Drive wheel

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The rear driven wheels of a racing car throwing gravel Car 206 - Daniel Wall (3976965455).jpg
The rear driven wheels of a racing car throwing gravel
Differentials and drive shafts deliver torque to the front and rear wheels of a four-wheel drive truck Saginaw 9.5-inch axle.jpg
Differentials and drive shafts deliver torque to the front and rear wheels of a four-wheel drive truck

A drive wheel is a wheel of a motor vehicle that transmits force, transforming torque into tractive force from the tires to the road, causing the vehicle to move. The powertrain delivers enough torque to the wheel to overcome stationary forces, resulting in the vehicle moving forwards or backwards. [1] [2]

Contents

A two-wheel drive vehicle has two driven wheels, typically both at the front or back, while a four-wheel drive has four.

A steering wheel is a wheel that turns to change the direction of a vehicle. A trailer wheel is one that is neither a drive wheel, nor a steer wheel. Front-wheel drive vehicles typically have the rear wheels as trailer wheels.

Drive wheel configurations

Front-wheel drive

Front-wheel drive (FWD) vehicles' engines drive the front wheels. Using the front wheels for delivery of power as well as steering allows the driving force to act in the same direction as the wheel is pointing. [3] This layout is commonly used in modern passenger cars.

Opperman Motocart Opperman Motor Cart, Bolnhurst - geograph.org.uk - 1372387.jpg
Opperman Motocart

A rare example of front wheel drive was the Opperman Motocart. This slow-speed agricultural and light freight vehicle was a tricycle with the front wheel carrying a large tractor tyre. The wheel was powered by a small single cylinder Douglas engine carried on the front mono fork that formed the steering gear.

See also Front-engine, front-wheel drive layout.

Rear-wheel drive

Rear-wheel drive (RWD) typically places the engine in the front of the vehicle, with a driveshaft running the length of the vehicle to the differential transmission. However, mid engine and rear engine layouts can also be used.

It was a common layout used in automobiles throughout the 20th century. At this time, FWD designs were not practical due to complexity (in FWD, engine power and steering must both be combined in the front axle).

Two-wheel drive

For four-wheeled vehicles, two-wheel drive describes vehicles that transmit torque to at most two road wheels, referred to as either front- or rear-wheel drive. The term 4x2 is also used, to indicate four total road-wheels with two being driven.

For vehicles that have partial four-wheel drive, the term two-wheel drive refers to the mode when four-wheel drive is deactivated and torque is applied to only two wheels.

All-wheel drive

Four-wheel drive

This configuration allows all four road wheels to receive torque from the power plant simultaneously. It is often used in rally racing on mostly paved roads.

Four-wheel drive is common in off-road vehicles because powering all four wheels provides better control on loose and slippery surfaces. Four-wheel drive manufacturers have different systems such as "High Range 4WD" and "Low Range 4WD". These systems may provide added features such as a varying of torque distribution between axles or varying gear ratios. [4]

Common terms for this configuration include four-wheel drive, 4WD, 4x4 (pronounced "four-by-four"), integral, and all-wheel drive (AWD).

Six-wheel drive

Eight-wheel drive

Ten-wheel drive

U.S. Army's Oshkosh 10x10 M1075 Palletized Load System (PLS) Palletized load system.jpg
U.S. Army's Oshkosh 10x10 M1075 Palletized Load System (PLS)

Ten-wheel drive, 10WD or 10×10 is a drivetrain configuration of ten wheels, all of which are driven simultaneously by the engine. Unlike four-wheel drive drivetrains, this configuration is only used in extreme off-road and military uses, in particular heavy haulage and missile carriers. Some severe/extreme duty semi tractors may also have this drive configuration.

The Oshkosh M1074 and M1075 prime mover units in the U.S. Army's Palletized Load System (PLS), the U.S. Marine's 10x10 Oshkosh Logistic Vehicle System Replacement (LVSR), and the Tatra T816 10×10 cargo carrier are examples of ten-wheel drive vehicles.

10x10's are not as common as 4×4's, 6×6's and 8×8's.

Twelve-wheel drive

Twelve-wheel drive, often shortened to 12WD or 12×12, refers to a twelve-wheeled vehicle with a drivetrain that allows all twelve wheels to receive power from the engine simultaneously. This configuration is typically used in heavy-duty and extreme off-road and military purposes.

Notes

  1. "Driving wheel". thefreedictionary.com. Retrieved 13 July 2013. any wheel of a vehicle that transforms torque into a tractive force.
  2. Russ, Carey. "Driving Wheels: Introduction and Rear-Wheel Drive". The Auto Channel. Retrieved 13 July 2013.
  3. Hillier, V.A.W.; Coombes, Peter (2004). Hilliers Fundamentals of Motor Vehicle Technology (Fifth ed.). Nelson Thornes. p. 263. ISBN   9780748780822.
  4. "Jeep.ca". www.jeep.ca. Retrieved 25 July 2016.

See also

Related Research Articles

Axle Central shaft for a rotating wheel or gear

An axle or axletree is a central shaft for a rotating wheel or gear. On wheeled vehicles, the axle may be fixed to the wheels, rotating with them, or fixed to the vehicle, with the wheels rotating around the axle. In the former case, bearings or bushings are provided at the mounting points where the axle is supported. In the latter case, a bearing or bushing sits inside a central hole in the wheel to allow the wheel or gear to rotate around the axle. Sometimes, especially on bicycles, the latter type axle is referred to as a spindle.

Four-wheel drive Type of drivetrain with four driven wheels

Four-wheel drive, also called 4x4 or 4WD, refers to a two-axled vehicle drivetrain capable of providing torque to all of its wheels simultaneously. It may be full-time or on-demand, and is typically linked via a transfer case providing an additional output drive shaft and, in many instances, additional gear ranges.

Quattro (four-wheel-drive system)

quattro is the sub-brand used by the car brand Audi to indicate that all-wheel drive (AWD) technologies or systems are used on specific models of its Audi automobiles.

Front-engine, front-wheel-drive layout

In automotive design, an FF, or front-engine, front-wheel-drive (FWD) layout places both the internal combustion engine and driven roadwheels at the front of the vehicle.

Rear-engine, rear-wheel-drive layout

In automotive design, an RR, or rear-engine, rear-wheel-drive layout places both the engine and drive wheels at the rear of the vehicle. In contrast to the RMR layout, the center of mass of the engine is between the rear axle and the rear bumper. Although very common in transit buses and coaches due to the elimination of the drive shaft with low-floor bus, this layout has become increasingly rare in passenger cars.

Rear-wheel-drive (RWD) is a form of engine and transmission layout used in motor vehicles, where the engine drives the rear wheels only. Until the late 20th century, rear-wheel drive was the most common configuration for cars. Most rear-wheel drive vehicles feature a longitudinally-mounted engine at the front of the car.

Transfer case

A transfer case is a part of the drivetrain of four-wheel-drive, all-wheel-drive, and other multiple powered axle vehicles. The transfer case transfers power from the transmission to the front and rear axles by means of drive shafts. It also synchronizes the difference between the rotation of the front and rear wheels, and may contain one or more sets of low range gears for off-road use.

Transaxle

A transaxle is a single mechanical device which combines the functions of an automobile's transmission, axle, and differential into one integrated assembly. It can be produced in both manual and automatic versions.

Drive shaft Mechanical component for transmitting torque and rotation

A drive shaft, driveshaft, driving shaft, tailshaft, propeller shaft, or Cardan shaft is a vehicle component for transmitting mechanical power and torque and rotation, usually used to connect other components of a drivetrain that cannot be connected directly because of distance or the need to allow for relative movement between them.

Triumph 1300 Motor vehicle

The Triumph 1300 is a medium/small 4-door saloon car that was made between 1965 and 1970 by Standard Triumph in Coventry, England, under the control of Leyland Motors. It was introduced at the London Motor Show in October 1965 and intended as a replacement for the popular Triumph Herald. Its body was designed by Michelotti in a style similar to the larger Triumph 2000. It was replaced by the Triumph 1500, though it was also re-engineered in the early 1970s to provide the basis for the Toledo and Dolomite ranges.

Honda Pilot Honda mid-size SUV

The Honda Pilot is a mid-size crossover SUV manufactured by Honda and introduced in 2002.

Two-wheel-drive (2WD) denotes vehicles with a drivetrain that allows two wheels to be driven, and receive power and torque from the engine, simultaneously.

Six-wheel drive

Six-wheel drive is an all-wheel drive drivetrain configuration of three axles with at least two wheels on each axle capable of being driven simultaneously by the vehicle's engine. Unlike four-wheel drive drivetrains, the configuration is largely confined to heavy-duty off-road and military vehicles, such as all-terrain vehicles, armored vehicles, and prime movers.

Torque steer is the unintended influence of engine torque on the steering, especially in front-wheel-drive vehicles. For example, during heavy acceleration, the steering may pull to one side, which may be disturbing to the driver. The effect is manifested either as a tugging sensation in the steering wheel, or a veering of the vehicle from the intended path. Torque steer is directly related to differences in the forces in the contact patches of the left and right drive wheels. The effect becomes more evident when high torques are applied to the drive wheels either because of a high overall reduction ratio between the engine and wheels, high engine torque, or some combination of the two. Torque steer is distinct from steering kickback.

ATTESA is a four-wheel drive system used in some automobiles produced by the Japanese automaker Nissan, including some models under its luxury marque Infiniti.

The layout of a motorised vehicle such as a car is often defined by the location of the engine and drive wheels.

Front-engine, four-wheel-drive layout

In automotive design, an F4, or front-engine, four-wheel drive (4WD) layout places the internal combustion engine at the front of the vehicle and drives all four roadwheels. This layout is typically chosen for better control on many surfaces, and is an important part of rally racing, as well as off-road driving.

All Wheel Control (AWC) is the brand name of a four-wheel drive (4WD) system developed by Mitsubishi Motors. The system was first incorporated in the 2001 Lancer Evolution VII. Subsequent developments have led to S-AWC, developed specifically for the new 2007 Lancer Evolution. The system is referred by the company as its unique 4-wheel drive technology umbrella, cultivated through its motor sports activities and long history in rally racing spanning almost half a century.

Eight-wheel drive

Eight-wheel drive, often notated as 8WD or 8×8, is a drivetrain configuration that allows all eight wheels of an eight-wheeled vehicle to be drive wheels simultaneously. Unlike four-wheel drive drivetrains, the configuration is largely confined to heavy-duty off-road and military vehicles, such as all-terrain vehicles, armored vehicles, and prime movers. Other types of smaller 8x8 vehicles include such things as the Argocat.

All-wheel drive

An all-wheel drive vehicle is one with a powertrain capable of providing power to all its wheels, whether full-time or on-demand.