Athletics at the 1988 Summer Olympics – Men's 100 metres

Last updated
Men's 100 meters
at the Games of the XXIV Olympiad
Venue Olympic Stadium
Date23 & 24 September
Competitors102 from 69 nations
Winning time9.92 WR
Medalists
Gold medal icon.svg Carl Lewis
Flag of the United States.svg  United States
Silver medal icon.svg Linford Christie
Flag of the United Kingdom.svg  Great Britain
Bronze medal icon.svg Calvin Smith
Flag of the United States.svg  United States
  1984
1992  

The men's 100 meters at the 1988 Summer Olympics in Seoul, South Korea saw world champion Ben Johnson of Canada defeat defending Olympic champion Carl Lewis of the United States in a world record time of 9.79, breaking his own record of 9.83 that he had set at the 1987 World Championships in Rome. Two days later, Johnson was stripped of his gold medal by the International Olympic Committee (IOC) after he tested positive for stanozolol, and his record of 9.79 seconds was deleted. The gold medal was then awarded to the original silver medalist Lewis, who had run 9.92. On 30 September 1989, following Johnson's admission to steroid use between 1981 and 1988, the IAAF rescinded his world record of 9.83 from the 1987 World Championship Final and stripped Johnson of his World Championship gold medal, which was also awarded to Lewis, who initially finished second. [1] [2] [3] [4] This made Lewis the first man to repeat as Olympic champion in the 100 metres (second, if Archie Hahn's 1906 Intercalated Games title is recognized).

Contents

Lewis's 9.92 from the Olympic final was also recognized as the official world record, breaking the 9.93 mark that Calvin Smith had set in 1983 and Lewis had since equalled twice. Smith also participated in this race and originally finished fourth, but was elevated to third place and awarded the bronze medal, and Linford Christie of the United Kingdom, who originally won the bronze medal, was elevated to silver. It would take eleven years for an athlete to run a "clean" 9.79 in the 100 meters, which was accomplished by Maurice Greene in Athens, Greece in 1999.

The other participants in this race, in order of finish, were Dennis Mitchell of the United States, who would go on to win the bronze medal in this event in Barcelona; Robson da Silva of Brazil, who won bronze in the 200 meters in Seoul; Johnson's teammate Desai Williams, a bronze medalist in the 4 x 100 meter relay in Los Angeles four years earlier; and Ray Stewart of Jamaica, who won a silver medal in the same relay at the Los Angeles Olympics. [5]

102 competitors from 69 countries competed. [6] Each nation was limited to three athletes under the rules laid down at the 1930 Olympic Congress.

Aftermath

Johnson was not the only participant whose success was questioned: Lewis had tested positive at the Olympic Trials for pseudoephedrine, ephedrine and phenylpropanolamine. Lewis defended himself, claiming that he had accidentally consumed the banned substances. After the supplements that he had taken were analyzed to prove his claims, the USOC accepted his claim of inadvertent use, since a dietary supplement he ingested was found to contain "Ma huang", the Chinese name for Ephedra (ephedrine is known to help weight loss). [7] Fellow Santa Monica Track Club teammates Joe DeLoach and Floyd Heard were also found to have the same banned stimulants in their systems, and were cleared to compete for the same reason. [8] [9]

The highest level of the stimulants Lewis recorded was 6 ppm, which was regarded as a positive test in 1988 but is now regarded as negative test. The acceptable level has been raised to ten parts per million for ephedrine and twenty-five parts per million for other substances. [7] According to the IOC rules at the time, positive tests with levels lower than 10 ppm were cause of further investigation but not immediate ban. Neal Benowitz, a professor of medicine at UC San Francisco who is an expert on ephedrine and other stimulants, agreed that "These [levels] are what you'd see from someone taking cold or allergy medicines and are unlikely to have any effect on performance." [7]

Following Exum's revelations the IAAF acknowledged that at the 1988 Olympic Trials the USOC indeed followed the correct procedures in dealing with eight positive findings for ephedrine and ephedrine-related compounds in low concentration.

Christie was found to have metabolites of pseudoephedrine in his urine after a 200m heat at the same Olympics, but was later cleared of any wrongdoing. [1] [10] Of the top five competitors in the race, only former world record holder and eventual bronze medalist Smith never failed a drug test during his career. Smith later said: "I should have been the gold medalist." [11] [12]

The CBC radio documentary, Rewind , "Ben Johnson: A Hero Disgraced" broadcast on September 19, 2013, for the 25th anniversary of the race, stated 20 athletes tested positive for drugs but were cleared by the IOC at this 1988 Seoul Olympics. An IOC official stated that endocrine profiles done at those games indicated that 80 percent of the track and field athletes tested showed evidence of long-term steroid use, although not all were banned.

Background

This was the twenty-first time the event was held, having appeared at every Olympics since the first in 1896. For the first time, the number of competitors topped 100.

Algeria, Bahrain, Burkina Faso, Hong Kong, the Maldives, Papua New Guinea, San Marino, Togo, Tonga, Vanuatu, South Yemen, and Zimbabwe appeared in the event for the first time. It was also the first appearance of "Chinese Taipei," though the Republic of China had competed before. The United States made its 20th appearance in the event, most of any country, having missed only the boycotted 1980 Games.

Competition format

The event retained the same basic four round format introduced in 1920: heats, quarterfinals, semifinals, and a final. The "fastest loser" system, introduced in 1968, was used again to ensure that the quarterfinals and subsequent rounds had exactly 8 runners per heat; this time, the system was used in both the preliminaries and quarterfinals.

The first round consisted of 13 heats, each with 7 or 8 athletes. The top three runners in each heat advanced, along with the next nine fastest runners overall. This made 48 quarterfinalists, who were divided into 6 heats of 8 runners. The top two runners in each quarterfinal advanced, with four "fastest loser" places. The 16 semifinalists competed in two heats of 8, with the top four in each semifinal advancing to the eight-man final. [6] [13]

Records

These were the then-recognized world and Olympic records (in seconds) prior to the 1988 Summer Olympics.

World Record9.831 Flag of Canada (Pantone).svg Ben Johnson Rome (ITA)August 30, 1987
Olympic Record9.95 Flag of the United States.svg Jim Hines Mexico City (MEX)October 14, 1968

1 This time was rescinded by the IAAF Council in September 1989 after Johnson admitted to using steroids between 1981 and 1988.

The following Olympic records were set during this competition.

DateAthleteTimeORWR
September 24, 1988Flag of the United States.svg  Carl Lewis  (USA)9.92ORWR

Following Johnson's disqualification, Carl Lewis's time of 9.92 was recognized as a new Olympic record, and also became a new world record after Johnson's time was rescinded.

Results

Heats

Heat 1

RankAthleteNationTimeNotes
1 Robson da Silva Flag of Brazil (1968-1992).svg  Brazil 10.37Q
2 Ezio Madonia Flag of Italy.svg  Italy 10.40Q
3 Cheng Hsin-fu Flag of Chinese Taipei for Olympic games.svg  Chinese Taipei 10.48Q
4 Thierry Lauret Flag of France.svg  France 10.56q
5 Boevi Lawson Flag of Togo.svg  Togo 10.59
6 Leung Wing Kwong Flag of Hong Kong (1959-1997).svg  Hong Kong 10.82
7 Mohamed Fahd Al-Bishi Flag of Saudi Arabia.svg  Saudi Arabia 10.85
8 Jerry Jeremiah Flag of Vanuatu.svg  Vanuatu 10.96

Heat 2

RankAthleteNationTimeNotes
1 Calvin Smith Flag of the United States.svg  United States 10.28Q
2 Attila Kovács Flag of Hungary.svg  Hungary 10.39Q
3 Mardi Lestari Flag of Indonesia.svg  Indonesia 10.40Q
4 Andrey Razin Flag of the Soviet Union.svg  Soviet Union 10.58
5 Henri Ndinga Flag of the People's Republic of Congo.svg  Republic of the Congo 10.74
6 Fabian Muyaba Flag of Zimbabwe.svg  Zimbabwe 10.75
7 Moustafa Kamel Salmi Flag of Algeria.svg  Algeria 11.08
8 Markus Büchel Flag of Liechtenstein.svg  Liechtenstein 11.21

Heat 3

RankAthleteNationTimeNotes
1 Talal Mansour Flag of Qatar.svg  Qatar 10.42Q
2 Juan Núñez Flag of the Dominican Republic.svg  Dominican Republic 10.47Q
3 Amadou M'Baye Flag of Senegal.svg  Senegal 10.64Q
4 Fabian Whymns Flag of the Bahamas.svg  Bahamas 10.70
5 Neville Hodge Flag of the United States Virgin Islands.svg  Virgin Islands 10.73
6 Horace Dove-Edwin Flag of Sierra Leone.svg  Sierra Leone 10.89
7 Alexandre Yougbare Flag of Burkina Faso.svg  Burkina Faso 10.90
8 Henrico Atkins Flag of Barbados.svg  Barbados 11.01

Heat 4

RankAthleteNationTimeNotes
1 Emmanuel Tuffour Flag of Ghana.svg  Ghana 10.31Q
2 Koji Kurihara Flag of Japan (1870-1999).svg  Japan 10.46Q
3 Andrew Smith Flag of Jamaica.svg  Jamaica 10.49Q
4 Zheng Chen Flag of the People's Republic of China.svg  China 10.51q
5 István Tatár Flag of Hungary.svg  Hungary 10.52q
6 Christian Haas Flag of Germany.svg  West Germany 10.54q
7 John Hou Flag of Papua New Guinea.svg  Papua New Guinea 10.96
8 Ehab Fuad Ahmed Nagi Flag of South Yemen.svg  South Yemen 11.53

Heat 5

RankAthleteNationTimeNotes
1 Linford Christie Flag of the United Kingdom.svg  Great Britain 10.19Q
2 Max Morinière Flag of France.svg  France 10.34Q
3 Sven Matthes Flag of East Germany.svg  East Germany 10.35Q
4 Li Tao Flag of the People's Republic of China.svg  China 10.47q
5 Samuel Nchinda-Kaya Flag of Cameroon.svg  Cameroon 10.60
6 Lee Shiunn-long Flag of Chinese Taipei for Olympic games.svg  Chinese Taipei 10.69
7 Bill Trott Flag of Bermuda (1910-1999).svg  Bermuda 10.69
8 Frank Maziya Flag of Swaziland.svg  Swaziland 11.52

Heat 6

RankAthleteNationTimeNotes
1 Chidi Imoh Flag of Nigeria.svg  Nigeria 10.62Q
2 Charles-Louis Seck Flag of Senegal.svg  Senegal 10.64Q
3 Issa Alassane-Ousséni Flag of Benin (1975-1990).svg  Benin 10.72Q
4 John Regis Flag of the United Kingdom.svg  Great Britain 10.76
5 Mothobi Kharitse Flag of Lesotho (1987-2006).svg  Lesotho 10.97
6 Robert Loua Flag of Guinea.svg  Guinea 11.20
7 Samuel Birch Flag of Liberia.svg  Liberia 11.68
Pedro Agostinho Flag of Portugal.svg  Portugal DNF

Heat 7

RankAthleteNationTimeNotes
1 Ray Stewart Flag of Jamaica.svg  Jamaica 10.22Q
2 Pierfrancesco Pavoni Flag of Italy.svg  Italy 10.36Q
3 Vitaliy Savin Flag of the Soviet Union.svg  Soviet Union 10.52Q
4 György Fetter Flag of Hungary.svg  Hungary 10.54q
5 Khaled Ibrahim Jouma Flag of Bahrain (1972-2002).svg  Bahrain 10.80
6 Muhammad Afzal Flag of Pakistan.svg  Pakistan 10.91
7 Claude Roumain Flag of Haiti.svg  Haiti 11.22

Heat 8

RankAthleteNationTimeNotes
1 Ben Johnson Flag of Canada (Pantone).svg  Canada 10.37Q
2 Cai Jianming Flag of the People's Republic of China.svg  China 10.55Q
3 Sim Deok-Seop Flag of South Korea (1984-1997).svg  South Korea 10.56Q
4 Carlos Moreno Flag of Chile.svg  Chile 10.70
5 Abdullah Salem Al-Khalidi Flag of Oman (1970-1995).svg  Oman 10.90
6 Mohamed Shah Jalal Flag of Bangladesh.svg  Bangladesh 10.94
7 Joseph Ssali Flag of Uganda.svg  Uganda 10.95
8 St. Clair Soleyne Flag of Antigua and Barbuda.svg  Antigua and Barbuda 11.17

Heat 9

RankAthleteNationTimeNotes
1 Desai Williams Flag of Canada (Pantone).svg  Canada 10.24Q
2 Peter Wekesa Flag of Kenya.svg  Kenya 10.50Q
3 Olapade Adeniken Flag of Nigeria.svg  Nigeria 10.56Q
4 Eduardo Nava Flag of Mexico.svg  Mexico 10.68
5 Jailto Bonfim Flag of Brazil (1968-1992).svg  Brazil 10.75
6 Lindel Hodge Flag of the British Virgin Islands.svg  British Virgin Islands 10.79
7 Visut Watanasin Flag of Thailand.svg  Thailand 10.88
8 Arménio Fernandes Flag of Angola.svg  Angola 10.92

Heat 10

RankAthleteNationTimeNotes
1 Vladimir Krylov Flag of the Soviet Union.svg  Soviet Union 10.34Q
2 Arnaldo da Silva Flag of Brazil (1968-1992).svg  Brazil 10.44Q
3 Michele Lazazzera Flag of Italy.svg  Italy 10.47Q
4 Kennedy Ondiek Flag of Kenya.svg  Kenya 10.51q
5 Takahiko Kasahara Flag of Japan (1870-1999).svg  Japan 10.62
6 Jimmy Flemming Flag of the United States Virgin Islands.svg  Virgin Islands 10.70
7 Jihad Salame Flag of Lebanon.svg  Lebanon 11.49
8 Gilbert Bessi Flag of Monaco.svg  Monaco 11.55

Heat 11

RankAthleteNationTimeNotes
1 Dennis Mitchell Flag of the United States.svg  United States 10.37Q
2 Isiaq Adeyanju Flag of Nigeria.svg  Nigeria 10.45Q
3 Ousmane Diarra Flag of Mali.svg  Mali 10.53Q
4 Oliver Daniels Flag of Liberia.svg  Liberia 10.68
5 Luís Cunha Flag of Portugal.svg  Portugal 10.80
6 Evaristo Ortíz Flag of the Dominican Republic.svg  Dominican Republic 11.01
7 Nguyễn Đình Minh Flag of Vietnam.svg  Vietnam 11.09
8 Secundino Borabota Flag of Equatorial Guinea.svg  Equatorial Guinea 11.52

Heat 12

RankAthleteNationTimeNotes
1 John Myles-Mills Flag of Ghana.svg  Ghana 10.31Q
2 Andreas Berger Flag of Austria.svg  Austria 10.40Q
3 Barrington Williams Flag of the United Kingdom.svg  Great Britain 10.51Q
4 Patrick Stevens Flag of Belgium (civil).svg  Belgium 10.51q
5 Enrique Talavera Flag of Spain.svg  Spain 10.61
6 Tomohiro Osawa Flag of Japan (1870-1999).svg  Japan 10.71
7 Dominique Canti Flag of San Marino (before 2011).svg  San Marino 11.11
8 Ismail Asif Waheed Flag of Maldives.svg  Maldives 11.49

Heat 13

RankAthleteNationTimeNotes
1 Carl Lewis Flag of the United States.svg  United States 10.14Q
2 Jean-Charles Trouabal Flag of France.svg  France 10.39Q
3 José Javier Arqués Flag of Spain.svg  Spain 10.44Q
4 John Mair Flag of Jamaica.svg  Jamaica 10.44
5 Harouna Pale Flag of Burkina Faso.svg  Burkina Faso 10.76
6 Peauope Suli Flag of Tonga.svg  Tonga 10.94
7 Maloni Bole Flag of Fiji.svg  Fiji 11.19

Quarterfinals

Quarterfinal 1

RankAthleteNationTimeNotes
1 Linford Christie Flag of the United Kingdom.svg  Great Britain 10.11Q
2 Dennis Mitchell Flag of the United States.svg  United States 10.13Q
3 Ben Johnson Flag of Canada (Pantone).svg  Canada 10.17q
4 John Mair Flag of Jamaica.svg  Jamaica 10.41
5 Charles-Louis Seck Flag of Senegal.svg  Senegal 10.42
6 Li Tao Flag of the People's Republic of China.svg  China 10.53
7 Kennedy Ondiek Flag of Kenya.svg  Kenya 10.57
8 Ousmane Diarra Flag of Mali.svg  Mali 10.61

Quarterfinal 2

RankAthleteNationTimeNotes
1 Desai Williams Flag of Canada (Pantone).svg  Canada 10.16Q
2 Arnaldo da Silva Flag of Brazil (1968-1992).svg  Brazil 10.25Q
3 Vladimir Krylov Flag of the Soviet Union.svg  Soviet Union 10.26q
4 Attila Kovács Flag of Hungary.svg  Hungary 10.27q
5 Michele Lazazzera Flag of Italy.svg  Italy 10.50
6 Thierry Lauret Flag of France.svg  France 10.51
7 Zheng Chen Flag of the People's Republic of China.svg  China 10.72
8 Chidi Imoh Flag of Nigeria.svg  Nigeria 11.44

Quarterfinal 3

RankAthleteNationTimeNotes
1 Ray Stewart Flag of Jamaica.svg  Jamaica 10.25Q
2 Juan Núñez Flag of the Dominican Republic.svg  Dominican Republic 10.33Q
3 Sven Matthes Flag of East Germany.svg  East Germany 10.36
4 Jean-Charles Trouabal Flag of France.svg  France 10.41
5 José Javier Arqués Flag of Spain.svg  Spain 10.43
6 Amadou M'Baye Flag of Senegal.svg  Senegal 10.45
7 Barrington Williams Flag of the United Kingdom.svg  Great Britain 10.55
8 Christian Haas Flag of Germany.svg  West Germany 10.57

Quarterfinal 4

RankAthleteNationTimeNotes
1 Calvin Smith Flag of the United States.svg  United States 10.16Q
2 Olapade Adeniken Flag of Nigeria.svg  Nigeria 10.30Q
3 Andreas Berger Flag of Austria.svg  Austria 10.34
4 Emmanuel Tuffour Flag of Ghana.svg  Ghana 10.37
5 Talal Mansour Flag of Qatar.svg  Qatar 10.38
6 Patrick Stevens Flag of Belgium (civil).svg  Belgium 10.50
7 Cheng Hsin-Fu Flag of Chinese Taipei for Olympic games.svg  Chinese Taipei 10.54
8 György Fetter Flag of Hungary.svg  Hungary 10.55

Quarterfinal 5

RankAthleteNationTimeNotes
1 Carl Lewis Flag of the United States.svg  United States 9.99Q
2 Robson da Silva Flag of Brazil (1968-1992).svg  Brazil 10.24Q
3 Isiaq Adeyanju Flag of Nigeria.svg  Nigeria 10.32q
4 Pierfrancesco Pavoni Flag of Italy.svg  Italy 10.33
5 Vitaliy Savin Flag of the Soviet Union.svg  Soviet Union 10.36
6 Koji Kurihara Flag of Japan (1870-1999).svg  Japan 10.49
7 István Tatár Flag of Hungary.svg  Hungary 10.68
8 Issa Alassane-Ousséni Flag of Benin (1975-1990).svg  Benin 10.83

Quarterfinal 6

RankAthleteNationTimeNotes
1 John Myles-Mills Flag of Ghana.svg  Ghana 10.21Q
2 Mardi Lestari Flag of Indonesia.svg  Indonesia 10.32Q
3 Max Morinière Flag of France.svg  France 10.37
4 Ezio Madonia Flag of Italy.svg  Italy 10.38
5 Peter Wekesa Flag of Kenya.svg  Kenya 10.43
6 Sim Deok-Seop Flag of South Korea (1984-1997).svg  South Korea 10.55
7 Andrew Smith Flag of Jamaica.svg  Jamaica 10.63
8 Cai Jianming Flag of the People's Republic of China.svg  China 10.76

Semifinals

Semifinal 1

RankAthleteNationTimeNotes
1 Carl Lewis Flag of the United States.svg  United States 9.97Q
2 Calvin Smith Flag of the United States.svg  United States 10.15Q
3 Ray Stewart Flag of Jamaica.svg  Jamaica 10.18Q
4 Desai Williams Flag of Canada (Pantone).svg  Canada 10.24Q
5 Arnaldo da Silva Flag of Brazil (1968-1992).svg  Brazil 10.32
6 Olapade Adeniken Flag of Nigeria.svg  Nigeria 10.33
7 Mardi Lestari Flag of Indonesia.svg  Indonesia 10.39
8 John Myles-Mills Flag of Ghana.svg  Ghana 10.43

Semifinal 2

RankAthleteNationTimeNotes
1 Ben Johnson Flag of Canada (Pantone).svg  Canada 10.03Q
2 Linford Christie Flag of the United Kingdom.svg  Great Britain 10.11Q
3 Dennis Mitchell Flag of the United States.svg  United States 10.23Q
4 Robson da Silva Flag of Brazil (1968-1992).svg  Brazil 10.24Q
5 Attila Kovács Flag of Hungary.svg  Hungary 10.31
6 Juan Núñez Flag of the Dominican Republic.svg  Dominican Republic 10.35
7 Isiaq Adeyanju Flag of Nigeria.svg  Nigeria 10.60
Vladimir Krylov Flag of the Soviet Union.svg  Soviet Union DNS

Final

RankAthleteNationTimeNotes
Gold medal icon.svg Carl Lewis Flag of the United States.svg  United States 9.92Original silver medalist, awarded gold medal and world record after Johnson's disqualification.
Silver medal icon.svg Linford Christie Flag of the United Kingdom.svg  Great Britain 9.97Set a British and European record.
Bronze medal icon.svg Calvin Smith Flag of the United States.svg  United States 9.99This was the first time anyone had broken ten seconds and finished third.
4 Dennis Mitchell Flag of the United States.svg  United States 10.04
5 Robson da Silva Flag of Brazil (1968-1992).svg  Brazil 10.11
6 Desai Williams Flag of Canada (Pantone).svg  Canada 10.11
7 Ray Stewart Flag of Jamaica.svg  Jamaica 12.26Pulled a hamstring after 55 meters.
DSQ Ben Johnson Flag of Canada (Pantone).svg  Canada 9.79Stripped of gold medal and world record after he tested positive for stanozolol.

See also

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