Bentham & Hooker system

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Frontispiece of 1862 edition of Genera plantarum Generaplantarum04hookgoog 0005.jpg
Frontispiece of 1862 edition of Genera plantarum

A taxonomic system, the Bentham & Hooker system for seed plants, was published in Bentham and Hooker's Genera plantarum ad exemplaria imprimis in herbariis kewensibus servata definita in three volumes between 1862 and 1883. [1] [2]


George Bentham (1800–1884) and Joseph Dalton Hooker (1817–1911) were British botanists who were closely affiliated to the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew, in England. Their system of botanical taxonomy was based on the principle of natural affinities and is considered as pre-Darwinian as it does not take evolution into account. The Genera plantarum classified an estimated 97,205 species into 202 families and 7,569 genera. [1]


The system recognises the following main groups:

Families and orders in the Bentham & Hooker system

Note that this system was published well before there were internationally accepted rules for botanical nomenclature. It indicates a family by "ordo"; an order is indicated by "cohors" (in the first two volumes) or "series" (in the third volume); in the first two volumes “series” refers to a rank above that of order. Terminations for families are not what they are now. Neither of these phenomena is a problem from a nomenclatural perspective: the ICBN provides for this






Series I. Microspermæ p. 448

    CLXIX. ORCHIDEÆ p. 460

Series II Epigynæ p. 636

  • CLXX. SCITAMINEÆ p. 636 [3]
    CLXXIV. AMARYLLIDEÆ p. 711 5 tribes
    I Tribus Hypoxideae p. 716
    II Tribus Amarylleae p. 718 3 subtribes
    III Tribus Alstroemerieae p. 735
    IV Tribus Agaveae p. 737
    V Tribus Vellosieae p. 739
    CLXXV. TACCACEÆ p. 740

Series III Coronarieæ p. 746

    CLXXVIII. LILIACEÆ p. 748 (20 tribes) Schema 748–763
    Tribus I Smilaceae p. 763
    Tribus II Asparageae p. 764
    Tribus III Luzuriageae
    Tribus IV Polygonateae p. 768
    Tribus V Convallariae
    Tribus VI Aspidistreae
    Tribus VII Hemerocalleae
    Tribus VIII Aloineae
  • ...
    Tribus X Asphodeleae p. 781 5 subtribes
    Tribus XI Johnsonieae p. 795
    Tribus XII Allieae p. 798 Schema p. 750 4 subtribes
    Subtribus I Agapantheae p. 798
    Subtribus II Euallieae p. 798
    Subtribus III Gilliesieae p. 804
    Subtribus IV Massonieae p. 806
    Tribus XIII Scilleae p. 807
    Tribus XIV Tulipeae p. 816
    Tribus XV Colchiceae
  • ...
    Tribus XX Veratreae p. 834
    CLXXXI. XYRIDEÆ p. 841

Series VI Calycineæ p. 860


Series V. Nudifloreæ p. 949

    CXCII. LEMNACEÆ p. 1000

Series VI. Apocarpæ p.1001

    CXCIV. ALISMACEÆ p. 1003

Series VII. Glumaceæ p. 1019

See also

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