|Cadillac Type 51|
|Manufacturer||Cadillac (General Motors)|
|Assembly||Cass Street Factory, Detroit, Michigan, United States|
|Body and chassis|
|Engine||314 cu in (5.1 L) L-head V8|
|Wheelbase||122 in (3,099 mm)|
125 in (3,175 mm)
132 in (3,353 mm)
145 in (3,683 mm) (commercial use)
The Cadillac V8, introduced as the Type 51, is a large, luxurious automobile that was introduced in September 1914 by Cadillac as a 1915 model. 122 in (3,099 mm) wheelbase, while a 145 in (3,683 mm) chassis was offered separately to be used for custom coachwork. The Types 53, 55, 57, 59, and 61 were introduced every year through 1923 with yearly improvements until an all new platform was substantially updated and introduced as the V-63 using the business philosophy called planned obsolescence. It was built at the Cass Street and Amsterdam Avenue factory in Detroit, with the coachwork provided by Fisher Body. The chassis could be purchased separately and sent to the clients choice of coachbuilder optionally.It was Cadillac's first V8 automobile, replacing the four-cylinder Model 30, and used the all new GM A platform for the entire series shared with all GM division brands using a
When GM decided to enter Cadillac as their top level luxury car as an alternative to luxury brands already established, it was a competitor to the all-new Packard Twin Six. The most expensive coachwork option offered from Cadillac for 1915 was the Berline Limousine at US$3,600 90,983 in 2019 dollars ).($
All of these models used a new L-head V8 engine, one of the first V8 engines ever mass-produced and a substantial differentiator for the marque. All bodies were built by Fisher. The Type 51 was also the first left-hand drive Cadillac—all previous models had been right-hand drive, which was continued as an option. Wheelbases varied in those years, with 122 in (3099 mm) at the low end and 145 in (3683 mm) as the longest.
The 1916 Type 53 was the first car to use the same control layout as modern automobiles- with the gear lever and hand brake in the middle of the front two seats, a key started ignition, and three pedals for the clutch, brake and throttle in the modern order. This Cadillac was driven by a 77 horsepower V8 engine. 91,162 in 2019 dollars ).The Type 53 designation was used one year only, then each year the designation number would update for each model year. Nine body styles were offered, and for the first time, from 1916 until 1919, Cadillac offered three commercial use platforms, described as Police Patrol (US$2,955), Ambulance (US$3,455) and Hearse (US$3,880) ($
The 1917 Type 55 was introduced with appearance changes, and cast aluminum is used when constructing the 2-door, 4-passenger Coupe. The choice of available body styles increases to 12, including the commercial versions. The Berline coach choice is renamed Imperial due to WWI as Cadillac didn't want to associate its products with Imperial Germany.This was also the year that cross town rival Lincoln offered a V8 luxury sedan and several different coachwork choices, while the introduction of the Packard Twin Six appeared in 1916.
For model year 1918, Cadillac offered a new coachwork option called the Type 57 Suburban which could accommodate seven passengers with a 132 in (3,353 mm) wheelbase, and was the first time GM used that description for one of their products with a retail price of US$4,090 ($69,521 in 2019 dollars ). A new commercial coach choice labeled US Government Limousine was offered in addition to the ambulance, police patrol and hearse, and the cylinder heads on the V8 engine were now detachable for maintenance .
The 1919 Type 57 again saw minor appearance changes and body styles offered, while removing the landaulet, town landaulet and hearse and adding the Imperial Suburban with a 132 in (3,353 mm) wheelbase and renaming the Town Limousine as Town Brougham. The Victoria Coupe was no longer a convertible and used aluminum in the roof construction. Body types were now identified as either 57-A or 57-B while this wasn't a Type designation for the vehicle affected.
Model years 1920 and 1921 were essentially combined due to the postwar economy, material shortages, and the Great Railroad Strike of 1922, while Cadillac was in transition from the Cass Street Factory to the new Detroit Assembly factory nearing completion on Clark Street. Fisher Body continued the tradition of making minor appearance, equipment and feature changes, changing the angle of the windshield, or positioning of exterior lighting elements. Body style changes were now documented as First, Second and Third design and choices were now reduced to 10. The previous Type 57 had earned a favorable reputation with its deployment during the war, and orders for the latest model contributed to long waiting lists. The top level Imperial Limousine was now listed at US$5190 ($74,393 in 2019 dollars ). A new manufacturer entered the competition, focusing on engineering excellence called Duesenberg and offered a few body styles that were premium priced in 1921.
The Type 61 was the last vehicle built at the Cass Street Factory, and due to various contributing factors carried over from the previous Type 59, was manufactured for model years 1922 and 1923. As before, there were various appearance, equipment, standard and optional feature changes to include an extendable trunk rack on the rear of the most body styles, runningboard kick plates on five-passenger sedan and phaeton, along with the inclusion of nickel-plated exterior lights and radiator shell offered. The diameter of the wheels was reduced to lower the center of gravity, while the 132 in (3,353 mm) wheelbase was the only choice. Body style continued to be documented as First, Second and Third Design, and 41,001 vehicles were produced. For the first time, the prices were reduced across all models following an automobile industry trend due to increased production schedules, improved manufacturing efficiency and economic pressures. The top level Landaulet Sedan was US$5290 ($80,801 in 2019 dollars ) while the Imperial Limousine was US$4950 ($75,608 in 2019 dollars ). .
Although this car did not sell in vast numbers due to the price, it introduced the modern gearshift and handbrake deployment of an automobile that is still used today shared with other GM products. This layout became popular with the Austin 7, which copied the control layout from the Cadillac Type 53.In May 1916, Erwin "Cannonball" Baker and William Sturm drove a Cadillac Roadster from Los Angeles to New York in 7 days, 11 hours, and 52 minutes.
In July 1917, the United States Army needed a dependable staff car and chose the Cadillac Type 55 Touring Model after exhaustive tests on the Mexican border during the Mexican Border War (1910–1919). 2,350 of the cars were supplied for use in France by officers of the American Expeditionary Force in World War I.
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to Cadillac Type 51 .|
LaSalle was an American brand of luxury automobiles manufactured and marketed, as a separate brand, by General Motors' Cadillac division from 1927 through 1940. Alfred P. Sloan, GM's Chairman of the Board, developed the concept for four new GM marques brands - LaSalle, Marquette, Viking and Pontiac - paired with already established brands to fill price gaps he perceived in the General Motors product portfolio. Sloan created LaSalle as a companion marque for Cadillac. LaSalle automobiles were manufactured by Cadillac, but were priced lower than Cadillac-branded automobiles, were shorter, and were marketed as the second-most prestigious marque in the General Motors portfolio. LaSalles were titled as LaSalles, and not as Cadillacs.
The Limited was Buicks flagship limousine between 1936 and 1942 and, during model year 1958 during GM's Fiftieth Anniversary, the halo car for Buick. After the vehicle was retired in 1959, Buick has intermittently used the "Limited" name for several decades to denote those models which featured a high level of trim and standard options in its various model ranges. Vehicles given the Limited nameplate were in direct competition with Cadillac senior sedans for clientele who wanted a GM luxury sedan but regarded Cadillac as "ostentatious" or "flamboyant" as Buick had over time earned a reputation of low-key conservative appearance while focusing on durability and reliability. The Limited nameplate returned in the mid-1960s denoting the top trim package on Buick vehicles for several decades thereafter.
The Cadillac Series 70 is a full-size V8-powered series of cars that were produced by Cadillac from the 1930s to the 1980s. It replaced the 1935 355E as the company's mainstream car just as the much less expensive Series 60 was introduced. The Series 72 and 67 were similar to the Series 75 but the 72 and 67 were produced on a slightly shorter and longer wheelbase respectively. The Series 72 was only produced in 1940 and the Series 67 was only produced in 1941 and 1942. For much of the postwar era, it was the top-of-the-line Cadillac, and was Cadillac's factory-built limousine offering.
The Cadillac V-63 is a large luxury automobile that was introduced in September 1923 by Cadillac as a 1924 model, replacing the previous Type 61. It used the GM C platform and was replaced by the Cadillac Series 355 in 1931. It retained the name Cadillac V8 introduced with the previous generation Cadillac Type 51.
The Packard Patrician is an automobile which was built by the Packard Motor Car Company of Detroit, Michigan, from model years 1951 through the 1956. During its six years in production, the Patrician was built in Packard's Detroit facilities on East Grand Boulevard. The word "patrician" is Latin for a ruling class in Ancient Rome.
The Chevrolet Superior Series F was launched in 1923, manufactured by Chevrolet for four years with a different series per year. The 1923 model was known as the Series B, the 1924 model was the Series F, for 1925 it was known as the Series K and the 1926 Superior was known as the Series V. It was replaced in 1927 by the Series AA Capitol. It was the first Chevrolet that didn't have a larger companion model and was the only car sold by Chevrolet in several body style configurations all supplied by Fisher Body. Each year new mechanical changes, appearance updates or optional features that became standard in subsequent years became expected of all GM products including Chevrolet. Body styles were separated into open and closed which meant closed included retractable glass in the doors and glass surrounding rear seat passengers. Standard items included tools, a jack for tire removal, speedometer, outside lockable door handles, ammeter, oil pressure gauge, dashboard light, choke pull knob, electric horn, ignition theft lock, and a two piece vertical ventilating windshield that allowed fresh air to enter the passenger compartment. Wheels were 30" and came standard with hickory wood spokes or optional pressed steel discs. For 1925 bumpers were offered optionally along with outside side view mirrors, heater for passenger compartment and a clock.
The Cunningham automobile was a pioneering American production automobile, one of the earliest vehicles in the advent of the automotive age. It was produced from 1896 to 1931 in Rochester, New York by James Cunningham, Son and Company.
A limousine, or limo for short, is a large luxury vehicle driven by a chauffeur with a partition between the driver's compartment and the passenger's compartment.
The Buick Master Six Series 40 and Series 50, based on the wheelbase used, was an automobile built by Buick from 1925 to 1928 and shared the GM B platform with the Oldsmobile Model 30. Previously, the company manufactured the Buick Six that used the overhead valve six-cylinder 242 cu in (4.0 L) engine in their high-end cars, and the Buick Four for smaller, less-expensive cars. Starting with 1918, they dropped the four-cylinder engine and designed a small six, which they called the Buick Standard Six, to replace that end of the market. They coined the name "Master Six" for the high-end cars, now powered by the 255 cu in (4.2 L) engine released the year before. The yearly changes were a result of a new business philosophy called planned obsolescence
The Packard Motor Car Company introduced their first four-cylinder engine in 1903 initially as a top level car along with the Packard Model F. It was their only automobile offered and exclusively used a four-cylinder engine from 1903 until 1912 and established Packard as a luxury car maker, and was replaced by the 1913 Packard Six.
The Chevrolet Series AB National is an American vehicle manufactured by Chevrolet in 1928 to replace the 1927 Series AA Capitol. Documented production numbers show that 1,193,212 Series ABs were manufactured in a variety of body styles with 69,217 originating from the Oshawa factory alone. Chevrolet instituted serial number recorded on the front seat heel board on either the left or right side, using the listed numbers to designate the point of origin of the vehicle identified.
The Oldsmobile Model 30, which continued to be known as the Oldsmobile Six, was built from the 1923 through 1927. Each year it was built, it was given the suffix 30-A, 30-B, 30-C, 30-D and 30-E for the last year of production, all having been manufactured in Lansing, Michigan. General Motors used the GM A platform, shared with the Buick Standard Six and the Oakland Six, and the yearly changes were the result of a new business philosophy called planned obsolescence. The Model 30 was Oldsmobile mid-level product and introduced the flathead Oldsmobile straight-6 engine, while the Oldsmobile Model 43 with a four cylinder engine remained the entry level product. When the top level Oldsmobile Light Eight, with the flathead Oldsmobile V8 engine was cancelled in 1923, the Oldsmobile Six became the top level vehicle. It replaced the Oldsmobile Model 37 introduced in 1917, and was replaced by the Oldsmobile F-Series introduced in 1928. In 5 years, 236,474 cars were built. The growing popularity of GM's brands, like Oldsmobile, contributed to becoming the largest automobile manufacturer when sales overtook the Ford Motor Company during this time period. Coachwork for the various bodystyles were supplied by Fisher Body of Detroit, MI, and starting with the 1923 model year, all GM products adopted a shared appearance, with brand specific unique appearance features. The retail price had dropped considerably from previous years due to the popularity and affordability of the Ford Model T, with the top level sedan at US$1,095.
The Packard Twelve was a range of V12-engined luxury automobiles built by the Packard Motor Car Company in Detroit, Michigan. The car was built from model year 1916 until 1923, then it returned 1933 until 1939. As a sign of changing times, the majority of second generation Packard Twelves received standard bodywork, with custom bodywork gradually losing favor. Many of the custom cars were actually only "semi-customs", with Dietrich assembling Packard-made bodies with special touches. The first generation engine was modified for military use and became the Packard 1A-2500 which began usage in 1924.
The Oldsmobile Six, also known as the Model 53, 54 and 55 (1913-1915) then a brief cancellation until it reappeared as the Model 37, 37A and 37B (1917-1921) was a top level sedan along with the Oldsmobile Series 40 junior vehicle produced by GM's Oldsmobile Division and was manufactured at Lansing Car Assembly in Lansing, Michigan. It replaced the Series 28 also known as the "Oldsmobile Autocrat" and was replaced by the Oldsmobile Model 30 in 1927, and shared wheelbases with the Buick Six.It continued to use the T-head engine for two years. The various bodystyles were supplied by Fisher Body of Detroit, MI. It competed with the Chevrolet Series C Classic Six as Chevrolet was an independent company before becoming a division in 1917. Oldsmobile also shared technology with GMC for commercial and industrial products.
The Oldsmobile Series 28, also known as the Autocrat, was a mid-level four seat passenger car produced by GM's Oldsmobile Division for 1911 and 1912. It was based on the top-level Oldsmobile Limited while using a four-cylinder engine, and was manufactured in Lansing, Michigan.
The Oldsmobile F-Series was built from the 1928 through 1938. The first generation continued the tradition of adding a series number for each model year; F-28, F-29, F-30 and F-31. The second generation, signified by a completely new bodystyle appearance was built from 1932 through 1938, all having been manufactured in Lansing, Michigan. 1926 saw the introduction of GM's most recognized business model, the use of common platforms shared amongst the brands. Oldsmobile and Buick shared the GM B platform. The F-Series was shared with the Buick Master Six and was also known as the Oldsmobile Six which was introduced as a name earlier in 1913. The F-Series was Oldsmobile's entry-level product using the Oldsmobile straight-6 engine, while the Oldsmobile L-Series, with a Oldsmobile Straight-8 engine, was the top level vehicle. It replaced the Oldsmobile Model 30 introduced in 1923, and was replaced by the Oldsmobile Series 60 and Oldsmobile Series 70 introduced in 1938. It was exported to Japan as a knock down kit and assembled at Osaka Assembly in Osaka, Japan
The Oldsmobile Light Eight was an automobile produced by the Oldsmobile Division of General Motors in roadster, two-door coupe, four-door sedan form between 1916 and 1923. It was powered by an sidevalve V8 engine, the maker's first.
The Buick Six was a top level automobile produced by GM's Buick Division which was first introduced in 1914, and was the senior vehicle to the Buick Series B Four. It was an all new platform which was shared with the Oldsmobile Six and was the first Buick to implement a steering wheel on the left side, and electric starter provided by Delco along with an electric lighting system. The gearshift and emergency brake were relocated to a central position inside the vehicle, an approach used on all GM products for 1914. It continued to use the patented overhead valve engine implemented by Walter Lorenzo Marr while the cylinder head was not removable until later developments. The engine displacement was 331 cu in (5.4 l) and the wheelbase was 130 in (3,302 mm). The first year Buick Six was only offered as a touring sedan for US$1,985.
The Oakland Model A was the first four-cylinder engine offered by the Oakland Motor Company in 1907 which became a division of General Motors in 1909. The Model A was developed and manufactured from former Oakland Motor Company sources while the engine was provided by Northway Motor and Manufacturing Division of GM of Detroit. The Model A was available in several body styles and prices ranged from US$1,300 to US$2,150. Once Oakland became a division of GM, Oldsmobile and Buick shared bodywork and chassis of their four-cylinder models with Oakland. Manufacture of the Oakland was completed in Pontiac, Michigan. Oakland (Pontiac) wouldn't use another 4-cylinder engine until 1961 with the Pontiac Trophy 4 engine.
The Oakland Six was the first six-cylinder engine offered by the Oakland Motor Company in 1913 which became a division of General Motors in 1909. The Oakland Six was offered in many different model names that changed every year, along with several body styles and engine displacements until 1929, when the V8 was reintroduced, then in 1931 Oakland was renamed Pontiac. When Oakland became a division of GM and introduced the Oakland Four, Oldsmobile and Buick shared bodywork and chassis of their six-cylinder models with Oakland. When Chevrolet became part of GM in 1917, Oakland chassis and bodywork were shared with Chevrolet. Manufacture of the Oakland was completed in Pontiac, Michigan.
|Full-size||de Ville||de Ville||de Ville||de Ville||de Ville|
|V-63||355||70||Sixty Special||Sixty Special||Sixty Special||Sixty Special||Sixty Special||Sixty Special||Sixty Special Brougham||Brougham|
|V-16||Eldorado Brougham||Eldorado Brougham|
|Personal luxury||Eldorado convertible||Eldorado||Eldorado||Eldorado convertible||Eldorado convertible||Eldorado hardtop||Eldorado||Eldorado coupé|