White bass

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White bass
White Bass.jpg
White bass
Scientific classification Red Pencil Icon.png
Kingdom: Animalia
Phylum: Chordata
Class: Actinopterygii
Order: Perciformes
Family: Moronidae
Genus: Morone
Species:
M. chrysops
Binomial name
Morone chrysops
(Rafinesque, 1820)
Synonyms
  • Perca chrysopsRafinesque, 1820
  • Lepibema chrysops(Rafinesque, 1820)
  • Roccus chrysops(Rafinesque, 1820)
  • Labrax albidusDeKay, 1842
  • Labrax osculatiiDe Filippi, 1853

The white bass, silver bass, or sand bass (Morone chrysops) is a freshwater fish of the temperate bass family Moronidae. commonly around 12-15 inches long. The species' main color is silver-white to pale green. Its back is dark, with white sides and belly, and with narrow dark stripes running lengthwise on its sides. It has large, rough scales and two dorsal fins. They are widely distributed across North America, inhabiting large reservoirs and rivers. When mating in the spring, they are more often found in shallow rivers, creeks, and streams. They have been introduced in some places as sport fish and also to predate on nuisance fish, such as gizzard shad. It is the state fish of Oklahoma.

Contents

Range

White bass are distributed widely across the United States, particularly in the Midwest. They are very abundant in Pennsylvania and the area around Lake Erie. Some native ranges of the white bass are the Arkansas River, western Lake Erie, the Detroit River, and Lake Poinsett in South Dakota; they are abundant in the Winnebago lakes system of Wisconsin; and they are also very abundant in Oklahoma. [2] White bass have also been found in rivers that flow to the Mississippi. Native to many northern habitats, they have been introduced in many different waters around the United States, particularly in southern locations. They were also successfully introduced to Manitoba starting in the 1960s, where they have gained importance as a sport fish.[ citation needed ]

Description

A white bass, caught in Grosse Pointe Woods, MI. White Bass, Caught and Released.JPG
A white bass, caught in Grosse Pointe Woods, MI.

The species' main color is silver-white to pale green. Its back is dark, with white sides and belly, and with narrow dark stripes running lengthwise on its sides. It has large, rough scales and two dorsal fins. The more anterior dorsal fin is much harder and appears to have spines on them. Although these are not true spines, this type of fin is called a spinous ray. The more posterior of the two dorsal fins is much softer, and is thus called a soft-ray. Because the vertebrae do not extend into the tail, the white bass has what is called a homocercal tail. The body is deep and compressed laterally. [3] Most grow to a length between 10 and 12 inches (25 and 30 cm), though they can reach 17 inches (43 cm) or more.[ citation needed ] Because the dorsal and ventral portions of its tail angle inward toward a point to create a clear angle, the tail is said to be notched.

The record size for white bass caught on fishing tackle is 6 pounds 13 ounces (3.1 kg) shared by fish caught in 1989 in Orange Lake, Orange, Virginia, and in 2010 in Amite River, Louisiana. [4]

Diet

White bass are carnivores. They have four main taxa in their diet: calanoid copepods, cyclopoid copepods, daphnia, and leptodora. [5] They are visual feeders. When not frightened, they will bite readily at live bait such as worms and minnows. Only the largest fish will feed on other fish, and as the summer season progresses, there is an overall trend towards eating fewer fish. [5] Fish that are able to accumulate lipids over the summer are better able to survive cold winters. When looking at midwestern white bass, particularly in South Dakota, diet overlap occurs between the bass and the walleye. As seasons progress through the summer and fall, the amount of diet overlap decreases as a result of both fish increasing in length. [6]

Habitat

White bass are found in high densities in the upstream segment of rivers. This portion of the river becomes the most degraded, as a number of different kinds of fish live in this segment, as well. [7] [8]

Reproduction

The spawning season for the white bass is mid-March to late May. The optimal water temperatures are 12 to 20 °C (54 to 68 °F). They are known to find their home spawning ground even if it is moved to a different part of the same lake. [9] They often spawn in moving water in a tributary stream, but they will spawn in windswept lake shores. [9] They spawn during daylight. Females release 242,000 to 933,000 eggs which stick to the surface of objects. [9] Eggs are laid in clear, relatively shallow water on plants, submerged logs, gravel, or rocks. [10] The parents move to deeper water and do not care for the young fish. The young fish live in shallow water for a while until they move to deeper water. [9]

When trying to find a female with whom to mate, males will bump against a female's abdominal area. The female will then rise closer to the surface and begin spinning and releasing eggs. Several males that have stayed in the area will be able to fertilize the eggs the female releases. [11]


Related Research Articles

White perch Species of fish

The white perch is not a true perch but is, rather, a fish of the temperate bass family, Moronidae, notable as a food and game fish in eastern North America. In some locales it is referred to incorrectly as "Silver Bass".

Quillback Species of fish

The quillback, also known as the quillback carpsucker, is a type of freshwater fish of the sucker family widely distributed throughout North America. It is deeper-bodied than most suckers, leading to a carplike appearance. It can be distinguished from carp by the lack of barbels around the mouth. The quillback is long-lived, with age beyond 50 years documented.

Bluegill Species of fish

The bluegill is a species of freshwater fish sometimes referred to as "bream", "brim", "sunny", or "copper nose" or "perch" as is common in Texas. It is a member of the sunfish family Centrarchidae of the order Perciformes. It is native to North America and lives in streams, rivers, lakes, and ponds. It is commonly found east of the Rockies. It usually hides around and inside old tree stumps and other underwater structures. It can live in either deep or very shallow water, and will often move from one to the other depending on the time of day or season. Bluegills also like to find shelter among aquatic plants and in the shade of trees along banks.

Black crappie Species of fish

The black crappie is a freshwater fish found in North America, one of the two crappies. It is very similar to the white crappie in size, shape, and habits, except that it is darker, with a pattern of black spots.

Rock bass Species of freshwater fish

The rock bass, also known as the rock perch, goggle-eye, red eye, is a freshwater fish native to east-central North America. This red eyed creature is a species of freshwater fish in the sunfish family (Centrarchidae) of order Perciformes and can be distinguished from other similar species by the six spines in the anal fin.

Yellow perch Species of fish

The yellow perch, commonly referred to as perch, striped perch, American perch,American river perch or preacher is a freshwater perciform fish native to much of North America. The yellow perch was described in 1814 by Samuel Latham Mitchill from New York. It is closely related, and morphologically similar to the European perch ; and is sometimes considered a subspecies of its European counterpart. Other common names for yellow perch include American perch, coontail, lake perch, raccoon perch, ring-tail perch, ringed perch, and striped perch. Another nickname for the perch is the Dodd fish.

Green sunfish Species of fish

The green sunfish is a species of Freshwater fish in the sunfish family (Centrarchidae) of order Perciformes. A panfish popular with anglers, the green sunfish is also kept as an aquarium fish by hobbyists. They are usually caught by accident, while fishing for other game fish. Green sunfish can be caught with live bait such as nightcrawlers, waxworms, mealworms, and blood worms. Grocery store baits such as pieces of hot dog or corn kernels can even catch fish. Green sunfish are aggressive and will hit small lures. They can be caught with fly fishing tackle.

Sauger Species of fish

The sauger is a freshwater perciform fish of the family Percidae that resembles its close relative, the walleye. The species is a member of the largest vertebrate order, the Perciformes. It is the most migratory percid species in North America. Saugers have two dorsal fins; the first is spiny and the posterior dorsal fin is soft-rayed. Their paired fins are in the thoracic position and their caudal fin is truncated, which means squared off at the corners, a characteristic of the family Percidae. Another physical characteristic of saugers is their ctenoid scales, which are common in advanced fishes. Saugers have a fusiform body structure, and as a result are well adapted predatory fishes and are capable of swimming into fast currents with minimal drag on their bodies. They may be distinguished from walleyes by the distinctly spotted dorsal fin, by the lack of a white splotch on the caudal fin, by the rough skin over their gills, and by their generally more brassy color, or darker color in some regions. The typical sauger is 300 to 400 g in weight.

Yellow bass Species of fish

Morone mississippiensis, commonly known as the yellow bass, is a member of the family Moronidae. This species is a deep bodied fish that possesses five to seven dark stripes laterally along the sides, the lowest few of these are often broken or disrupted anterior to the origin of the anal fin. This species is somewhat similar to two other species in the family Moronidae, the white bass and the striped bass. The yellow bass is distinguishable from both of these species by having the offset lateral stripes above the anal fin and from not possessing tooth patches on the tongue. The yellow bass differs further from the white bass by having nine to ten anal rays in comparison to eleven or thirteen. The back of the fish is usually a dark olive green, and the abdomen and sides are often a silvery yellow.

Silver redhorse Species of fish

The silver redhorse is a species of freshwater fish endemic to Canada and the United States. Sometimes called redhorse or sucker for short, it is in the family Catostomidae with other suckers. The species is distributed from Quebec to Alberta and is also in the Mississippi River, St. Lawrence River, Ohio River, and the Great Lakes basins. The current world record is 14 pounds, 14 ounces, caught by Chris Stephenson on Pickwick Lake in Alabama, April 1995 and certified by National Freshwater Fishing Hall of Fame.

Emerald shiner Species of fish

The emerald shiner is one of hundreds of small, silvery, slender fish species known as shiners. The identifying characteristic of the emerald shiner is the silvery emerald color on its sides. It can grow to 3.5 inches in length and is found across North America from Canada to the Gulf of Mexico, commonly in large, deep lakes and rivers, though sometimes in smaller bodies of water as well. It feeds on small organisms such as zooplankton and insects, congregating in large groups near the surface of the water. It is a quite common fish and is often used as a bait fish.

Hybrid striped bass Hybrid fish

A hybrid striped bass, also known as a wiper or whiterock bass, is a hybrid between the striped bass and the white bass. It can be distinguished from the striped bass by broken rather than solid horizontal stripes on the body. Hybrid striped bass are considered better suited for culture in ponds than either parent species because they are more resilient to extremes of temperature and to low dissolved oxygen.

Japanese sea bass Species of fish

The Japanese sea bass is a species of catadromous marine ray-finned fish from the Asian sea bass family Lateolabracidae which is found in the Western Pacific. In Japan this species is known as suzuki (鱸).

Johnny darter Species of fish

The johnny darter is a species of freshwater ray-finned fish, a darter from the subfamily Etheostomatinae, part of the family Percidae, which also contains the perches, ruffes and pikeperches. It is native to shallow waters throughout North America east of the Rocky Mountains.

Pugnose shiner Species of fish

The pugnose shiner is a species of ray-finned fish in the genus Notropis. It is in the family Cyprinidae which consists of freshwater carps and minnows. Cyprinidae is the largest fish family which consists of about 369 genera and 3,018 species. Its distribution has been decreasing due to the removal of aquatic plants in order to create swimming beaches and boating access in freshwater lakes and is now mostly found in Minnesota, Wisconsin, and Michigan.

<i>Etheostoma exile</i> Species of fish

Etheostoma exile, the Iowa darter, is a species of freshwater ray-finned fish, a darter from the subfamily Etheostomatinae, part of the family Percidae, which also contains the perches, ruffes and pikeperches. It is, along with about 17 other species of darters, is native to the lakes and streams of Iowa.

Creek chubsucker Species of freshwater fish

The creek chubsucker is a freshwater fish of the sucker family (Catostomidae).

Percina shumardi is a benthic species of freshwater ray-finned fish, a darter from the subfamily Etheostomatinae, part of the family Percidae, which also contains the perches, ruffes and pikeperches. It is native to North America. It is an inhabitant of small and medium rivers where it occurs in rocky riffles with clear, fast-flowing water. The river darter can reach up to 7.3 cm in length and has an average lifespan of three years. It can be distinguished from other darters by its unique front and rear spots on the dorsal fin.

Gulf pipefish Species of fish

The Gulf pipefish is a member of the family Sygnathidae.

<i>Percopsis omiscomaycus</i> Species of fish

Percopsis omiscomaycus also known as the trout-perch, the grounder or the sand minnow, is one of two species in the family Percopsidae. They are freshwater fish that prefer clear to slightly turbid water. They are most often seen washed up on beaches and are rarely seen alive or correctly identified. They are found in rivers and lakes throughout North America. Its name comes from the Greek root words perc, meaning perch and opsi meaning appearance. The species name omiscomaycus is thought to be derived from a Native American word meaning trout. The trout-perch possess characteristics similar to both the trout and the perch. They are an important source of food for many predator fish such as walleye, northern pike, and lake trout. They are a generally small fish found in deep waters by day, but which migrate to shallower waters at night. They are not a major human fishery, but are occasionally used as a bait fish.

References

  1. NatureServe 2013. Morone chrysops . In: IUCN 2013. IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2013.2. <www.iucnredlist.org>. Downloaded on 15 February 2014.
  2. David W. Willis; Craig P. Partaker; Brian G. Blackwell (May 2002). "Biology of White Bass in Eastern South Dakota Glacial Lakes". North American Journal of Fisheries Management. 22 (2): 627–636. doi:10.1577/1548-8675(2002)022<0627:BOWBIE>2.0.CO;2.
  3. "Temperate Basses". Pennsylvania Fish and Boat Commission. Commonwealth of Pennsylvania. Retrieved 26 April 2011.
  4. http://www.wrec.igfa.org/WRecordsList.aspx?lc+AllTackle&cn=Bass, white, accessed 27 Mar 2013
  5. 1 2 W.J. Eckmayer; F.J. Margraf (June 2004). "The influence of diet, consumption, and lipid use on recruitment of white bass". Lakes and Reservoirs: Research and Management. 9 (2): 133–141. doi:10.1111/j.1320-5331.2004.00239.x.
  6. D.W. Willis; C.P. Paukert; B.G. Blackwell (2002). "Biology of White Bass in Eastern South Dakota Glacial Lakes". North American Journal of Fisheries Management. 22 (2): 627–636. doi:10.1577/1548-8675(2002)022<0627:bowbie>2.0.co;2.
  7. N.W.R Lapointe; L.D. Torkum; N.E. Mandrak (Feb 2010). "Macrohabitat associations of fishes in shallow waters of the Detroit River". Journal of Fish Biology. 76 (3): 446–466. doi:10.1111/j.1095-8649.2009.02470.x. PMID   20666890.
  8. "Texas Weekend Angler" . Retrieved 3 May 2011.
  9. 1 2 3 4 University of Wisconsin Sea Grant Institute; February 2, 2006; Retrieved June 5, 2008
  10. "Texas Freshwater Fishes". Archived from the original on 10 September 2011. Retrieved 3 May 2011.
  11. Assessment of Balon's reproductive guilds with application to Midwestern North American Freshwater Fishes. CRC Press. 1999. ISBN   978-0-8493-4007-9.