Truck classifications are typically based upon the maximum loaded weight of the truck, typically using the gross vehicle weight rating (GVWR) and sometimes also the gross trailer weight rating (GTWR), and can vary among jurisdictions.
In the United States, commercial truck classification is determined based on the vehicle's gross vehicle weight rating (GVWR). The classes range from 1–8.Trucks are also classified more broadly by the Federal Highway Administration (FHWA), which groups classes 1–2 as light duty, 3–6 as medium duty, and 7–8 as heavy duty; a commercial driver's license (CDL) is generally required to operate heavy duty trucks. The Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has a separate system of emissions classifications for trucks. The United States Census Bureau also assigned classifications in its now-discontinued Vehicle Inventory and Use Survey (VIUS) (formerly Truck Inventory and Use Survey (TIUS)).
|US truck class||Duty classification||Weight limit||Examples|
|Class 1||Light truck||0–6,000 pounds (0–2,722 kg)||Chevrolet Colorado/GMC Canyon, Ford Ranger, Honda Ridgeline FWD , Jeep Gladiator, Nissan Frontier, Toyota Tacoma|
|Class 2a||Light truck||6,001–8,500 pounds (2,722–3,856 kg)||Chevrolet Silverado/GMC Sierra 1500, Ford F-150, Honda Ridgeline AWD , Lexus GX, Lexus LX, Nissan Titan, Ram 1500, Toyota Tundra|
|Class 2b||Light/Medium truck||8,501–10,000 pounds (3,856–4,536 kg)||Chevrolet Silverado/GMC Sierra 2500, Ford F-250, Nissan Titan XD, Ram 2500|
|Class 3||Medium truck||10,001–14,000 pounds (4,536–6,350 kg)||Chevrolet Silverado/GMC Sierra 3500, Ford F-350, Ford F-450 (pickup only), Ram 3500|
|Class 4||Medium truck||14,001–16,000 pounds (6,351–7,257 kg)||Chevrolet Silverado 4500HD/International CV, Ford F-450 (chassis cab), Ram 4500|
|Class 5||Medium truck||16,001–19,500 pounds (7,258–8,845 kg)|| Chevrolet Silverado 5500HD/International CV, Ford F-550, Ram 5500 |
Isuzu NRR, Freightliner Business Class M2 106, Kenworth T170, Peterbilt 325
|Class 6||Medium truck||19,501–26,000 pounds (8,846–11,793 kg)||Chevrolet Silverado 6500HD/International CV, Ford F-650, Freightliner Business Class M2 106, International MV , Kenworth T270, Peterbilt 330|
|Class 7||Heavy truck||26,001–33,000 pounds (11,794–14,969 kg)||Autocar ACMD, Freightliner Business Class M2 106, Ford F-750 , Hino 338, International MV, Kenworth K370, Kenworth T370 and T440/470, Mack MD, Peterbilt 220 and 337/348|
|Class 8||Heavy truck||33,001 pounds (14,969 kg) and above||Autocar ACX and DC; Freightliner Cascadia, Business Class M2 112, 118SD, and EconicSD; Ford F-750; Hino XL8; International LT, HV, and RH; Kenworth T680, T880, and W990; Mack Anthem, Granite, Pinnacle, and TerraPro; Peterbilt 389, 579, and 520; Western Star 4800, 4900 and 5700; Tesla Semi; Pierce, E-One, Spartan, Ferrara, KME custom fire apparatus.|
When light-duty trucks were first produced in the United States, they were rated by their payload capacity in tons (e.g., 1⁄2-, 3⁄4- and 1-ton). Over time, payload capacities for most domestic pickup trucks have increased while the ton titles have stayed the same. The now-imprecise ton rating is presently used to compare standard sizes, rather than actual capacities.[ citation needed ]
This has led to categorizing trucks similarly, even if their payload capacities are different. The Chevrolet Silverado/GMC Sierra 1500, Ford F-150, Nissan Titan, Ram 1500, and Toyota Tundra are called "half-ton" pickups (1⁄2-ton). The Chevrolet Silverado/GMC Sierra 2500, Ford F-250, and Ram 2500 are called "three-quarter-ton" pickups. The Chevrolet Silverado/GMC Sierra 3500, Ford F-350, and Ram 3500 are known as "one ton" pickups.[ citation needed ]
Similar schemes exist for vans and SUVs (e.g. a 1-ton Dodge Van or a 1⁄2-ton GMC Suburban), medium duty trucks (e.g. the 11⁄2-ton Ford F-450) and some military vehicles, like the ubiquitous deuce-and-a-half.
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The Class 8 truck gross vehicle weight rating (GVWR) is a vehicle with a GVWR exceeding 33000 lb(14969 kg). These include tractor trailer tractors, single-unit dump trucks of a GVWR over 33,000 lb, as well as non-commercial chassis fire trucks; such trucks typically have 3 or more axles. The typical 5-axle tractor-trailer combination, also called a "semi" or "18-wheeler", is a Class 8 vehicle. Standard trailers vary in length from 8' containers to 57' van trailers, with the most common length being the 53' trailer. Specialized trailers for oversized loads can be considerably longer. Commercial operation of a Class 8 vehicle in the United States requires either a Class-B CDL for non-combination vehicles, or a Class-A CDL for combination vehicles (tractor-trailers).
Vehicle classifications vary among provinces in Canada, due to "differences in size and weight regulations, economic activity, physical environment, and other issues". 3 While several provinces use their own classification schemes for traffic monitoring, Manitoba, Ontario, Prince Edward Island and Saskatchewan have adopted the 13-class system from the United States' Federal Highway Administration—sometimes with modifications, or in Ontario's case, for limited purposes. :3–4[ needs update ] British Columbia and Ontario also distinguish between short- and long-combination trucks. :3–4[ needs update ] In accident reporting, eight jurisdictions subdivide trucks by GVWR into light and heavy classes at approximately 4500 kg (9921 lb). :6:
Vehicle categories on a European driving licence include (among others) B for general motor vehicles, C for large goods vehicles, D for large passenger vehicles (buses), and are limited by the Gross Vehicle Weight Rating and number of passenger seats.
The general categories are further divided as follows:
For the "trailer" categories, a separate driving test is generally required (e.g., "C", and "CE" require separate tests).
The classifications used on the International Driving Permit are similar to the European model.
The licence categories that deal with trucks are B and C:
A semi-tractor-trailer truck is the combination of a tractor unit and one, or more, semi-trailers to carry freight. A semi-trailer attaches to the tractor with a type of hitch called a fifth-wheel.
A truck or lorry is a motor vehicle designed to transport cargo. Trucks vary greatly in size, power, and configuration. Smaller varieties may be mechanically similar to some automobiles. Commercial trucks can be very large and powerful and may be configured to be mounted with specialized equipment, such as in the case of refuse trucks, fire trucks, concrete mixers, and suction excavators. In American English, a commercial vehicle without a trailer or other articulation is formally a "straight truck" while one designed specifically to pull a trailer is not a truck but a "tractor".
C/K is a series of trucks that were manufactured by General Motors. Marketed under the Chevrolet and GMC brands, the C/K series included a wide range of vehicles. While most commonly associated with pickup trucks, the model line also included chassis-cab trucks and medium-duty trucks and served as the basis for GM full-size SUVs. Used for both the model branding and the internal model code, "C" denoted two-wheel drive; "K" denoted four-wheel drive. For third-generation examples produced between 1987 and 1991, these were replaced by "R" and "V", respectively.
A large goods vehicle (LGV), also called a heavy goods vehicle (HGV), is the European Union (EU) term for any truck with a gross combination mass (GCM) of over 3,500 kg (7,716 lb). Sub-category N2 is used for vehicles between 3,500 kg and 12,000 kg (26,455 lb) and N3 for all goods vehicles over 12,000 kg as defined in Directive 2001/116/EC. The term medium goods vehicle is used within parts of the UK government to refer to goods vehicles of between 3,500 and 7,500 kg which according to the EU are also "large goods vehicles".
Vehicle size classes are series of ratings assigned to different segments of automotive vehicles for the purposes of vehicle emissions control and fuel economy calculation. Various methods are used to classify vehicles; in North America, passenger vehicles are classified by total interior capacity while trucks are classified by gross vehicle weight rating (GVWR). Vehicle segments in the European Union use linear measurements to describe size. Asian vehicle classifications are a combination of dimensions and engine displacement.
A commercial driver's license (CDL) is a driver's license required to operate large, heavy, or placarded hazardous material vehicles in commerce.
The International Extreme Truck Series is a range of pickup trucks produced by Navistar International from 2004 to 2008. The first vehicle marketed by International to consumers since the discontinuation of the Scout in 1980, the XT trucks marked the return of International to pickup truck production since the discontinuation of the 100-series pickups in 1975. Two vehicles were based on the International medium-duty truck range, while another was derived from a military tactical vehicle produced by Navistar.
The Chevrolet Kodiak and GMC TopKick are a range of medium duty trucks that were produced by the Chevrolet and GMC divisions of General Motors from 1980 to 2009. Introduced as a variant of the medium-duty C/K truck line, three generations were produced. Slotted between the C/K trucks and the GMC Brigadier Class 8 conventional, the Kodiak/TopKick were developed as a basis for vocationally-oriented trucks, including cargo haulers, dump trucks, and similar vehicles; on later generations, both cutaway and cowled-chassis variants were produced for bus use.
A commercial vehicle is any type of motor vehicle used for transporting goods or paying passengers.
Cab-over, also known as cab over engine (COE), cab forward (U.S.), flat nose (Canada), or forward control (UK), is a body style of truck, bus, or van that has a vertical front, "flat face" or a semi-hood, with the cab of the truck sitting above the front axle. This contrasts with a conventional truck where the engine is mounted in front of the driver.
The Diamond T Company was an American automobile and truck manufacturer. They produced commercial and military trucks.
The trucking industry serves the American economy by transporting large quantities of raw materials, works in process, and finished goods over land—typically from manufacturing plants to retail distribution centers. Trucks are also used in the construction industry, as dump trucks and portable concrete mixers move the large amounts of rocks, dirt, concrete, and other building materials used in construction. Trucks in America are responsible for the majority of freight movement over land and are tools in the manufacturing, transportation, and warehousing industries.
The Ford L-series is a range of heavy-duty trucks that were assembled and marketed by Ford between 1970 and 1998. Ford had been producing their "Heavy Duty" trucks since 1948 and their "Super Duty" lineup since 1958 marketed by various GVW ratings. Truck weight classifications 1-8 were a new concept brought about by the DOT National Highway Administration. The first dedicated Class 8 truck produced by the company, the L-series range replaced the F-series "Super Duty" and N-series. Produced as both straight trucks and semitractors, the Ford L-series encompassed a wide range of models through the Class 6-8 GVWR ratings in medium-duty, severe-service, and vocational applications. The line would become one of the most popular series of trucks Ford ever produced.
The Dana/Spicer Model 60 is an automotive axle manufactured by Dana Holding Corporation and used in OEM pickup and limited passenger car applications by Chevrolet, Dodge, Chrysler, Jeep, Ford and Land Rover. There are front and rear versions of the Dana 60. It can be readily identified by its straight axle tubes, 10 bolt asymmetrical cover, and a "60" cast in to the housing. Gross axle weight ratings are often lowered by the vehicle manufacturer for safety and tire reasons. They are also lowered to reduce loads on other powertrain components such as transmissions and transfer cases. Dana 60 Axles are also increasingly swapped into many custom offroad applications to accommodate larger tires and deep compound gearing with locking differentials.
Mitsubishi Fuso Truck of America, Inc. (MFTA), Logan Township, New Jersey, United States, imports and markets Class 3 through Class 5 medium-duty cabover trucks through more than 200 dealer locations in the United States, Canada, Puerto Rico and Guam. As of 2019, MFTA imports and markets diesel-powered, gas-powered, and electric trucks. According to the company, more than 100,000 Mitsubishi Fuso standard, 4-wheel-drive and crew cab trucks have been sold into the North American market since the company's founding. Applications include beverage, catering, refrigerated and dry cargo delivery, vehicle recovery, towing, pest control, plumbing, light construction and landscaping, overlanding, among others.
The Nissan NV is the first full-size van built by the Japanese automaker for the United States and Canada, and sold by Nissan. Until the introduction of the Nissan NV, Mexico was the only country in North America selling a full-size Nissan Van, as the Nissan Urvan was sold there. There was also a small pickup truck sold in Thailand as the "Nissan NV", this was based on the AD Wagon (Y10), a relative of the Nissan Sunny.
The International WorkStar is a line of severe duty trucks made by International Truck. The WorkStar is the successor to the 7400 and 7600 series trucks produced by International. Starting in 2008 the "thousand series" name was dropped in favor of the WorkStar. This change was reflected in the physical construction of the truck in the form of a new hood and grill along with increased MaxxForce Engine options.
The fourth generation of the C/K series is a range of trucks that was manufactured by General Motors. Marketed by the Chevrolet and GMC brands from the 1988 to the 2000 model years, this generation is the final version of the C/K model line. The C/K nomenclature itself became exclusive to Chevrolet, with the GMC division applying the GMC Sierra nameplate across its entire full-size pickup truck line. Internally codenamed the GMT400 platform, the fourth generation C/K was not given a word moniker. After its production, the model line would informally become known by the public as the "OBS", in reference to its GMT800 successor.
Vehicle weight is a measurement of wheeled motor vehicles; either an actual measured weight of the vehicle under defined conditions or a gross weight rating for its weight carrying capacity.
Furthermore, the fleet characteristics vary significantly from jurisdiction to jurisdiction across the country because of differences in size and weight regulations, economic activity, physical environment, and other issues. This has led to a wide variety of vehicle classification systems used by highway agencies and municipal authorities in their traffic monitoring programs.