opposite property, the inability of the solute to form such a solution.
The chloride ion is the anion Cl−. It is formed when the element chlorine gains an electron or when a compound such as hydrogen chloride is dissolved in water or other polar solvents. Chloride salts such as sodium chloride are often very soluble in water. It is an essential electrolyte located in all body liquids responsible for maintaining acid/base balance, transmitting nerve impulses and regulating liquid flow in and out of cells. Less frequently, the word chloride may also form part of the "common" name of chemical compounds in which one or more chlorine atoms are covalently bonded. For example, methyl chloride, with the standard name chloromethane is an organic compound with a covalent C−Cl bond in which the chlorine is not an anion.
Extractive metallurgy is a branch of metallurgical engineering wherein process and methods of extraction of metals from their natural mineral deposits are studied. The field is a materials science, covering all aspects of the types of ore, washing, concentration, separation, chemical processes and extraction of pure metal and their alloying to suit various applications, sometimes for direct use as a finished product, but more often in a form that requires further working to achieve the given properties to suit the applications.
A period 3 element is one of the chemical elements in the third row of the periodic table of the chemical elements. The periodic table is laid out in rows to illustrate recurring (periodic) trends in the chemical behaviour of the elements as their atomic number increases: a new row is begun when the periodic table skips a row and a chemical behaviour begins to repeat, meaning that elements with similar behaviour fall into the same vertical columns. The third period contains eight elements: sodium, magnesium, aluminium, silicon, phosphorus, sulfur, chlorine, and argon. The first two, sodium and magnesium, are members of the s-block of the periodic table, while the others are members of the p-block. All of the period 3 elements occur in nature and have at least one stable isotope.
In metallurgy, a flux is a chemical cleaning agent, flowing agent, or purifying agent. Fluxes may have more than one function at a time. They are used in both extractive metallurgy and metal joining.
Acetylide refers to chemical compounds with the chemical formulas MC≡CH and MC≡CM, where M is a metal. The term is used loosely and can refer to substituted acetylides having the general structure RC≡CM. Acetylides are reagents in organic synthesis. The calcium acetylide commonly called calcium carbide is a major compound of commerce.
A selenide is a chemical compound containing a selenium anion with oxidation number of −2 (Se2−), much as sulfur does in a sulfide. The chemistry of the selenides and sulfides is similar. Similar to sulfide, in aqueous solution, the selenide ion, Se2−, is prevalent only in very basic conditions. In neutral conditions, hydrogen selenide ion, HSe−, is most common. In acid conditions, hydrogen selenide, H2Se, is formed.
Hydrometallurgy is a technique within the field of extractive metallurgy, the obtaining of metals from their ores. Hydrometallurgy involve the use of aqueous solutions for the recovery of metals from ores, concentrates, and recycled or residual materials. Processing techniques that complement hydrometallurgy are pyrometallurgy, vapour metallurgy, and molten salt electrometallurgy. Hydrometallurgy is typically divided into three general areas:
Phosphorus trichloride is a inorganic compound with the chemical formula PCl3. A colorless liquid when pure, it is an important industrial chemical, being used for the manufacture of phosphites and other organophosphorus compounds. It is toxic and reacts violently with water to release hydrogen chloride.
Cadmium selenide is an inorganic compound with the formula CdSe. It is a black to red-black solid that is classified as a II-VI semiconductor of the n-type. Much of the current research on this salt is focused on its nanoparticles.
Liquid–liquid extraction (LLE), also known as solvent extraction and partitioning, is a method to separate compounds or metal complexes, based on their relative solubilities in two different immiscible liquids, usually water (polar) and an organic solvent (non-polar). There is a net transfer of one or more species from one liquid into another liquid phase, generally from aqueous to organic. The transfer is driven by chemical potential, i.e. once the transfer is complete, the overall system of chemical components that make up the solutes and the solvents are in a more stable configuration. The solvent that is enriched in solute(s) is called extract. The feed solution that is depleted in solute(s) is called the raffinate. LLE is a basic technique in chemical laboratories, where it is performed using a variety of apparatus, from separatory funnels to countercurrent distribution equipment called as mixer settlers. This type of process is commonly performed after a chemical reaction as part of the work-up, often including an acidic work-up.
Hexafluorophosphate is an anion with chemical formula of PF−
6. It is an octahedral species that imparts no color to its salts. PF−
6 is isoelectronic with sulfur hexafluoride, SF6, and the hexafluorosilicate dianion, SiF2−
6, and fluoroantimonate SbF−
6. Being poorly nucleophilic, hexafluorophosphate is classified as a non-coordinating anion.
Nanodot can refer to several technologies which use nanometer-scale localized structures. Nanodots generally exploit properties of quantum dots to localize magnetic or electrical fields at very small scales. Applications for nanodots could include high-density information storage, energy storage, and light-emitting devices.
15-Crown-5 is a crown ether with the formula (C2H4O)5. It is a cyclic pentamer of ethylene oxide that forms complex with various cations, including sodium (Na+) and potassium (K+), however, it is complementary to Na+ and thus has a higher selectivity for Na+ ions.
Superheated water is liquid water under pressure at temperatures between the usual boiling point, 100 °C (212 °F) and the critical temperature, 374 °C (705 °F). It is also known as "subcritical water" or "pressurized hot water." Superheated water is stable because of overpressure that raises the boiling point, or by heating it in a sealed vessel with a headspace, where the liquid water is in equilibrium with vapour at the saturated vapor pressure. This is distinct from the use of the term superheating to refer to water at atmospheric pressure above its normal boiling point, which has not boiled due to a lack of nucleation sites.
Tetrakis(acetonitrile)copper(I) hexafluorophosphate is a salt with the formula [Cu(CH3CN)4]PF6. It is a colourless solid that is used in the synthesis of other copper complexes. The cation [Cu(CH3CN)4]+ is a well-known example of a transition metal nitrile complex.
Di-(2-ethylhexyl)phosphoric acid (DEHPA or HDEHP) is an organophosphorus compound with the formula (C8H17O)2PO2H. The colorless liquid is a diester of phosphoric acid and 2-ethylhexanol. It is used in the solvent extraction of uranium, as well as the rare-earth metals.
Actinide chemistry is one of the main branches of nuclear chemistry that investigates the processes and molecular systems of the actinides. The actinides derive their name from the group 3 element actinium. The informal chemical symbol An is used in general discussions of actinide chemistry to refer to any actinide. All but one of the actinides are f-block elements, corresponding to the filling of the 5f electron shell; lawrencium, a d-block element, is also generally considered an actinide. In comparison with the lanthanides, also mostly f-block elements, the actinides show much more variable valence. The actinide series encompasses the 15 metallic chemical elements with atomic numbers from 89 to 103, actinium through lawrencium.