Pickup truck

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Ford F-150 Supercrew with tonneau, four doors, sidestep, and wind deflectors Ford F-150 crew cab -- 05-28-2011.jpg
Ford F-150 Supercrew with tonneau, four doors, sidestep, and wind deflectors

A pickup truck is a light-duty truck having an enclosed cab and an open cargo area with low sides and tailgate. [1] Once a work tool with few creature comforts, in the 1950s, consumers began purchasing pickups for lifestyle reasons, and by the 1990s, less than 15% of owners reported use in work as the pickup truck's primary purpose. [2] Today in North America, the pickup is mostly used like a passenger car [3] and accounts for about 18% of total vehicles sold in the United States. [4]

Contents

Full-sized pickups and SUVs are an important source of revenue for GM, Ford, and FCA's Ram, accounting for more than two-thirds of their global pretax earnings, though the vehicles make up just 16% of North American vehicle production. The vehicles have a high profit margin and a high price, with 40% of Ford F-150s selling for US$40,000 or more. [5]

Ford Motor Company American automobile manufacturer

Ford Motor Company is an American multinational automaker that has its main headquarter in Dearborn, Michigan, a suburb of Detroit. It was founded by Henry Ford and incorporated on June 16, 1903. The company sells automobiles and commercial vehicles under the Ford brand and most luxury cars under the Lincoln brand. Ford also owns Brazilian SUV manufacturer Troller, an 8% stake in Aston Martin of the United Kingdom and a 32% stake in Jiangling Motors. It also has joint-ventures in China, Taiwan, Thailand, Turkey, and Russia. The company is listed on the New York Stock Exchange and is controlled by the Ford family; they have minority ownership but the majority of the voting power.

Fiat Chrysler Automobiles Multinational automotive manufacturing conglomerate

Fiat Chrysler Automobiles N.V., often abbreviated as FCA, is an Italian-American multinational corporation and is the world’s eighth largest auto maker. The group was established in October 2014 by merging Fiat and Chrysler into a new holding company. Fiat Chrysler Automobiles' main headquarters are located in the Netherlands, and the financial headquarters are in London for tax purposes. The holding company is listed on the New York Stock Exchange and Borsa Italiana in Milan. Exor N.V., an Italian investment group controlled by the Agnelli family, owns 29.19% of FCA and controls 44.31% through a loyalty voting mechanism.

Ram Trucks company

Ram Trucks, stylized as RAM and formally known as the Ram Truck Division, is an American brand of light to mid-weight commercial vehicles established in 2010 as a division of FCA US LLC, a wholly owned subsidiary of the Italian-American corporation Fiat Chrysler Automobiles. It was spun-off from Dodge marque, using the name of the Ram Pickup line of trucks. Ram Trucks' logo was originally used as Dodge's logo.

The term pickup is of unknown origin. It was used by Studebaker in 1913 and by the 1930s, "pick-up" (hyphenated) had become the standard term. [6] In Australia and New Zealand, "ute", short for utility vehicle, is used for both pickups and coupé utilities. In South Africa, people of all language groups use the term bakkie, a diminutive of bak, Afrikaans for bowl/container, due to the cargo area's similarities with a bowl.

Studebaker former car manufacturer

Studebaker was an American automobile manufacturer based in South Bend, Indiana. Founded in 1852 and incorporated in 1868 as the Studebaker Brothers Manufacturing Company, the firm was originally a producer of wagons for farmers, miners, and the military.

Australia Country in Oceania

Australia, officially the Commonwealth of Australia, is a sovereign country comprising the mainland of the Australian continent, the island of Tasmania and numerous smaller islands. It is the largest country in Oceania and the world's sixth-largest country by total area. The neighbouring countries are Papua New Guinea, Indonesia and East Timor to the north; the Solomon Islands and Vanuatu to the north-east; and New Zealand to the south-east. The population of 25 million is highly urbanised and heavily concentrated on the eastern seaboard. Australia's capital is Canberra, and its largest city is Sydney. The country's other major metropolitan areas are Melbourne, Brisbane, Perth and Adelaide.

New Zealand Country in Oceania

New Zealand is a sovereign island country in the southwestern Pacific Ocean. The country geographically comprises two main landmasses—the North Island, and the South Island —and around 600 smaller islands. New Zealand is situated some 2,000 kilometres (1,200 mi) east of Australia across the Tasman Sea and roughly 1,000 kilometres (600 mi) south of the Pacific island areas of New Caledonia, Fiji, and Tonga. Because of its remoteness, it was one of the last lands to be settled by humans. During its long period of isolation, New Zealand developed a distinct biodiversity of animal, fungal, and plant life. The country's varied topography and its sharp mountain peaks, such as the Southern Alps, owe much to the tectonic uplift of land and volcanic eruptions. New Zealand's capital city is Wellington, while its most populous city is Auckland.

History

A 1922 Ford Model T pickup 1922 Ford Model T Pickup 2.jpg
A 1922 Ford Model T pickup

In the early days of automobile manufacturing, vehicles were sold as a chassis only, and third parties added bodies on top. [7] In 1913, the Galion Allsteel Body Company, an early developer of the pickup and dump truck, built and installed hauling boxes on slightly modified Ford Model T chassis, [8] and from 1917 on the Model TT. Seeking part of this market share, Dodge introduced a 3/4-ton pickup with cab and body constructed entirely of wood in 1924. [9] In 1925, Ford followed up with a Model T-based, steel-bodied, half-ton with an adjustable tailgate and heavy-duty rear springs. [10] Billed as the "Ford Model T Runabout with Pickup Body", it sold for US$281; 34,000 were built. In 1928, it was replaced by the Model A which had a closed-cab, safety-glass windshield, roll-up side windows and three-speed transmission. In 1931, Chevrolet produced its first factory-assembled pickup. [11] Ford Australia produced the first Australian "ute" in 1932. [12] During the Second World War, the United States government halted the production of privately owned pickup trucks. [11]

Chassis internal vehicle frame

A chassis is the framework of an artificial object, which supports the object in its construction and use. An example of a chassis is a vehicle frame, the underpart of a motor vehicle, on which the body is mounted; if the running gear such as wheels and transmission, and sometimes even the driver's seat, are included, then the assembly is described as a rolling chassis.

Galion Godwin Truck Body Co. was named after its founding city of Galion, Ohio and was founded as early as the 1870s. Originally known as Galion Buggy Company, the business was born from demand for horse-drawn transportation. A short time after its founding, Galion Buggy Company found a market for retrofitting hauling boxes onto existing buggies. Galion soon exited the competitive buggy manufacturing market for the more lucrative aftermarket hauling beds and dump boxes. Around 1910, Galion Buggy Company changed its name to Galion Allsteel Body Company as horse-drawn buggies were gradually being replaced by motor vehicles.

Dump truck a truck, which by using hydraulic pistons has the ability to tip its hinged open boxed bed, effectively dumping the content of the bed to the ground

A dump truck, known also as a dumper truck or tipper truck is used for taking dumps for construction. A typical dump truck is equipped with an open-box bed, which is hinged at the rear and equipped with hydraulic rams to lift the front, allowing the material in the bed to be deposited ("dumped") on the ground behind the truck at the site of delivery. In the UK, Australia and India the term applies to off-road construction plant only, and the road vehicle is known as a tipper lorry, tip-truck, tip-trailer, tipper truck, or tipper.

In the 1950s, consumers began purchasing pickups for lifestyle rather than utilitarian reasons. [11] Car-like, smooth-sided, fenderless trucks were introduced, such as the Chevrolet Fleetside, the Chevrolet El Camino, the Dodge Sweptline, and in 1957, Ford's purpose-built Styleside. Pickups began to feature comfort items such as power options and air conditioning. [2] Trucks became more passenger oriented with the introduction of crew cabs in the Toyota Stout [13] and the Hino Briska, was introduced in 1962. Dodge followed with a crew cab in 1963, [14] Ford in 1965, and General Motors in 1973. [15]

Chevrolet El Camino coupe utility vehicle

Chevrolet El Camino is a coupé utility vehicle that was produced by Chevrolet between 1959–60 and 1964–1987. Unlike a pickup truck, the El Camino was adapted from a two-door station wagon platform that integrated the cab and cargo bed into the body.

The Hino Briska was a small pickup truck built by Hino Motors, adapted from the Renault-based Hino Contessa sedan. It was first introduced in 1961 and remained in production until 1968, when Toyota released the Toyota Hilux. In 1967, the Hino Briska was renamed the Toyota Briska, then the Hilux was introduced, based on the Briska. There was also a commercial delivery van, appropriately called the Hino Commerce.

General Motors American automotive manufacturing company

General Motors Company, commonly referred to as General Motors (GM), is an American multinational corporation headquartered in Detroit that designs, manufactures, markets, and distributes vehicles and vehicle parts, and sells financial services, with global headquarters in Detroit's Renaissance Center. It was originally founded by William C. Durant on September 16, 1908 as a holding company. The company is the largest American automobile manufacturer, and one of the world's largest. As of 2018, General Motors is ranked #10 on the Fortune 500 rankings of the largest United States corporations by total revenue.

In 1963, the U.S. chicken tax directly curtailed the import of the Volkswagen Type 2, distorting the market in favor of American manufacturers. [16] The tariff directly affected any country seeking to bring light trucks into the U.S. and effectively "squeezed smaller Asian truck companies out of the American pickup market." [17] Over the intervening years, Detroit lobbied to protect the light-truck tariff, [16] thereby reducing pressure on Detroit to introduce vehicles that polluted less and that offered increased fuel economy. [16]

Chicken tax US tariff on light trucks, instituted in response to European tariffs on US chicken

The Chicken Tax is a 25 percent tariff on light trucks imposed in 1964 by the United States under President Lyndon B. Johnson in response to tariffs placed by France and West Germany on importation of U.S. chicken. The period from 1961–1964 of tensions and negotiations surrounding the issue was known as the "Chicken War," taking place at the height of Cold War politics.

Volkswagen Type 2 Volkswagen panel van

The Volkswagen Type 2, known officially as the Transporter, Kombi or Microbus, or, informally, as the Bus (US) or Camper (UK), is a forward control panel van introduced in 1950 by the German automaker Volkswagen as its second car model. Following – and initially deriving from Volkswagen's first model, the Type 1 (Beetle) – it was given the factory designation Type 2.

The US government's 1973 Corporate Average Fuel Economy (CAFE) policy sets higher fuel-economy requirements for cars than pickups. CAFE led to the replacement of the station wagon by the minivan, the latter being in the truck category, which allowed it compliance with less-strict emissions standards. Eventually, this same idea led to the promotion of sport utility vehicles (SUVs). [18] [19] Pickups, unhindered by the emissions controls regulations on cars, began to replace muscle cars as the performance vehicle of choice. The Dodge Warlock appeared in Dodge's "adult toys" line, [2] along with the Macho Power Wagon and Street Van. The gas guzzler tax, which taxed fuel-inefficient cars while exempting pickup trucks, further distorted the market in favor of pickups.

In the 1980s, the compact Mazda B-series, Isuzu Faster, and Mitsubishi Forte appeared. Subsequently, American manufacturers built their own compact pickups for the domestic market: the Ford Ranger, and the Chevrolet S-10. Minivans make inroads into the pickups' market share. [2] In the 1990s, pickups' market share was further eroded by the popularity of SUVs. [2]

International markets

While the Ford F-150 has been the best-selling vehicle in the United States since 1982, [20] the Ford F-150, or indeed any full-sized pickup truck, is a rare sight in Europe, where high fuel prices and very narrow city roads make it difficult to use daily. [21] In America, pickups are favored by a cultural attachment to the style, low fuel prices, and taxes and regulations that distort the market in favor of domestically built trucks. [16] As of 2016, the IRS offers tax breaks for "any vehicle equipped with a cargo area ... of at least six feet in interior length that is not readily accessible from the passenger compartment". [22]

In Europe, pickups represent less than 1% of light vehicles sold, [23] the most popular being the Ford Ranger with 27,300 units sold in 2015. [24] Other models include the Renault Alaskan (a rebadged Nissan Navara), and the Toyota Hilux.

The NOx law and other differing regulations prevent pickups from being imported to Japan, but the Japanese Domestic Market Mitsubishi Triton was available for a limited time. The most-recent pickup truck on sale in Japan is Toyota Hilux.

In China (where it is known by the English loanword as 皮卡车 pí kǎ chē) the Great Wall Wingle is manufactured domestically and exported to Australia. [25] In Thailand pickups manufactured for local sale and export include the Isuzu D-Max and the Mitsubishi Triton. In Latin and South America, the Toyota Hilux, Ford Ranger, VW Amarok, Dodge Ram, Chevrolet S-10, Chevrolet D-20, and Chevrolet Montana are sold.

In South Africa, pickups account for about 17% of the passenger and light commercial vehicle sales, mostly the Toyota Hilux, Ford Ranger, and Isuzu KB (Isuzu D-Max). [26] The Volkswagen Amarok and Nissan Navara are also sold.

Design and features

In the US and Canada, nearly all new pickups are sold with automatic transmissions. The Chevrolet Colorado, Nissan Frontier, and Toyota Tacoma are all available with manual transmissions; Fords are automatic only. [27]

A regular cab has a single row of seats and a single set of doors, one on each side. Extended or super cab pickups add an extra space behind the main seat, sometimes including small seats. The first extended cab truck in the U.S. was called the Club Cab and was introduced by Chrysler in 1973 on Dodge pickup trucks. A crew cab, or double cab, seats five or six and has four full-sized, front-hinged doors. The first crew cab truck in the U.S. was made by International Harvester in 1957, and was later followed by Dodge in 1963, Ford in 1965, and Chevrolet in 1973.

Cab-over or cab forward designs have the cab sitting above the front axle. An early cab-forward, drop-sided pickup was the Volkswagen Transporter, introduced in 1952. This configuration is more common among European and Japanese manufacturers than in North America, since the style allows a longer cargo area for the same overall length. The design was more popular in North America in the 1950s and '60s, examples including the Chevrolet Corvair Rampside and Loadside, Dodge A-100 and A-108, Ford Econoline, and Jeep FC-150 & FC-170.

The cargo bed can vary in size according to whether the vehicle is optimized for cargo utility or passenger comfort. Most have fixed side walls and a hinged tailgate. Cargo beds are normally found in two styles: step-side or fleet-side. A step-side bed has fenders which extend on the outside of the cargo area. A fleet-side bed has wheel-wells inside the bed. The first fleet-sided truck was the 1955 Chevrolet Cameo Carrier. Early trucks had wood-plank beds, which were replaced by steel by the 1960s. Some European-style trucks use a drop-sided bed with a flat tray with hinged panels rising up on the sides and the rear.

A pickup with four rear wheels instead of two is, in North America, called a "dually", which is able to carry more weight over the rear axle. Vehicles similar to the pickup include the coupé utility, a car-based pickup, the similar but larger sport utility truck (SUT).

The terms half-ton and three-quarter-ton are remnants from a time when the number referred to the maximum cargo capacity by weight. [28]

Uses for pickup trucks

1974 Dodge D200 with camper 1974 Dodge D200 pickup - camper special (4880939128).jpg
1974 Dodge D200 with camper

In the United States and Canada, pickups are used primarily for passenger transport.

Equipping pickup trucks with camper shells provides a small living space for camping. Slide-in truck campers, though, give a pickup truck the amenities of a small motorhome, but still allow the operator the option of removal and independent use of the vehicle. [29]

Modified pickups can be used as improvised, unarmoured combat vehicles called technicals.

Pickup trucks are used to carry passengers in parts of Africa and Southeast Asia. In Thailand, most songthaews are converted pickup trucks and flatbed trucks. In Haiti, Tap taps are also converted pickup trucks.

See also

Related Research Articles

Minivan American English term to describe a type of van designed for personal use

Minivan is an American car classification for vehicles which are designed to transport passengers in the rear seating row(s), have reconfigurable seats in two or three rows. The equivalent terms in British English are Multi-purpose Vehicle (MPV), people carrier and people mover. Minivans often have a 'one-box' or 'two-box' body configuration, a high roof, a flat floor, a sliding door for rear passengers and high H-point seating.

Van covered transportation vehicle

A van is a type of road vehicle used for transporting goods or people. Depending on the type of van it can be bigger or smaller than a truck and SUV, and bigger than a common car. There is some varying in the scope of the word across the different English-speaking countries. The smallest vans, microvans, are used for transporting either goods or people in tiny quantities. Mini MPVs, Compact MPVs, and MPVs are all small vans usually used for transporting people in small quantities. Larger vans with passenger seats are used for institutional purposes, such as transporting students. Larger vans with only front seats are often used for business purposes, to carry goods and equipment. Specially-equipped vans are used by television stations as mobile studios. Postal services and courier companies use large step vans to deliver packages.

Isuzu Motors company manufacturing motor vehicles

Isuzu Motors Ltd., trading as Isuzu, is a Japanese commercial vehicle and diesel engine manufacturing company headquartered in Tokyo. Its principal activity is the production, marketing and sale of Isuzu commercial vehicles and diesel engines.

Chevrolet S-10 compact pickup truck

The Chevrolet S-10 is a compact pickup truck that was produced by Chevrolet. It was the first domestically built compact pickup of the big three American automakers. When it was first introduced as a "quarter-ton pickup" in 1981 for the 1982 model year, the GMC version was known as the S-15 and later renamed the GMC Sonoma. A high-performance version was released in 1991 and given the name of GMC Syclone. The pickup was also sold by Isuzu as the Hombre from 1996 through 2000, but only in North America. There was also an SUV version, the Chevrolet S-10 Blazer/GMC S-15 Jimmy. An electric version was leased as a fleet vehicle in 1997 and 1998. Together, these pickups are often referred to as the S-series.

Ford E series car model

The Ford E series is a range of full-size vans produced by the American automaker Ford since 1960. Introduced for the 1961 model year as the replacement for the Ford F-series panel van, four generations of the model line have been produced. In addition to cargo van and passenger van body styles, the Ford E series has been produced as a cutaway van chassis and stripped chassis.

Ford Courier

The Ford Courier name has been used on a variety of automobiles produced by Ford between 1952 to 2013.

Toyota T100 car model

The Toyota T100 was a full-size pickup truck produced by Toyota for the 1993 to 1998 model years.

Toyota 4Runner car model

The Toyota 4Runner is a compact, later mid-size sport utility vehicle produced by the Japanese manufacturer Toyota and sold throughout the world from 1984 to present. In Japan, it is known as the Toyota Hilux Surf. The original 4Runner was a compact SUV and little more than a Toyota pickup truck with a fiberglass shell over the bed, but the model has since undergone significant independent development into a cross between a compact and a mid-size SUV. All 4Runners have been built in Japan at Toyota's plant in Tahara, Aichi, or at the Hino Motors plant in Hamura.

The Toyota Stout was a light truck produced by the Japanese automaker Toyota from 1954 through 1989. The Stout shared its platform with the Toyota Dyna until 1968, when the Dyna was given its own platform, called the Toyota "U". In Japan, it was sold at Toyota Japanese dealerships called Toyopet Store.

Toyota Hilux Series of light commercial vehicles produced by the Japanese car-manufacturer Toyota.

The Toyota Hilux is a series of light commercial vehicles produced and marketed by the Japanese automobile manufacturer Toyota. The majority of these vehicles were sold as pickup truck or cab chassis variants, although they could be configured in a variety of body styles. Most countries used the Hilux name for the entire life of the series, but in North America, the Hilux name was retired in 1976 in favor of Truck, Pickup Truck, or Compact Truck. In North America, the popular option package, the SR5, was colloquially used as a model name for the truck, even though the option package was also used on other Toyota models, like the 1972 to 1979 Corolla. In 1984, the Toyota Trekker, the camper version of the Hilux, was renamed the 4Runner in Australia and North America, and the Hilux Surf in Japan. In 1995, Toyota introduced a new pickup model, the Tacoma, in North America, thus discontinuing the Hilux/Pickup. The 4Runner is now a full SUV, and the more recent models of the Hilux are separate in appearance from the Tacoma.

Mazda B series Line History of the longest lasting mini-trucks

The Mazda B series is a series of pickup trucks first manufactured in 1961 by Mazda. Since the launch of the B series, Mazda has used the engine displacement to determine each model's name; the B1500 had a 1.5 L engine and the B2600 had a 2.6 L engine. In Japan, the name Mazda Proceed was used for the compact pickup. Other names used for this line include Mazda Bravo (Australia), Mazda Bounty, Mazda Magnum/Thunder/Fighter (Thailand), and Mazda Drifter.

Ute (vehicle)

A ute, originally an abbreviation for "utility" or "coupé utility", is a term used in Australia and New Zealand to describe vehicles with a tray behind the passenger compartment, that can be driven with a regular driver's license.

Isuzu D-Max Pickup truck manufactured by Isuzu Motors

The Isuzu D-Max is a pickup truck manufactured since 2002 by Isuzu Motors. It shares the same platform with several General Motors (GM) mid-size trucks in the United States such as the Chevrolet Colorado, GMC Canyon and Isuzu i-Series. The Chevrolet Colorado name is also applied to a rebadged version of the D-Max in the Middle East and Thailand, although not identical to the American version. The original D-Max is sold alongside the Chevrolet Colorado in the Thai market where they are both built. In Australasia between 2003 and 2008, the D-Max was marketed as the Holden Rodeo, but has since been relaunched as the Holden Colorado. The Isuzu D-Max itself was also introduced in Australia during 2008, selling alongside the Holden-badged offering.

Isuzu Faster

The Isuzu Faster is a pick-up truck that was manufactured and marketed by Isuzu between 1972 and 2002 over three generations. The Faster was succeeded worldwide by Isuzu D-Max worldwide, except in North America.

Shinjin Motors or Sinjin Motors is a defunct South Korean car manufacturer.

Coupé utility

A coupé utility is a vehicle with a passenger compartment at the front and an integrated cargo tray at the rear, with the front of the cargo bed doubling as the rear of the passenger compartment.

Ford LCF

The Ford LCF is a medium-duty cabover truck that was marketed by Ford Motor Company from 2006 to 2009. Produced in a joint venture with Navistar International, the LCF were manufactured in the same facility in General Escobedo, Mexico that produced the Ford F-650/750 Super Duty conventionals.

As of 2017, the Thailand automotive industry was the largest in Southeast Asia and the 12th largest in the world. The Thailand industry has an annual output of near two million vehicles, more than countries such as Belgium, the United Kingdom, Italy, Czech Republic, and Turkey.

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