1919 World Series

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1919 World Series
1919 blacksox.jpg
1919 Chicago White Sox team photo
Team (Wins)Manager(s) Season
Cincinnati Reds (5) Pat Moran 96–44, .686, GA: 9
Chicago White Sox (3) Kid Gleason 88–52, .629, GA: 3 12
Dates October 1–9
Umpires Cy Rigler (NL), Billy Evans (AL), Ernie Quigley (NL), Dick Nallin (AL)
Hall of FamersUmpire: Billy Evans.
Reds: Edd Roush.
White Sox: Eddie Collins, Red Faber (did not play), Ray Schalk.
Broadcast
  1918 World Series 1920  

The 1919 World Series matched the American League champion Chicago White Sox against the National League champion Cincinnati Reds. Although most World Series have been of the best-of-seven format, the 1919 World Series was a best-of-nine series (along with 1903, 1920, and 1921). Baseball decided to try the best-of-nine format partly to increase popularity of the sport and partly to generate more revenue. [1]

American League Baseball league, part of Major League Baseball

The American League of Professional Baseball Clubs, or simply the American League (AL), is one of two leagues that make up Major League Baseball (MLB) in the United States and Canada. It developed from the Western League, a minor league based in the Great Lakes states, which eventually aspired to major league status. It is sometimes called the Junior Circuit because it claimed Major League status for the 1901 season, 25 years after the formation of the National League.

The 1919 Chicago White Sox season was their 19th season in the American League. They won 88 games to advance to the World Series but lost to the Cincinnati Reds. More significantly, some of the players were found to have taken money from gamblers in return for throwing the series. The "Black Sox Scandal" had permanent ramifications for baseball, including the establishment of the office of Commissioner of Baseball.

National League Baseball league, part of Major League Baseball

The National League of Professional Baseball Clubs, known simply as the National League (NL), is the older of two leagues constituting Major League Baseball (MLB) in the United States and Canada, and the world's oldest current professional team sports league. Founded on February 2, 1876, to replace the National Association of Professional Base Ball Players (NAPBBP) of 1871–1875,, the NL is sometimes called the Senior Circuit, in contrast to MLB's other league, the American League, which was founded 25 years later.

Contents

The events of the series are often associated with the Black Sox Scandal, when several members of the Chicago franchise conspired with gamblers, allegedly led by Arnold Rothstein, to throw the World Series games. The 1919 World Series was the last World Series to take place without a Commissioner of Baseball in place. In 1920, the various franchise owners installed Kenesaw Mountain Landis as the first "Commissioner of Baseball." In August 1921, despite being acquitted from criminal charges, eight players from the White Sox were banned from organized baseball for fixing the series (or having knowledge about the fix). [2]

Black Sox Scandal

The Black Sox Scandal was a Major League Baseball match fixing incident in which eight members of the Chicago White Sox were accused of intentionally losing the 1919 World Series against the Cincinnati Reds in exchange for money from a gambling syndicate led by Arnold Rothstein. The fallout from the scandal resulted in the appointment of Judge Kenesaw Mountain Landis as the first Commissioner of Baseball, granting him absolute control over the sport in order to restore its integrity.

Gambling wagering of money on a game of chance or event with an uncertain outcome

Gambling is the wagering of money or something of value on an event with an uncertain outcome, with the primary intent of winning money or material goods. Gambling thus requires three elements be present: consideration, risk (chance), and a prize. The outcome of the wager is often immediate, such as a single roll of dice, a spin of a roulette wheel, or a horse crossing the finish line, but longer time frames are also common, allowing wagers on the outcome of a future sports contest or even an entire sports season.

Arnold Rothstein Jewish American mobster

Arnold Rothstein nicknamed "the Brain", was an American racketeer, businessman and gambler who became a kingpin of the Jewish mob in New York City. Rothstein was widely reputed to have organized corruption in professional athletics, including conspiring to fix the 1919 World Series.

The Teams

The Chicago White Sox

In 1917, the Sox won the World Series and, managed by William "Kid" Gleason, the 1919 Chicago White Sox had the best record in the American League. Team owner Charlie Comiskey had succeeded in building one of the most powerful teams in baseball. [3] Most of the same players had defeated the New York Giants in the 1917 World Series, four games to two. They had fallen to sixth place in the American League in 1918, largely as a result of losing their best player, Shoeless Joe Jackson, and a few of his teammates as well, to World War I service. Comiskey fired manager Pants Rowland after the season, replacing him with Kid Gleason, who had played over twenty years in the majors but had never managed before. The 88–52 White Sox won the American League pennant again in 1919, by 3 12 games over the Cleveland Indians (world champions the following year).

The 1917 New York Giants season was the franchise's 35th season. It involved the Giants winning the National League pennant for the first time in four years. The team went on to lose to the Chicago White Sox in the 1917 World Series, four games to two.

1917 World Series 1917 Major League Baseball championship series

In the 1917 World Series, the Chicago White Sox beat the New York Giants four games to two. The Series was played against the backdrop of World War I, which dominated the American newspapers that year and next.

Shoeless Joe Jackson American baseball player

Joseph Jefferson Jackson, nicknamed "Shoeless Joe", was an American star outfielder who played Major League Baseball (MLB) in the early 1900s. He is remembered for his performance on the field and for his alleged association with the Black Sox Scandal, in which members of the 1919 Chicago White Sox participated in a conspiracy to fix the World Series. As a result of Jackson's association with the scandal, Kenesaw Mountain Landis, Major League Baseball's first commissioner, banned Jackson from playing after the 1920 season despite exceptional play in the 1919 World Series, leading both teams in several statistical categories and setting a World Series record with 12 base hits. Since then, Jackson's guilt has been fiercely debated with new accounts claiming his innocence, urging Major League Baseball to reconsider his banishment. As a result of the scandal, Jackson's career was abruptly halted in his prime, ensuring him a place in baseball lore.

Joe Jackson Shoeless Joe Jackson by Conlon, 1913.jpeg
Joe Jackson

Jackson was the unquestioned star of the team. The left fielder hit .351 that season, fourth in the league and in the AL's top five in slugging percentage, RBI, total bases and base hits. He was not the only star in a lineup with hardly a weak spot, as former A's superstar leadoff hitter Eddie Collins, one of the greatest second basemen of all time, [4] was still going strong in his early thirties, hitting .319 with a .400 on-base percentage. Right fielder Nemo Leibold hit .302 with 81 runs scored. First baseman Chick Gandil hit .290, third baseman Buck Weaver .296, and center fielder Oscar "Hap" Felsch hit .275 and tied Jackson for the team lead in home runs with only 7 (as the dead-ball era was coming to a close). Even typical "good field, no hit" catcher Ray Schalk hit .282 that year, and shortstop Swede Risberg was not an automatic out with the .256 average and 38 RBI. Manager Gleason's bench contained two impressive hitters, outfielder Shano Collins and infielder Fred McMullin, both veterans of the 1917 world championship.

Oakland Athletics Baseball team and Major League Baseball franchise in Oakland, California, United States

The Oakland Athletics, often referred to as the A's, are an American professional baseball team based in Oakland, California. They compete in Major League Baseball (MLB) as a member club of the American League (AL) West division. The team plays its home games at the Oakland–Alameda County Coliseum. They have won nine World Series championships, tied for the third-most of all current MLB teams. The 2018 season was the club's 50th while based in Oakland.

Eddie Collins American baseball player

Edward Trowbridge Collins Sr., nicknamed "Cocky", was an American professional baseball player, manager and executive. He played as a second baseman in Major League Baseball from 1906 to 1930 for the Philadelphia Athletics and Chicago White Sox. A graduate of Columbia University, Collins holds major league career records in several categories and is among the top few players in several other categories. In 1925, Collins became just the sixth person to join the 3,000 hit club – and the last for the next 17 seasons.

Nemo Leibold American baseball player

Harry Loran "Nemo" Leibold was an outfielder in Major League Baseball from 1913 to 1925. He played for the Cleveland Naps, Chicago White Sox, Boston Red Sox, and Washington Senators. He stood at 5 ft 6 in (1.68 m) and was nicknamed for the comic strip character Little Nemo.

The 1919 pennant-winning pitching staff was led by a pair of aces and a very promising rookie. Knuckleballer Eddie Cicotte had become one of the AL's best pitchers after turning 30 and discovering the "shine ball;" he had won 28 games for the 1917 champions, and after an off-year in 1918 had come back with a hefty 29–7, leading the league in wins and second in earned run average to Washington's veteran "Big Train" Walter Johnson. Next came Claude "Lefty" Williams, at 23–11 and 2.64. Twenty-six-year-old rookie Dickie Kerr started only 17 games, but turned in a solid 13–7 and 2.88. Fourth in the rotation was Urban "Red" Faber, who had beaten the Giants three times in the 1917 World Series but had an off-year in 1919 at 11–9 and 3.83 in 20 starts. He was ill and unable to pitch in the Series, limiting Gleason to three top-of-the-line starters for what could be nine games.

Eddie Cicotte Major League Baseball pitcher

Edward Victor Cicotte, nicknamed "Knuckles", was an American right-handed pitcher in Major League Baseball best known for his time with the Chicago White Sox. He was one of eight players permanently ineligible for professional baseball for his alleged participation in the Black Sox scandal in the 1919 World Series, in which the favored White Sox lost to the Cincinnati Reds in eight games. The "fixing" of the 1919 World Series is the only recognized gambling scandal to tarnish a World Series.

Earned run average

In baseball statistics, earned run average (ERA) is the mean of earned runs given up by a pitcher per nine innings pitched. It is determined by dividing the number of earned runs allowed by the number of innings pitched and multiplying by nine. Runs resulting from defensive errors are recorded as unearned runs and omitted from ERA calculations.

Walter Johnson American baseball player

Walter Perry Johnson, nicknamed "Barney" and "The Big Train", was a Major League Baseball right-handed pitcher. He played his entire 21-year baseball career for the Washington Senators (1907–1927). He later served as manager of the Senators from 1929 through 1932 and for the Cleveland Indians from 1933 through 1935.

However, all was not well in the White Sox camp. Tension between many of the players and owner Comiskey was quite high, given his penny-pinching ways memorialized in two urban legends: (1) that he told Gleason to shut down Cicotte in the last days of the regular season to prevent him from winning 30 games, a milestone which would have earned him a sizeable $10,000 bonus; (2) that many derided the White Sox as the Black Sox because Comiskey wouldn't pay to have their uniforms laundered regularly, and they became blacker and blacker due to accumulated sweat, grime, and dirt.

An urban legend, urban myth, urban tale, or contemporary legend is a form of modern folklore. It usually consists of fictional stories, often presented as true, with macabre or humorous elements, rooted in local popular culture. These legends can be used for entertainment purposes, as well as semi-serious explanations for random events such as disappearances and strange objects.

The Cincinnati Reds

In contrast to the White Sox, the 1919 Cincinnati Reds were upstarts. They had finished no higher than third since 1900, and then only twice, before winning the NL pennant handily in 1919. Under new manager Pat Moran, best known as the leader of another bunch of unlikely newcomers to the World Series, the 1915 Philadelphia Phillies, the Reds finished nine games in front of the runner-up New York Giants at 96–44 and at least 20 games ahead of the other six, with the second highest NL won-lost percentage since 1910 at .686.

Edd Roush Edd Roush Baseball.jpg
Edd Roush

Their greatest star was center fielder Edd Roush, who led the league in hitting at .321 and, like the White Sox's Jackson, was in the top five of their respective leagues in most important hitting categories. Third baseman Heinie Groh was the other great hitter on the team at .310 with a .392 on-base percentage and 79 runs scored. Slick-fielding first baseman Jake Daubert, a two-time National League batting champion with Brooklyn earlier in the decade, also scored 79 runs and hit .276, while catcher Ivey Wingo hit .273. The rest of the team was unheralded, including second baseman Morrie Rath, a .264 hitter with no power but a good on-base percentage, and shortstop Larry Kopf, a .270 singles hitter. The corner outfielders were decidedly weaker hitters, with former Phillies star left fielder Sherry Magee's .215 in 56 games and right fielder Earle "Greasy" Neale's .242 with little power. This would prompt Moran to start rookie Pat Duncan in left field in the World Series.

The Reds' pitching was universally solid, however. The team's big three included Hod Eller (20–9, 2.39), Dutch Ruether (19–6, 1.82) and Slim Sallee (21–7, 2.06), all among the league leaders in various categories. They were backed by three other pitchers who were almost as successful: Jimmy Ring at only 10–9 but 2.26, Ray Fisher at 14–5 and 2.17 with five shutouts, and Cuban Dolf Luque at 10–3 and 2.63, former and future Giant who would win the last game of the 1933 World Series in long relief for New York. It was a deep and talented staff, a definite advantage in a Series whose format had just been changed from best of seven to best of nine.

The fix

The conspirators got an unexpected assist when flu-stricken Faber was left off the World Series roster. Indeed, years later catcher Schalk said that had Faber been healthy, there never would have been a fix (since he almost certainly would have gotten starts that went to Cicotte and/or Williams). [5] Despite their many wins on the field, the White Sox were an unhappy team. No club played better in 1919, but few were paid so poorly. Many knowledgeable observers believe that it was Comiskey's stinginess that is largely to blame for the Black Sox scandal.

Stories of the "Black Sox" scandal have usually included Comiskey in its gallery of subsidiary villains, focusing in particular on his intentions regarding a clause in Cicotte's contract that would have paid Cicotte an additional $10,000 bonus for winning 30 games. According to Eliot Asinof's account of the events, Eight Men Out, Cicotte was "rested" for the season's final two weeks after reaching his 29th win presumably to deny him the bonus, but the truth may be more complex. Cicotte won his 29th game on September 19, had an ineffective start on September 24 and was pulled after a few innings in a tuneup on the season's final day, September 28 (three days before the Series opener). In addition, Cicotte reportedly agreed to the fix the same day he won his 29th game before he could have known of any efforts to deny him a chance to win his 30th. [6] The story was probably true with regard to the 1917 season, however, when Cicotte won 28 games and hurled the White Sox to the world championship.

Although rumors were swirling among the gamblers (according to Tom Meany in his chapter on the 1919 Reds in "Baseball's Greatest Teams," "Cincinnati money was pouring in" even though the White Sox were regarded as the overwhelming favorite) and some of the press, most fans and observers were taking the Series at face value. On October 2, the day of Game 2, the Philadelphia Bulletin published a poem which would quickly prove to be ironic:

Still, it really doesn't matter,
After all, who wins the flag.
Good clean sport is what we're after,
And we aim to make our brag
To each near or distant nation
Whereon shines the sporting sun
That of all our games gymnastic
Base ball is the cleanest one!

Summary

1919WorldSeries.png

NL Cincinnati Reds (5) vs. AL Chicago White Sox (3)

GameDateScoreLocationTimeAttendance 
1October 1Chicago White Sox – 1, Cincinnati Reds – 9 Redland Field 1:4230,511 [7]  
2October 2Chicago White Sox – 2, Cincinnati Reds – 4Redland Field1:4229,698 [8]  
3October 3Cincinnati Reds – 0, Chicago White Sox – 3 Comiskey Park 1:3029,126 [9]  
4October 4Cincinnati Reds – 2, Chicago White Sox – 0Comiskey Park1:3734,363 [10]  
5October 6Cincinnati Reds – 5, Chicago White Sox – 0Comiskey Park1:4534,379 [11]  
6October 7Chicago White Sox – 5, Cincinnati Reds – 4 (10 innings)Redland Field2:0632,006 [12]  
7October 8Chicago White Sox – 4, Cincinnati Reds – 1Redland Field1:4713,923 [13]  
8October 9Cincinnati Reds – 10, Chicago White Sox – 5Comiskey Park2:2732,930 [14]

Matchups

Game 1

Eddie Cicotte EddieCicotte55.jpg
Eddie Cicotte
Wednesday, October 1, 1919 3:00 pm (ET) at Redland Field in Cincinnati, Ohio
Team123456789 R H E
Chicago010000000161
Cincinnati10050021X9141
WP: Walter "Dutch" Ruether (1–0)   LP: Eddie Cicotte (0–1)

The first game began at 3 pm at Cincinnati's Redland Field, with 30,511 fans in the stands and ticket scalpers outside the park raking in at least $50 per ticket. Chicago failed to score in the top of the first. In the bottom of the inning, Cicotte (who was paid his $10,000 the night before the series began) took the mound and hit the leadoff hitter, Morrie Rath, in the back with his second pitch, a prearranged signal to Arnold Rothstein that the fix was on. Even so, the game remained close for a while, due in part to some excellent defense from the conspirators, seeking to deflect suspicion from themselves. In the fourth, however, Cicotte "went haywire" (again according to Meany, op. cit.), allowing a number of hits in succession climaxed by a two-out triple to the opposing pitcher, as the Reds scored five times to break a 1–1 tie. Cicotte was relieved at that point, but the damage was done and the Reds went on to add three more runs in later innings and triumph 9–1.

By that evening, there already were signs that things were going wrong. Only Cicotte, who had shrewdly demanded his $10,000 in advance, had been paid. "Sleepy" Bill Burns and Maharg met with Abe Attell, former world boxing champ and Rothstein's intermediary, but he withheld the next installment ($20,000) nonetheless to bet on the next game. The next morning Gandil met Attell and again demanded money, but again to no avail.

Game 2

Thursday, October 2, 1919 3:00 pm (ET) at Redland Field in Cincinnati, Ohio
Team123456789 R H E
Chicago0000002002101
Cincinnati00030100X443
WP: Harry "Slim" Sallee (1–0)   LP: Lefty Williams (0–1)

Although they had not received their money, the players were still willing to go through with the fix. "Lefty" Williams, the starting pitcher in Game 2, was not going to be as obvious as Cicotte. After a shaky start, he pitched well until the fourth inning, when he walked three and gave up as many runs. After that he became virtually unhittable again, giving up only one more run; but lack of clutch-hitting, with Gandil a particularly guilty party, led to a 4–2 White Sox loss. Attell was still in no mood to pay up afterwards, but Burns managed to get hold of $10,000 and gave it to Gandil, who distributed it among the conspirators. The teams headed north to Comiskey Park in Chicago for Game 3 the next day, with no days off for travel in this Series.

Game 3

Friday, October 3, 1919 2:00 pm (CT) at Comiskey Park in Chicago, Illinois
Team123456789 R H E
Cincinnati000000000031
Chicago02010000X370
WP: Dickie Kerr (1–0)   LP: Ray Fisher (0–1)

Rookie pitcher Dickie Kerr, the Game 3 starter for the Sox, was not in on the fix. The original plan was for the conspirators, who disliked Kerr, to lose this game; but by now dissent among the players meant that the plan was in disarray. Burns still had faith and gathered the last of his resources to bet on Cincinnati. It was a decision that would leave him broke, as Chicago scored early—Gandil himself driving in two runs—and Kerr was masterful, holding the Reds to three hits in a 3–0 complete game shutout.

Game 4

Saturday, October 4, 1919 2:00 pm (CT) at Comiskey Park in Chicago, Illinois
Team123456789 R H E
Cincinnati000020000252
Chicago000000000032
WP: Jimmy Ring (1–0)   LP: Eddie Cicotte (0–2)

Cicotte, the Game 4 White Sox starter, was determined not to look as bad as he had in Game 1. For the first four innings, he and Reds pitcher Jimmy Ring matched zeroes. With one out in the fifth, Cicotte fielded a slow roller by Pat Duncan but threw wildly to first for a two-base error. The next man up, Larry Kopf, singled to left; Cicotte cut off the throw from Jackson and fumbled the ball, allowing Duncan to score. The home crowd was stunned by the veteran pitcher's obvious mistake. When he then gave up a double to Greasy Neale scoring Kopf to make it 2–0, that was enough of a lead for Ring, who threw a three-hit shutout of his own matching Kerr's in Game 3. The Reds led the Series 3–1.

After the game "Sport" Sullivan came through with $20,000 for the players, which Gandil split equally among Risberg, Felsch, and Williams, who was due to start Game 5 the next day.

Game 5

Monday, October 6, 1919 2:00 pm (CT) at Comiskey Park in Chicago, Illinois
Team123456789 R H E
Cincinnati000004001540
Chicago000000000033
WP: Hod Eller (1–0)   LP: Lefty Williams (0–2)

Game 5 was postponed by rain for a day. Both starters, Williams and Cincinnati's Hod Eller, pitched excellently at first, with neither allowing a runner past first until the top of the sixth, when Eller himself hit a blooper that fell between Felsch and Jackson. Felsch's throw was off-line, sending Eller all the way to third. Leadoff hitter Morrie Rath hit a single over the drawn-in infield, scoring Eller. Heinie Groh walked before Edd Roush's double—the result of more doubtful defense from Felsch brought home two more runs, with Roush scoring shortly thereafter. Eller pitched well enough (he struck out nine batters, including a then-World Series record six in a row, since tied by Moe Drabowsky in the 1966 World Series opener) for the four runs to stand up, and the Reds were only one game away from their first world championship.

Game 6

Tuesday, October 7, 1919 3:00 pm (ET) at Redland Field in Cincinnati, Ohio
Team12345678910 R H E
Chicago00001300015103
Cincinnati00220000004110
WP: Dickie Kerr (2–0)   LP: Jimmy Ring (1–1)

The Series reverted to Cincinnati for Game 6. Dickie Kerr, starting for the White Sox, was less dominant than in Game 3. Aided and abetted by three errors, the Reds jumped out to a 4–0 lead before Chicago fought back, tying the game at 4–4 in the sixth, which remained the score into extra innings. In the top of the tenth, Gandil drove in Weaver to make it 5–4, and Kerr closed it out to record his—and Chicago's—second win.

Game 7

Wednesday, October 8, 1919 3:00 pm (ET) at Redland Field in Cincinnati, Ohio
Team123456789 R H E
Chicago1010200004101
Cincinnati000001000174
WP: Eddie Cicotte (1–2)   LP: Harry "Slim" Sallee (1–1)

Despite the rumors already circulating about Cicotte's erratic performances in Games 1 and 4, White Sox manager Kid Gleason showed faith in his ace for Game 7. This time, the knuckleballer did not let him down. Chicago scored early and, for once, it was Cincinnati that committed errors. The Reds threatened only briefly in the sixth before losing 4–1, and suddenly the Series was relatively close again.

This did not go unnoticed by Sullivan and Rothstein, who were suddenly worried. Before the Series started, the Sox had been strong favorites and few doubted they could win two games in a row—presuming that they were trying to win. Rothstein had been too smart to bet on individual games, but had a considerable sum riding on Cincinnati to win the Series. The night before Game 8, Williams—the scheduled starter—was supposedly visited by an associate of Sullivan's known as Harry F who left no doubt that if he failed to blow the game in the first inning, he and his wife would be in serious danger.

Game 8

Thursday, October 9, 1919 2:00 pm (CT) at Comiskey Park in Chicago, Illinois
Team123456789 R H E
Cincinnati41001301010162
Chicago0010000405101
WP: Hod Eller (2–0)   LP: Lefty Williams (0–3)
Home runs:
CIN: None
CWS: Joe Jackson (1)

Whatever Williams had been told made its impression. In the first, throwing nothing but mediocre fastballs, he gave up four straight one-out hits for three runs before Gleason relieved him with "Big" Bill James, who allowed one of Williams' baserunners to score. James continued ineffective and, although the Sox rallied in the eighth, the Reds came away with a 10–5 victory for a five-games-to-three Series win. Jackson hit the only homer of the Series, in the third inning after the Reds had built a 5–0 lead. Immediately after the Series ended, rumors were rife from coast to coast that the games had been thrown. Journalist Hugh Fullerton of the Chicago Herald and Examiner , disgusted by the display of ineptitude with which the White Sox had "thrown" the series, wrote that no World Series should ever be played again. [15]

Composite line score

1919 World Series (5–3): Cincinnati Reds (N.L.) over Chicago White Sox (A.L.)

Team12345678910 R H E
Cincinnati Reds 51210392210356413
Chicago White Sox 1321332401205912
Total attendance: 236,936  Average attendance: 29,617
Winning player's share: $5,207  Losing player's share: $3,254 [16]

Notable performances

Jackson led all players with his .375 average. Some [17] believed that most of his offensive potency came in games that were not fixed and/or when the game seemed out of reach. He hit the Series' lone home run in the final (eighth) game, a solo shot in the third inning, by which time the Reds were already ahead by a score of 5–0. His five hits with runners in scoring position came in: Game 6, sixth inning with Kerr pitching; Game 7, first and third innings; Game 8, two in the four-run eighth.

Shoeless Joe had 12 hits overall, a World Series record at that time. [18]

Cincinnati Reds

Chicago White Sox

In modern culture

Notes

  1. "1919 Chicago White Sox". historicbaseball. Retrieved June 10, 2007.
  2. "History Files - Chicago Black Sox". 2014-10-08. Archived from the original on 2014-10-08. Retrieved 2017-09-15.
  3. "History Files - Chicago Black Sox". 2014-10-08. Archived from the original on 2014-10-08. Retrieved 2017-09-15.
  4. James, Bill. The New Bill James Historical Baseball Abstract (2001).
  5. Purdy, Dennis (2006). The Team-by-Team Encyclopedia of Major League Baseball. New York: Workman. ISBN   0-7611-3943-5.
  6. Cicotte's 29 Wins in 1919
  7. "1919 World Series Game 1 – Chicago White Sox vs. Cincinnati Reds". Retrosheet. Retrieved September 13, 2009.
  8. "1919 World Series Game 2 – Chicago White Sox vs. Cincinnati Reds". Retrosheet. Retrieved September 13, 2009.
  9. "1919 World Series Game 3 – Cincinnati Reds vs. Chicago White Sox". Retrosheet. Retrieved September 13, 2009.
  10. "1919 World Series Game 4 – Cincinnati Reds vs. Chicago White Sox". Retrosheet. Retrieved September 13, 2009.
  11. "1919 World Series Game 5 – Cincinnati Reds vs. Chicago White Sox". Retrosheet. Retrieved September 13, 2009.
  12. "1919 World Series Game 6 – Chicago White Sox vs. Cincinnati Reds". Retrosheet. Retrieved September 13, 2009.
  13. "1919 World Series Game 7 – Chicago White Sox vs. Cincinnati Reds". Retrosheet. Retrieved September 13, 2009.
  14. "1919 World Series Game 8 – Cincinnati Reds vs. Chicago White Sox". Retrosheet. Retrieved September 13, 2009.
  15. Payne, Shaun. Hugh Fullerton and the Press’s Revealing Coverage of the Black Sox Scandal, 1919–1921. Historic Baseball.
  16. "World Series Gate Receipts and Player Shares". Baseball Almanac. Retrieved June 14, 2009.
  17. Cohen, Richard M.; Neft, David S.; Deutsch, Jordan A.; Johnson, Roland T. (1976). World Series. Dial Press. ISBN   0-8037-9699-4.
  18. All-time and Single-Season World Series Batting Leaders. baseball-reference.com

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Bill Burns (baseball) Major League Baseball pitcher

William Thomas "Bill" Burns, nicknamed "Sleepy Bill," was an American baseball player who played as a pitcher in Major League Baseball for five different teams from 1908 to 1912. Burns earned his nickname for his noticeable lack of intensity on the mound.

The 1919 Cincinnati Reds season was a season in American baseball. The Reds won the National League pennant, then went on to win the 1919 World Series. The team's accomplishments were overshadowed by the subsequent Black Sox scandal, when it was discovered that their American League opponents, the Chicago White Sox had conspired to throw the series.

The 1919 Major League Baseball season, is best remembered for the Black Sox Scandal, in which the Chicago White Sox threw the World Series to the Cincinnati Reds, 5–3, in order to illegally gain money from gambling. This scandal resulted in commissioner Kenesaw Mountain Landis banning eight players from baseball for life. The season began on April 19, 1919, when the Brooklyn Robins defeated the Boston Braves 5–2 at Braves Field in the first game of a double header. The regular season ended on September 29 with the New York Yankees defeating the Philadelphia Athletics 4–2 at Shibe Park, with the infamous 1919 World Series opening two days later in Cincinnati.

The 1917 Chicago White Sox dominated the American League with a record of 100–54. The 100 wins is a club record that still stands. Their offense was first in runs scored while their pitching staff led the league with a 2.16 ERA.

The 1916 Chicago White Sox finished second in the American League, just two games behind the first-place Boston Red Sox. By this time, the nucleus of the 1917–19 dynasty was in place. Chicago would win the World Series the following season.

The 1920 Chicago White Sox season was a season in American baseball. The team was in contention to defend their American League pennant going into the final week of the season. However, for all intents and purposes, the season ended on September 26, when news of the Black Sox Scandal became public. Owner Charles Comiskey suspended the five players who were still active. At that time, the White Sox were only a half-game behind the Cleveland Indians, but went 2–2 over their last four games to finish two games out. They would not finish in the first division again until 1936.

The 1921 Chicago White Sox season involved the White Sox attempting to win the American League pennant. However, with the core of the team banned after the Black Sox Scandal broke, they fell back to seventh place.

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