Front-wheel drive

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The historic 1934 Citroen Traction Avant -- its model name literally means front-wheel-drive, one of the break-through innovations of the car. Traction avant.jpg
The historic 1934 Citroën Traction Avant — its model name literally means front-wheel-drive, one of the break-through innovations of the car.

Front-wheel drive (FWD) is a form of engine and transmission layout used in motor vehicles, where the engine drives the front wheels only. Most modern front-wheel-drive vehicles feature a transverse engine, rather than the conventional longitudinal engine arrangement generally found in rear-wheel-drive and four-wheel drive vehicles.

Contents

Location of engine and transmission

By far the most common layout for a front-wheel drive car is with the engine and transmission at the front of the car, mounted transversely. [1]

Other layouts of front-wheel drive that have been occasionally produced are a front-engine mounted longitudinally, a mid-engine layout and a rear-engine layout.

History

Prior to 1900

Nicholas Cugnot's 1769 steam-powered gun-tractor. Nicholas-Cugnots-Dampfwagen.png
Nicholas Cugnot's 1769 steam-powered gun-tractor.

Experiments with front-wheel-drive cars date to the early days of the automobile. The world's first self-propelled vehicle, Nicolas-Joseph Cugnot's 1769/1770 "fardier à vapeur", was a front-wheel driven [2] three-wheeled steam-tractor. It then took at least a century, for the first experiments with mobile internal combustion engines to gain traction. According to various sources,[ citation needed ] sometime between 1895 and 1898 Gräf & Stift built a voiturette with a one-cylinder De Dion-Bouton engine fitted in the front of the vehicle, powering the front axle. It was thus possibly the world's first front-wheel-drive automobile, but it never saw series production, with just one prototype made. In 1898, Latil, in France, devised a front-wheel-drive system for motorising horse-drawn carts.

Société Parisienne - Victoria Combination

1898-1901 Victoria Combination C. 1900 Societe Parisienne Victoria rear.jpg
1898-1901 Victoria Combination
1898-1901 Victoria Combination C. 1900 Societe Parisienne Victoria front.jpg
1898-1901 Victoria Combination

In 1898/9 the French manufacturer Société Parisienne patented their front-wheel drive articulated vehicle concept which they manufactured as a Victoria Combination. It was variously powered by 1.75 or 2.5 horsepower (1.30 or 1.86 kW) De Dion-Bouton engine or a water cooled 3.5 horsepower (2.6 kW) Aster engine. The engine was mounted on the front axle and so was rotated by the tiller steering. [3] [4] [5] [6] The name Victoria Combination described the lightweight, two-seater trailer commonly known as a Victoria, combined with the rear axle and drive mechanism from a motor tricycle that was placed in front to achieve front wheel drive. [4] [5] [6] It also known as the Eureka.

By 1899 Victoria Combinations were participating in motoring events such as the 371 km Paris-St Malo race, finishing 23rd overall and second(last) in the class. [7] In October a Victoria Combination won its class in the Paris-Rambouillet-Paris event, covering the 100 kilometre course at 26 km/h (16 mph). [5] [6] In 1900 it completed 240 kilometres (150 mi) non-stop at 29 km/h (18 mph). [3]

When production ceased in mid-1901, over 400 copies had been sold for 3,000 Francs (circa $600) each. [5] [6]

19001920

J. Walter Christie of the United States patented a design for a front-wheel-drive car, the first prototype of which he built in 1904. [8] He promoted and demonstrated several such vehicles, notably with transversely mounted engines, by racing at various speedways in the United States, [2] and even competed in the 1906 Vanderbilt Cup [9] and the French Grand Prix. In 1912 he began manufacturing a line of wheeled fire engine tractors which used his front-wheel-drive system, but due to lack of sales this venture failed.

19201930

1925 Miller 122 Indianapolis 500 front-wheel-drive racer 1925 Miller 122.JPG
1925 Miller 122 Indianapolis 500 front-wheel-drive racer

The next application of front-wheel drive was the supercharged Alvis 12/50 racing car designed by George Thomas Smith-Clarke and William M. Dunn of Alvis Cars of the United Kingdom. This vehicle was entered in the 1925 Kop Hill Climb in Princes Risborough in Buckinghamshire on March 28, 1925. Harry Arminius Miller of Menomonie, Wisconsin designed the Miller 122 front-wheel drive race-car that was entered in the 1925 Indianapolis 500, which was held at the Indianapolis Motor Speedway on Saturday, May 30, 1925. [10]

However, the idea of front-wheel drive languished outside the motor racing arena as few manufacturers attempted the same for production automobiles. Alvis Cars did introduce a commercial model of the front-wheel drive 12/50 racer in 1928, but it was not a success. [11]

The 1929 Cord L-29 (Phaeton) was the U.S.' first front-wheel drive production car, as well as the world's first to sport constant-velocity joints. 1929 Cord.jpg
The 1929 Cord L-29 (Phaeton) was the U.S.' first front-wheel drive production car, as well as the world's first to sport constant-velocity joints.

The United States only saw a few limited production experiments like the Cord L-29 of 1929, the first American front-wheel drive car to be offered to the public, [12] and a few months later the Ruxton automobile [13] . The Cord L-29's drive system was again inspired by racing, copying from the Indianapolis 500-dominating racers, using the same de Dion layout and inboard brakes. [13]

Constant-velocity joints allow a drive shaft to smoothly transmit power through a variable angle, at constant rotational speed. Gelenk-welle.jpg
Constant-velocity joints allow a drive shaft to smoothly transmit power through a variable angle, at constant rotational speed.

Moreover, the Auburn (Indiana) built Cord was the first ever front-wheel drive production car to use constant-velocity joints. [14] These very specific components allow motive power to be delivered to steered wheels more seamlessly than universal joints, and have become common on almost every front-wheel drive car, including on the front axles of almost every four- or all-wheel drive wheeled vehicle.

Neither automobile was particularly successful in the open market. In spite of the Cord's hallmark innovation, using CV joints, and being competitively priced against contemporaneous alternatives, the buyers demographic were expecting more than the car's 80 mph (130 km/h) top speed, and combined with the effect of the Great Depression, by 1932 the Cord L-29 was discontinued, with just 4,400 sold. [13] The 1929 Ruxton sold just 200 cars built that year.

Front-wheel-drive MF layout with engine behind the transmission in the 1930s. Renault widely used this configuration into the 1980s. Automotive diagrams 07 En.png
Front-wheel-drive MF layout with engine behind the transmission in the 1930s. Renault widely used this configuration into the 1980s.

19301945

The first successful consumer application came in 1929. The BSA (Birmingham Small Arms Company) produced the unique front-wheel-drive BSA three-wheeler. Production continued until 1936 during which time sports and touring models were available. In 1931 the DKW F1 from Germany made its debut. Buckminster Fuller adopted rear-engine, front wheel drive for his three Dymaxion Car prototypes.

In 1932, Adler (German) launched Trumpf Junior, the earliest front-wheel drive car of which 100,000 units were sold, reaching that in 1939. 18-06-23-Roadrunners Race 61 Finowfurt RRK5245.jpg
In 1932, Adler (German) launched Trumpf Junior, the earliest front-wheel drive car of which 100,000 units were sold, reaching that in 1939.

Other German car producers followed: Stoewer offered a car with front-wheel drive in 1931, Adler in 1932 and Audi in 1933. Versions of the Adler Trumpf sold five-figure numbers from 1932 to 1938, totalling over 25,600 units. In 1934, Adler added a cheaper, and even more successful Trumpf Junior model, which sold over 100,000 in August of 1939, [15] and in the same year Citroën introduced the very successful Traction Avant models in France, over time selling them in the hundred thousands. [1]

In the late 1930s, the Cord 810/812 of the United States managed a bit better than its predecessor one decade earlier. These vehicles featured a layout that places the engine behind the transmission, running "backwards," (save for the Cord, which drove the transmission from the front of the engine). The basic front-wheel-drive layout provides sharp turning, and better weight distribution creates "positive handling characteristics" due to its low polar inertia and relatively favourable weight distribution. [16] (The heaviest component is near the centre of the car, making the main component of its moment of inertia relatively low). Another result of this design is a lengthened chassis.

Except for Citroën, after the 1930s, front-wheel drive would largely be abandoned for the following twenty years. [1] Save the interruption of World War II, Citroën built some 34 million Traction Avants through 1957; adding their cheap 2CV people's car in 1948, and introducing an equally front-wheel driven successor for the TA, the DS model, in 1955.

19451960

The 1959 Mini with a transverse engine 1965 Austin Mini, Sectioned Heritage Motor Centre, Gaydon.jpg
The 1959 Mini with a transverse engine
Transverse front-wheel-drive FF layout as pioneered in the Mini is today the most common in mass market passenger cars Automotive diagrams 10 En.png
Transverse front-wheel-drive FF layout as pioneered in the Mini is today the most common in mass market passenger cars

Front-wheel drive continued with the 1948 Citroën 2CV, where the air-cooled lightweight aluminium flat twin engine was mounted ahead of the front wheels, but used Hooke type universal joint driveshaft joints, and 1955 Citroën DS, featuring the mid-engine layout. Panhard of France, DKW of Germany and Saab of Sweden offered exclusively front-wheel-drive cars, starting with the 1948 Saab 92.

In 1946, Lloyd Cars, the English car company, had produced the front-wheel-drive roadster, Lloyd 650. The two-stroke, two-cylinder motor was mounted transversely in the front and connected to the front wheels through four-speed synchronised gearbox. The high price and lacklustre performance had doomed its production. Only 600 units were produced from 1946 to 1950.

In 1946 in Italy eng. Antonio Fessia created his Cemsa Caproni F11, produced in 7 specimens his innovation was to created the happy combination with the boxer engine (flat four) on a special frame from the particularly low center of gravity. For post-war financial problems Cemsa could not continue production but the project was resumed when taken in Lancia in the 50s. 1954, Alfa-Romeo had experimented with its first front-wheel-drive compact car named "33" (not related or referred to sports car similarly named "33"). It had the same transverse-mounted, forward-motor layout as the modern front-wheel-drive automobiles. It even resembled the smaller version of its popular Alfa Romeo Giulia. However, due to the financial difficulties in post-war Italy, the 33 never saw the production. Had Alfa-Romeo succeed in producing 33, it would precede the Mini as the first "modern" European front-wheel-drive compact car.

In 1955, one of the first Japanese manufacturers to utilize front-wheel drive with a transversely installed engine was the Suzuki Suzulight, which was a small "city" car, called a kei car in Japanese.

In East Germany, the DKW-derived Trabant and Wartburg as well as the IFA F9, had front wheel drive. The Trabant had both monocoque body and a transversely mounted engine, a modern design in some ways.

In 1959 Austin Mini was launched by the British Motor Corporation, designed by Alec Issigonis as a response to the first 'oil crisis', the 1956 Suez Crisis, and the boom in bubble cars that followed. It was the first production front-wheel-drive car with a watercooled inline four-cylinder engine mounted transversely. This allowed eighty percent of the floor plan for the use of passengers and luggage. The majority of modern cars use this configuration. Its progressive rate rubber sprung independent suspension, low centre of gravity, and wheel at each corner with radial tyres, gave a massive increase in grip and handling over all but the most expensive cars on the market. It used GKN designed constant-velocity joint drive shaft universal joints. The Mini revived the use of front-wheel drive which had been largely abandoned since the 1930s. [1]

19601975

1960's Renault 4 rolling chassis with gearbox ahead of engine Chassisroulant.JPG
1960's Renault 4 rolling chassis with gearbox ahead of engine
Front-wheel-drive FF layout as used by Audi and Subaru Automotive diagrams 08 En.png
Front-wheel-drive FF layout as used by Audi and Subaru

The transversely mounted engine combined with front-wheel drive was popularized by the 1959 Mini; there the transmission was built into the sump of the engine, and drive was transferred to it via a set of primary gears. Another variant transmission concept was used by Simca in the 1960s keeping the engine and transmission in line, but transverse mounted and with unequal length driveshafts. This has proven itself to be the model on which almost all modern FWD vehicles are now based. Peugeot and Renault on their jointly developed small car engine of the 1970s where the 4-cylinder block was canted over to reduce the overall height of the engine with the transmission underneath (PSA X engine). The tendency of this layout to generate unwanted transmission "whine" has seen it fall out of favour. Also, clutch changes required engine removal.

In 1960 Lancia could evolve the project CemsaF11 of Antonio Fessia with the innovative Lancia Flavia for first time with motor Boxer on auxiliary frame for low center of gravity. This scheme continued in Lancia until 1984 with the end production of Lancia Gamma and successfully cloned until today by Subaru. Lancia, however also made front-wheel drive its flagship even in sport cars as the winner of the Rally, Lancia Fulvia, and then with large-scale models with excellent road qualities and performances including Lancia Beta, Lancia Delta, Lancia Thema including the powerful Lancia Thema 8.32 with engine Ferrari and all subsequent models. Ford introduced front wheel drive to its European customers in 1962 with the Taunus P4. The 1965 Triumph 1300 was designed around a longitudinal engine with the transmission underneath. Audi has also used a longitudinally mounted engine overhung over the front wheels since the 1970s. Audi is one of the few manufacturers which still uses this particular configuration. It allows the use of equal-length half shafts and the easy addition of all-wheel drive, but has the disadvantage that it makes it difficult to achieve 50/50 weight distribution (although they remedy this in four-wheel-drive models by mounting the gearbox at the rear of the transaxle). The Subaru 1000 appeared in 1966 utilizing front-wheel drive mated to a flat-4 engine, with the driveshafts of equal length extending from the transmission, which addressed some of the issues of the powertrain being somewhat complex and unbalanced in the engine compartment - the Alfa Romeo Alfasud (and its replacement, the 1983 Alfa 33 as well as the Alfa 145/146 up to late 1990s) also used the same layout.

Honda also introduced several small front wheel drive vehicles, with the N360 and N600, the Z360 and Z600 in 1967, the Honda 1300 in 1969, followed by the Honda Civic in 1972 and the Honda Accord in 1976.

Also in the 1970s and 1980s, the Douvrin engines used in the larger Renaults (20, 21, 25 and 30) used this longitudinal "forward" layout. The first generation Saab 900, launched in 1978, also used a longitudinal engine with a transmission underneath with helical gears. The 1966 Oldsmobile Toronado was the first U.S. front-wheel-drive car since the Cord 810. It used a longitudinal engine placement for its V8, coupled with an unusual "split" transmission, which turned the engine power 180 degrees. Power then went to a differential mounted to the transmission case, from which half-shafts took it to the wheels. The driveline was set fairly at centre-point of the wheels for better weight distribution, though this raised the engine, requiring lowered intake systems.

Giacosa innovation

Little known outside of Italy, the Primula is today primarily known for innovating the modern economy-car layout.
Hemmings Motor News, [17]

Front-wheel drive layout had been highly impacted by the success of small, inexpensive cars, especially the British Mini. As engineered by Alec Issigonis, the compact arrangement located the transmission and engine sharing a single oil sump — despite disparate lubricating requirements — and had the engine's radiator mounted to the side of the engine, away from the flow of fresh air and drawing heated rather than cool air over the engine. The layout often required the engine be removed to service the clutch. [18]

This Active Tourer MPV wants to be more stable than a BMW M3, and using the Dante Giacosa-pattern front-wheel-drive layout compacts the mechanicals and saves space for people in the reduced overall length of what will surely become a production 1-series tall-sedan crossover.
Robert Cumberford, Automobile Magazine, March, 2013 [19]

Dante Giacosa's designed Fiat 128 Fiat 128-Sedan-4dr (1969) Front-view.JPG
Dante Giacosa’s designed Fiat 128

As engineered by Dante Giacosa, the Fiat 128 featured a transverse-mounted engine with unequal length drive shafts and an innovative clutch release mechanism — an arrangement which Fiat had strategically tested on a previous production model, the Primula, from its less market-critical subsidiary, Autobianchi.

Ready for production in 1964, the Primula featured a gear train offset from the differential and final drive with unequal length drive shafts. The layout enabled the engine and gearbox to be located side by side without sharing lubricating fluid while orienting the cooling fan toward fresh air flow. By using the Primula as a test-bed, Fiat was able to sufficiently resolve the layout's disadvantages, including uneven side-to-side power transmission, uneven tire wear and potential torque steer, the tendency for the power of the engine alone to steer the car under heavy acceleration.

After the 128, Fiat further demonstrated the layout's flexibility, re-configurating the 128 drive-train as a mid-engined layout for the Fiat X1/9. The compact, efficient Giacosa layout — a transversely-mounted engine with transmission mounted beside the engine driving the front wheels through an offset final-drive and unequal-length driveshafts, combined with MacPherson struts and an independently located radiator — subsequently became common with competitors [20] and arguably an industry standard. [21]

19751990

The Corporate Average Fuel Economy standard drove a mass changeover of cars in the U.S. to front-wheel drive. The change began in 1978, with the introduction of the first American-built transverse-engined cars, the Plymouth Horizon and Dodge Omni (based on the European designed Simca Horizon), [22] followed by the 1980 Chevrolet Citation and numerous other vehicles. Meanwhile, European car makers, that had moved to front-wheel drive decades before, began to homogenize their engine arrangement only in this decade, leaving Audi (and Volkswagen) alone with the Audi front drive-longitudinal engine layout. Years before this was the most common layout in Europe, with examples like Citroen DS, Renault 12, Renault 5, Renault 25 (a Chrysler LH ancestor) Alfa Romeo 33, Volkswagen Passat, etc. This transition can be exemplified in the Renault 21 that was offered with disparate engine configurations. The 1.7-litre version featured an 'east-west' (transversely) mounted engine, but Renault had no gearbox suitable for a more powerful transverse engine: accordingly, faster versions featured longitudinally mounted (north south) engines.

By reducing drivetrain weight and space needs, vehicles could be made smaller and more efficient without sacrificing acceleration. Integrating the powertrain with a transverse as opposed to a longitudinal layout, along with unibody construction and the use of constant velocity jointed drive axles, along with front wheel drive has evolved into the modern-day mass market automobile. Some suggest that the introduction of the modern Volkswagen Golf in 1974, from a traditional U.S. competitor, and the introduction of the 1973 Honda Civic, and the 1976 Honda Accord served as a wake-up call for the "Big Three" (only Chrysler already produced front-wheel-drive vehicles in their operations outside North America). GM was even later with the 1979 Vauxhall Astra/Opel Kadett. Captive imports were the US car makers initial response to the increased demand for economy cars. The popularity of front-wheel drive began to gain momentum, with the 1981 Ford Escort, the 1982 Nissan Sentra, and the 1983 Toyota Corolla. Front-wheel drive became the norm for mid-sized cars starting with the 1982 Chevrolet Celebrity, 1982 Toyota Camry, 1983 Dodge 600, 1985 Nissan Maxima, 1986 Honda Legend, and the 1986 Ford Taurus. By the mid-1980s, most formerly rear-wheel-drive Japanese models were front-wheel drive, and by the mid-1990s, most American brands only sold a handful of rear-wheel-drive models.

1990present

The Chevrolet Cobalt, a front-wheel-drive car made from 2004 to 2010 Chevrolet Cobalt Coupe.jpg
The Chevrolet Cobalt, a front-wheel-drive car made from 2004 to 2010

The vast majority of front-wheel-drive vehicles today use a transversely mounted engine with "end-on" mounted transmission, driving the front wheels via driveshafts linked via constant velocity (CV) joints, and a flexibly located electronically controlled cooling fan. [1] This configuration was pioneered by Dante Giacosa in the 1964 Autobianchi Primula and popularized with the Fiat 128. [23] Fiat promoted in its advertising that mechanical features consumed only 20% of the vehicle's volume and that Enzo Ferrari drove a 128 as his personal vehicle. [20] The 1959 Mini used a substantially different arrangement with the transmission in the sump, and the cooling fan drawing hot air from its side-facing location.

Volvo Cars has switched its entire lineup after the 900 series to front-wheel drive. Swedish engineers at the company have said that transversely mounted engines allow for more crumple zone area in a head-on collision. American auto manufacturers are now shifting larger models (such as the Chrysler 300 and most of the Cadillac lineup) back to rear-wheel drive. [24] [25] There were relatively few rear-wheel-drive cars marketed in North America by the early 1990s; Chrysler's car line-up was entirely front-wheel drive by 1990. GM followed suit in 1996 where its B-body line was phased out, where its sports cars (Camaro, Firebird, Corvette) were the only RWDs marketed; by the early 2000s, the Chevrolet Corvette and Cadillac Catera were the only RWD cars offered by General Motors until the introduction of the Sigma platform. After the phaseout of the Ford Panther platform (except for the Mustang), Ford automobiles (including the Transit Connect van) manufactured for the 2012 model year to present are front wheel drive; its D3 platform (based on a Volvo platform) has optional all wheel drive.

Records

Nissan GT-R LM Nismo. Nissan Motorsports - Nissan GT-R LM Nismo -23 (18860958202).jpg
Nissan GT-R LM Nismo.

See also

Related Research Articles

Autobianchi

Autobianchi was an Italian automobile manufacturer, created jointly by Bianchi, Pirelli and Fiat in 1955. Autobianchi produced only a handful of models during its lifetime, which were almost exclusively small cars, with the biggest being the short-lived Autobianchi A111, a small family car. Autobianchis were priced higher than Fiat models of similar size and the brand was used by Fiat to test innovative concepts which later found their way into mainstream Fiat vehicles; these concepts included fibreglass bodies and front-wheel drive.

Fiat 128 Small family car

The Fiat 128 is a transverse front-engine, front wheel drive small family car manufactured and marketed by Fiat from 1969 to 1985 as a two- or four-door sedan, three- or five-door station wagon as well as two- or three-door coupé. The 128 running gear and engine, reconfigured for a mid-engined layout, were used in the Fiat X1/9 sports car.

Front-engine, front-wheel-drive layout Term used in automotive technology

In automotive design, an FF, or front-engine, front-wheel-drive (FWD) layout places both the internal combustion engine and driven roadwheels at the front of the vehicle.

Rear-engine, rear-wheel-drive layout

In automotive design, an RR, or rear-engine, rear-wheel-drive layout places both the engine and drive wheels at the rear of the vehicle. In contrast to the RMR layout, the center of mass of the engine is between the rear axle and the rear bumper. Although very common in transit buses and coaches due to the elimination of the drive shaft with low-floor buses, this layout has become increasingly rare in passenger cars.

Rear mid-engine, rear-wheel-drive layout

In automotive design, an RMR, or rear mid-engine, rear-wheel-drive layout, is one in which the rear wheels are driven by an engine placed just in front of them, behind the passenger compartment. In contrast to the rear-engined RR layout, the center of mass of the engine is in front of the rear axle. This layout is typically chosen for its low moment of inertia and relatively favorable weight distribution. The layout has a tendency toward being heavier in the rear than the front, which allows for best balance to be achieved under braking. However, since there is little weight over the front wheels, under acceleration, the front of the car is prone to lift and cause understeer. Most rear-engine layouts have historically been used in smaller vehicles, because the weight of the engine at the rear has an adverse effect on a larger car's handling, making it 'tail-heavy'. It is felt that the low polar inertia is crucial in selection of this layout. The mid-engined layout also uses up central space, making it impractical for any but two-seater sports cars. However, some microvans use this layout, with a small, low engine beneath the loading area. This makes it possible to move the driver right to the front of the vehicle, thus increasing the loading area at the expense of slightly reduced load depth.

Economy car is a term mostly used in the United States for cars designed for low-cost purchase and operation. Typical economy cars are small, lightweight, and inexpensive to both produce and purchase. Stringent design constraints generally force economy car manufactures to be inventive. Many innovations in automobile design were originally developed for economy cars, such as the Ford Model T and the Austin Mini.

Rear-wheel drive (RWD) is a form of engine and transmission layout used in motor vehicles, where the engine drives the rear wheels only. Until the late 20th century, rear-wheel drive was the most common configuration for cars. Most rear-wheel drive vehicles feature a longitudinally-mounted engine at the front of the car.

Transaxle Combined transmission, axle and differential in one assembly.

A transaxle is a single mechanical device which combines the functions of an automobile's transmission, axle, and differential into one integrated assembly. It can be produced in both manual and automatic versions.

A mid-engine layout describes the placement of an automobile engine in front of the rear-wheel axles, but behind the front axle.

Drive shaft Mechanical component for transmitting torque and rotation

A drive shaft, driveshaft, driving shaft, tailshaft, propeller shaft, or Cardan shaft is a vehicle component for transmitting mechanical power and torque and rotation, usually used to connect other components of a drivetrain that cannot be connected directly because of distance or the need to allow for relative movement between them.

Lancia Beta Motor vehicle

The Lancia Beta was an entry-level luxury car produced by Italian car manufacturer Lancia from 1972 to 1984. It was the first new model introduced by Lancia after it had been taken over by Fiat in 1969.

Autobianchi Primula Motor vehicle

The Autobianchi Primula is a supermini economy car manufactured between 1964 and 1970 by the Italian automaker Autobianchi, partly owned by and later a subsidiary of the Fiat Group. The Primula was a prototype for Fiat's rack and pinion steering and is widely known for its innovative Dante Giacosa-designed front-wheel drive, transverse engine layout — that would be later popularized by the Fiat 128 to ultimately become an industry-standard front drive layout.

Transverse engine

A transverse engine is an engine mounted in a vehicle so that the engine's crankshaft axis is perpendicular to the direction of travel. Many modern front-wheel drive vehicles use this engine mounting configuration. Most rear-wheel drive vehicles use a longitudinal engine configuration, where the engine's crankshaft axis is parallel with the direction of travel, except for some rear-mid engine vehicles, which use a transverse engine and transaxle mounted in the rear instead of the front. Despite typically being used in light vehicles, it is not restricted to such designs and has also been used on armoured fighting vehicles to save interior space.

Longitudinal engine

In automotive engineering, a longitudinal engine is an internal combustion engine in which the crankshaft is oriented along the long axis of the vehicle, front to back.

Fiat 124 Sport Spider Motor vehicle

The Fiat 124 Sport Spider is a convertible sports car marketed by Fiat for model years 1966-1985. Designed by and manufactured at the Italian carrozzeria Pininfarina factory, the monocoque, front-engine, rear drive Sport Spider debuted at the November 1966 Turin Auto Show with styling by Tom Tjaarda.

Eagle Medallion Car model produced Renault and marketed by American Motors Corporation

The Eagle Medallion, also marketed as the Renault Medallion, was a rebadged and mildly re-engineered North American version of the French Renault 21 marketed by American Motors Corporation under the Renault brand for the 1988 model year, and by Chrysler’s Jeep/Eagle division for the 1989 model year.

Torque steer is the unintended influence of engine torque on the steering, especially in front-wheel-drive vehicles. For example, during heavy acceleration, the steering may pull to one side, which may be disturbing to the driver. The effect is manifested either as a tugging sensation in the steering wheel, or a veering of the vehicle from the intended path. Torque steer is directly related to differences in the forces in the contact patches of the left and right drive wheels. The effect becomes more evident when high torques are applied to the drive wheels either because of a high overall reduction ratio between the engine and wheels, high engine torque, or some combination of the two. Torque steer is distinct from steering kickback.

Dante Giacosa

Dante Giacosa was an Italian automobile designer and engineer responsible for a range of Italian automobile designs — and for refining the front-wheel drive layout to an industry-standard configuration.

Autobianchi A111 Motor vehicle

The Autobianchi A111 is a 4-door saloon family car produced from 1969 to 1972 by Italian car manufacturer Autobianchi, a subsidiary of the Fiat group. Despite rather modest dimensions, at roughly 4 metres long, it was the largest Autobianchi ever made, as the brand specialized in small cars. A modern front-wheel drive construction like the Fiat 128 launched concurrently, it was based on the revolutionary Autobianchi Primula, Fiat's first "experiment" with the transverse engine front-wheel-drive setup.

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