In automotive design, an R4, or Rear-engine, Four-wheel-drive layout places the internal combustion engine at the rear of the vehicle, and drives all four roadwheels.
This layout is typically chosen to improve the traction or the handling of existing vehicle designs using the rear-engine, rear-wheel-drive layout (RR).
The R4 layout is very rare, only having been used on a small number of production vehicles. Notable vehicles with this layout include several high-performance Porsche sports cars, including the 959, the 911 Turbo since the introduction of the turbocharged version of the 993 series in 1995, and the 911 Carrera 4 introduced with the 964 series in 1989.
Some Volkswagen Kübelwagen (the rear-engined beetle-based military vehicle used by Germany in World War II) variants were produced with 4-wheel or all-wheel drive, including the Type 86, Type 87, Type 98. Also, some Vanagons/Microbuses came in 4WD Syncro version.
The Porsche 924 is a sports car produced by Porsche AG of Germany from 1976 to 1988. A two-door, 2+2 coupé, the 924 was intended to replace the Porsche 914 as the company's entry-level model.
The Porsche 944 is a sports car manufactured by German automobile manufacturer Porsche from 1982 to 1991. A front-engine, rear-wheel drive mid-level model based on the 924 platform, the 944 was available in coupé or cabriolet body styles, with either naturally aspirated or turbocharged engines.
The Porsche 356 is a sports car which was first produced by Austrian company Porsche Konstruktionen GesmbH (1948–1949), and then by German company Dr. Ing. h. c. F. Porsche GmbH (1950–1965). It was Porsche's first production automobile. Earlier cars designed by the Austrian company include Cisitalia Grand Prix race car, the Volkswagen Beetle, and Auto Union Grand Prix cars.
The Porsche 930 is a sports car manufactured by German automobile manufacturer Porsche between 1975 and 1989, known to the public as the 911 Turbo. It was the maker's top-of-the-range 911 model for its entire production duration and, at the time of its introduction, was the fastest production car available in Germany.
The Volkswagen Transporter (T4), marketed in North America as the Volkswagen EuroVan, is a van produced by the German manufacturer Volkswagen Commercial Vehicles between 1990 and 2003, succeeding the Volkswagen Type 2 (T3) and superseded by the Volkswagen Transporter (T5).
The Porsche 993 is the internal designation for the Porsche 911 model manufactured and sold between January 1994 and early 1998, replacing the 964. Its discontinuation marked the end of air-cooled 911 models.
The Porsche 996 is the internal designation for the 911 model manufactured from 1997 to 2006 It was replaced by the 997 in 2004 but the high performance Turbo S, GT2 and GT3 variants remained in production until 2006. The 996 had little in common with its predecessor, with the first all new chassis platform since the original 911 and a new water-cooled engine. Technically, it was a major change, a complete breakthrough from the original car other than the overall layout.
Porsche 997 is the internal designation for the Porsche 911 sports car manufactured and sold by German manufacturer Porsche between 2004 and 2012. Production of the Carrera and Carrera S coupés began in early 2004, all-wheel drive Carrera 4 and Carrera 4S began to be delivered to customers in November 2005, the Turbo and GT3 derivatives went on sale in late 2006 and the GT2 in 2007. In addition to the coupé and cabriolet versions, Targa versions of the Carrera 4 and Carrera 4S were also available, which carry on with the "glass canopy" roof design used since its first application on the 993 until the 991, which reverted to the classic targa top layout used on the early 911 Targas.
Targa top, or targa for short, is a semi-convertible car body style with a removable roof section and a full width roll bar behind the seats. The term was first used on the 1966 Porsche 911 Targa, and it remains a registered trademark of Porsche AG.
The Porsche 964 is the company's internal name for the Porsche 911 manufactured and sold between 1989 and 1994. Designed by Benjamin Dimson through January 1986, it featured significant styling revisions over previous 911 models, most prominently the more integrated bumpers. It was the first car to be offered with Porsche's Tiptronic automatic transmission and all wheel drive as options.
In automotive design, an RR, or rear-engine, rear-wheel-drive layout places both the engine and drive wheels at the rear of the vehicle. In contrast to the RMR layout, the center of mass of the engine is between the rear axle and the rear bumper. Although very common in transit buses and coaches due to the elimination of the drive shaft with low-floor bus, this layout has become increasingly rare in passenger cars.
A transaxle is a single mechanical device which combines the functions of an automobile's transmission, axle, and differential into one integrated assembly. It can be produced in both manual and automatic versions.
The Volkswagen Type 2 (T3) was the third generation of the Volkswagen Transporter and was marketed under various nameplates worldwide – including the Transporter or Caravelle in Europe, Microbus in South Africa, and Vanagon in North and South America.
The Porsche Panamericana is a concept automobile produced by Porsche AG. It was designed by Dutchman Harm Lagaay along with Steve Murkett (designers) and Ulrich Bez to preview some design features that would be on the upcoming 993 generation 911. It was also built as a gift for Ferry Porsche for his 80th birthday. The name comes from the famous Carrera Panamericana race that was held in the 1950s.
In automobile design, a rear-engine design layout places the engine at the rear of the vehicle. The center of gravity of the engine itself is behind the rear axle. This is not to be confused with the center of gravity of the whole vehicle, as an imbalance of such proportions would make it impossible to keep the front wheels on the ground.
The original Porsche 911 is a luxury sports car made by Porsche AG of Stuttgart, Germany. The famous, distinctive, and durable design was introduced in autumn 1963 and built through 1989. It was succeeded by a modified version, internally referred to as Porsche 964 but still sold as Porsche 911, as are current models.
The ISO standard VIN was introduced for the Porsche model year 1981.
The Porsche 991 was the internal designation for the seventh generation of the Porsche 911 sports car, which was unveiled at the 2011 Frankfurt Motor Show on 15 September as the replacement for the 997. The 991 was an entirely new platform, only the third since the original 911 launched in 1963. Production of the 991 generation ended on December 20, 2019, with 233,540 units produced.
The Porsche 911 is a two-door, 2+2 high performance rear-engined sports car. Introduced in September 1964 by Porsche AG of Stuttgart, Germany. It has a rear-mounted flat-six engine and all round independent suspension. It has undergone continuous development, though the basic concept has remained unchanged. The engines were air-cooled until the introduction of the Type 996 in 1998, with the 993, produced from 1994–1998 model years, being the last of the air-cooled Porsche sports cars.
The Porsche 992 is the internal designation for the eighth generation of the Porsche 911 sports car, which was introduced at the Porsche Experience Center, Los Angeles on November 27, 2018.
|Roadster & sports cars||912||912E||924||Boxster (986)|
|911||911 / 930||911 (964)||911 (993)||911 (996)|
|Supercar||959||959|| 911 GT1|
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