Drive wheel

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The rear driven wheels of a racing car throwing gravel Car 206 - Daniel Wall (3976965455).jpg
The rear driven wheels of a racing car throwing gravel
Differentials and drive shafts deliver torque to the front and rear wheels of a four-wheel drive truck Saginaw 9.5-inch axle.jpg
Differentials and drive shafts deliver torque to the front and rear wheels of a four-wheel drive truck

A drive wheel is a wheel of a motor vehicle that transmits force, transforming torque into tractive force from the tires to the road, causing the vehicle to move. The powertrain delivers enough torque to the wheel to overcome stationary forces, resulting in the vehicle moving forwards or backwards. [1] [2]

Contents

A two-wheel drive vehicle has two driven wheels, typically both at the front or back, while a four-wheel drive has four.

A steering wheel is a wheel that turns to change the direction of a vehicle. A trailer wheel is one that is neither a drive wheel, nor a steer wheel. Front-wheel drive vehicles typically have the rear wheels as trailer wheels.

Drive wheel configurations

Front-wheel drive

Front-wheel drive (FWD) vehicles' engines drive the front wheels. Using the front wheels for delivery of power as well as steering allows the driving force to act in the same direction as the wheel is pointing. [3] This layout is commonly used in modern passenger cars.

Opperman Motocart Opperman Motor Cart, Bolnhurst - geograph.org.uk - 1372387.jpg
Opperman Motocart

A rare example of front wheel drive was the Opperman Motocart. This slow-speed agricultural and light freight vehicle was a tricycle with the front wheel carrying a large tractor tyre. The wheel was powered by a small single cylinder Douglas engine carried on the front mono fork that formed the steering gear.

See also Front-engine, front-wheel drive layout.

Rear-wheel drive

Rear-wheel drive (RWD) typically places the engine in the front of the vehicle, with a driveshaft running the length of the vehicle to the differential transmission. However, mid engine and rear engine layouts can also be used.

It was a common layout used in automobiles throughout the 20th century. At this time, FWD designs were not practical due to complexity (in FWD, engine power and steering must both be combined in the front axle).

Two-wheel drive

For four-wheeled vehicles, two-wheel drive describes vehicles that transmit torque to at most two road wheels, referred to as either front- or rear-wheel drive. The term 4x2 is also used, to indicate four total road-wheels with two being driven.

For vehicles that have partial four-wheel drive, the term two-wheel drive refers to the mode when four-wheel drive is deactivated and torque is applied to only two wheels.

All-wheel drive

Four-wheel drive

This configuration allows all four road wheels to receive torque from the power plant simultaneously. It is often used in rally racing on mostly paved roads.

Four-wheel drive is common in off-road vehicles because powering all four wheels provides better control on loose and slippery surfaces. Four-wheel drive manufacturers have different systems such as "High Range 4WD" and "Low Range 4WD". These systems may provide added features such as a varying of torque distribution between axles or varying gear ratios. [4]

Common terms for this configuration include four-wheel drive, 4WD, 4x4 (pronounced "four-by-four"), integral, and all-wheel drive (AWD).

Six-wheel drive

Eight-wheel drive

Ten-wheel drive

U.S. Army's Oshkosh 10x10 M1075 Palletized Load System (PLS) Palletized load system.jpg
U.S. Army's Oshkosh 10x10 M1075 Palletized Load System (PLS)

Ten-wheel drive, 10WD or 10×10 is a drivetrain configuration of ten wheels, all of which are driven simultaneously by the engine. Unlike four-wheel drive drivetrains, this configuration is only used in extreme off-road and military uses, in particular heavy haulage and missile carriers. Some severe/extreme duty semi tractors may also have this drive configuration.

The Oshkosh M1074 and M1075 prime mover units in the U.S. Army's Palletized Load System (PLS), the U.S. Marine's 10x10 Oshkosh Logistic Vehicle System Replacement (LVSR), and the Tatra T816 10×10 cargo carrier are examples of ten-wheel drive vehicles.

10x10's are not as common as 4×4's, 6×6's and 8×8's.

Twelve-wheel drive

Twelve-wheel drive, often shortened to 12WD or 12×12, refers to a twelve-wheeled vehicle with a drivetrain that allows all twelve wheels to receive power from the engine simultaneously. This configuration is typically used in heavy-duty and extreme off-road and military purposes.

Notes

  1. "Driving wheel". thefreedictionary.com. Retrieved 13 July 2013. any wheel of a vehicle that transforms torque into a tractive force.
  2. Russ, Carey. "Driving Wheels: Introduction and Rear-Wheel Drive". The Auto Channel. Retrieved 13 July 2013.
  3. Hillier, V.A.W.; Coombes, Peter (2004). Hilliers Fundamentals of Motor Vehicle Technology (Fifth ed.). Nelson Thornes. p. 263. ISBN   9780748780822.
  4. "Jeep.ca". www.jeep.ca. Retrieved 25 July 2016.

See also

Related Research Articles

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Four-wheel drive</span> Type of drivetrain with four driven wheels

Four-wheel drive, also called 4×4 or 4WD, refers to a two-axled vehicle drivetrain capable of providing torque to all of its wheels simultaneously. It may be full-time or on-demand, and is typically linked via a transfer case providing an additional output drive shaft and, in many instances, additional gear ranges.

Quattro (four-wheel-drive system) Sub-brand by Audi

quattro is the trademark used by the automotive brand Audi to indicate that all-wheel drive (AWD) technologies or systems are used on specific models of its automobiles.

Front-engine, front-wheel-drive layout Term used in automotive technology

In automotive design, a front-engine, front-wheel-drive (FWD) layout, or FF layout, places both the internal combustion engine and driven roadwheels at the front of the vehicle.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Rear-engine, rear-wheel-drive layout</span> Automotive design

In automotive design, an RR, or rear-engine, rear-wheel-drive layout places both the engine and drive wheels at the rear of the vehicle. In contrast to the RMR layout, the center of mass of the engine is between the rear axle and the rear bumper. Although very common in transit buses and coaches due to the elimination of the drive shaft with low-floor buses, this layout has become increasingly rare in passenger cars.

Rear-wheel drive (RWD) is a form of engine and transmission layout used in motor vehicles, where the engine drives the rear wheels only. Until the late 20th century, rear-wheel drive was the most common configuration for cars. Most rear-wheel drive vehicles feature a longitudinally-mounted engine at the front of the car.

Drive shaft Mechanical component for transmitting torque and rotation

A drive shaft, driveshaft, driving shaft, tailshaft, propeller shaft, or Cardan shaft is a component for transmitting mechanical power and torque and rotation, usually used to connect other components of a drivetrain that cannot be connected directly because of distance or the need to allow for relative movement between them.

Triumph 1300 Motor vehicle

The Triumph 1300 is a medium/small 4-door saloon car that was made between 1965 and 1970 by Standard Triumph in Coventry, England, under the control of Leyland Motors. It was introduced at the London Motor Show in October 1965 and intended as a replacement for the popular Triumph Herald. Its body was designed by Michelotti in a style similar to the larger Triumph 2000. It was replaced by the Triumph 1500, though it was also re-engineered in the early 1970s to provide the basis for the Toledo and Dolomite ranges.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Honda Pilot</span> Honda mid-size SUV

The Honda Pilot is a mid-size crossover SUV with three-row seating manufactured by Honda since 2002. Primarily aimed at the North American market, the Pilot is the largest SUV produced by Honda. Pilots are currently manufactured in Lincoln, Alabama, and the Pilot was produced in Alliston, Ontario until April 2007. The first generation Pilot was released in April 2002 as a 2003 model.

Two-wheel-drive (2WD) denotes vehicles with a drivetrain that allows two wheels to be driven, and receive power and torque from the engine, simultaneously.

Six-wheel drive

Six-wheel drive is an all-wheel drive drivetrain configuration of three axles with at least two wheels on each axle capable of being driven simultaneously by the vehicle's engine. Unlike four-wheel drive drivetrains, the configuration is largely confined to heavy-duty off-road and military vehicles, such as all-terrain vehicles, armored vehicles, and prime movers.

Torque steer is the unintended influence of engine torque on the steering, especially in front-wheel-drive vehicles. For example, during heavy acceleration, the steering may pull to one side, which may be disturbing to the driver. The effect is manifested either as a tugging sensation in the steering wheel, or a veering of the vehicle from the intended path. Torque steer is directly related to differences in the forces in the contact patches of the left and right drive wheels. The effect becomes more evident when high torques are applied to the drive wheels because of a high overall reduction ratio between the engine and wheels, high engine torque, or some combination of the two. Torque steer is distinct from steering kickback.

ATTESA is a four-wheel drive system used in some automobiles produced by the Japanese automaker Nissan, including some models under its luxury marque Infiniti.

The powertrain layout of a motorised vehicle such as a car is often defined by the location of the engine and drive wheels.

Front-engine, four-wheel-drive layout Automotive configuration

In automotive design, an F4, or front-engine, four-wheel drive (4WD) layout places the internal combustion engine at the front of the vehicle and drives all four roadwheels. This layout is typically chosen for better control on many surfaces, and is an important part of rally racing, as well as off-road driving. In terms of racing purposes, whether it be on-road or off-road, can be described as follows,

A team that pursues the Weak LS4WD architecture will minimize the development cost of the front-wheel drive system at the expense of having a larger rear powertrain. The Weak architecture produces a vehicle with a large powersplit between the front and rear powertrains, while the Strong architecture recommends a vehicle with more similar power and torque requirements for the front and rear.

All Wheel Control (AWC) is the brand name of a four-wheel drive (4WD) system developed by Mitsubishi Motors. The system was first incorporated in the 2001 Lancer Evolution VII. Subsequent developments have led to S-AWC, developed specifically for the new 2007 Lancer Evolution. The system is referred by the company as its unique 4-wheel drive technology umbrella, cultivated through its motor sports activities and long history in rally racing spanning almost half a century.

Eight-wheel drive Vehicle system with 8 powered wheels

Eight-wheel drive, often notated as 8WD or 8×8, is a drivetrain configuration that allows all eight wheels of an eight-wheeled vehicle to be drive wheels simultaneously. Unlike four-wheel drive drivetrains, the configuration is largely confined to heavy-duty off-road and military vehicles, such as all-terrain vehicles, armored vehicles, and prime movers. Other types of smaller 8x8 vehicles include such things as the Argocat.

Individual wheel drive

Individual-wheel drive or IWD is a wheeled vehicle with a drivetrain that allows all wheels to receive torque from several motors independent of each other. The term was coined to identify those electric vehicles whereby each wheel is driven by its own individual electric motor.

Torque vectoring is a technology employed in automobile differentials that has the ability to vary the torque to each half-shaft with an electronic system. This method of power transfer has recently become popular in all-wheel drive vehicles. Some newer front-wheel drive vehicles also have a basic torque vectoring differential. As technology in the automotive industry improves, more vehicles are equipped with torque vectoring differentials. This allows for the wheels to grip the road for better launch and handling.

All-wheel drive Powertrain providing power to all its wheels for use primarily on paved surfaces

An all-wheel drive vehicle is one with a powertrain capable of providing power to all its wheels, whether full-time or on-demand.

This glossary of automotive terms is a list of definitions of terms and concepts related to automobiles, including their parts, operation, and manufacture, as well as automotive engineering, auto repair, and the automotive industry in general. For more specific terminology regarding the design and classification of various automobile styles, see Glossary of automotive design; for terms related to transportation by road, see Glossary of road transport terms; for competitive auto racing, see Glossary of motorsport terms.