|Body and chassis|
|Class||Full-size luxury car|
|Layout|| Transverse front-engine, front-wheel drive (1985–1992)|
FR layout (1993–1996)
|Successor|| Cadillac CT6 |
The Cadillac Fleetwood is a model of luxury car that was manufactured by the Cadillac division of General Motors between 1976 and 1996. The "Fleetwood" name was previously used as a prefix on several of Cadillac's models dating back to 1935. Four-door cars bearing the name "Fleetwood" generally had longer wheelbases than Cadillac's more common Series 62 and DeVille models.
Through 1984, all Fleetwood series cars were rear-wheel drive. For 1985, "Fleetwood" was used on new front wheel drive models which were made through 1992. In 1987, a stretched wheelbase car was offered and named the Fleetwood 60 Special, a name which was last used in 1970 for the non-Brougham RWD Fleetwood car. During this time, the rear wheel drive cars built on the older Fleetwood platform dating from 1977 continued to be offered as "Fleetwood Brougham" (later shortened to "Brougham"). In 1993, a new rear-wheel drive Fleetwood was introduced, but was discontinued after 1996.
Before 1934, all Cadillac models could be ordered with bodies built by General Motors' Fleetwood operation in Fleetwood, Pennsylvania, instead of their usual Fisher Body, and between 1935 and 1941, cars bearing the Fleetwood name were assembled there.
Lawrence P. Fisher was the Fisher brother most closely involved with Cadillac in its early years. In 1916 he joined the Fisher Body Company that had been formed by two of his brothers in 1908. Larry (as people knew him) was one of four of the seven Fisher brothers who brought Fisher Body Corporation under the General Motors umbrella in 1919. In May 1925 Alfred P. Sloan, then the head of General Motors, appointed Fisher as Cadillac General Manager, an office he retained through 1934. Fisher immediately went to work adding exclusive, custom bodies to the Cadillac range. Thus, he oversaw the purchase of the Fleetwood Metal Body Company by the Fisher Body Corporation in September 1925.
The Fleetwood Body Company of Fleetwood, Pennsylvania, was founded by Harry Urich in the nineteenth century. It began as a small community of craftsmen founded by Henry Fleetwood, Esq. of Penwortham, near Lancaster, England (the Fleetwood family flourished in England in the 17th and 18th centuries). The rich traditions of 300 years of coach-building that the Fleetwood Body Company applied to its work on cars secured for it a high reputation in automobile circles worldwide by the 1920s.Coachwork was built by Fleetwood for a variety of luxury makes through 1924.
After the Fisher Body Corporation purchased the Fleetwood Body Company in 1925, Fleetwood bodies were reserved exclusively for Cadillac. By 1929 GM had purchased the remaining stock holdings of the Fisher Body Corporation and thus became sole owner of both the Fisher and Fleetwood companies.From 1927 through 1934 all Cadillac series offered Fleetwood bodies as an option.
After 1934, Cadillac became more selective in offering Fleetwood bodies on its series and by 1938 the only way to obtain a Fleetwood bodied car was by buying a Cadillac Series 75 or 90, as even the Cadillac Sixty Special had a Fisher body in its inaugural year. The Fleetwood script and crest would not appear on the exterior of any Cadillac until the 1947 model year when it appeared on the rear deck lid of the Sixty Special. By 1952 it also appeared on the rear deck lid of the Series 75. In 1957 the Cadillac Series 70 Eldorado Brougham joined the Sixty Special and the Series 75 as the only Cadillac models with Fleetwood bodies although Fleetwood script or crests did not appear anywhere on the exterior of the car.This marked the first time in 20 years that a Fleetwood bodied car was paired with the Brougham name. When production of the Eldorado Brougham was shifted in 1959 from the Cadillac Fleetwood plant in Detroit to Pininfarina in Turin, Italy, only then did it acquire Fleetwood wheel discs and doorsill moldings, presumably because the design work and final touches were still being done by Fleetwood.
Production of the Eldorado Brougham ceased in 1961 but in 1963 the Eldorado Biarritz also became Fleetwood bodied and immediately acquired Fleetwood crests on its rear quartersand Fleetwood rocker panel moldings. The 1963 Eldorado Biarritz was also the first Fleetwood bodied convertible since the Cadillac Series 75 stopped offering 4-door and 2-door convertible body styles and production of the Cadillac Series 90 ceased in 1941.
In 1965, the Eldorado, Sixty Special, and Series 75 models were designated as Fleetwood “subseries” but this would only last through the 1972 model year, and during this period there never was a separate Fleetwood series per se.Fleetwood became a much more integral part of a Cadillac series name in 1977 with the introduction of the Cadillac Fleetwood Brougham and the Cadillac Fleetwood Limousine, which replaced the Fleetwood Sixty Special Brougham and the Fleetwood 75 respectively. In 1985, Fleetwood became a separate series in its own right.
|Assembly||Lake Orion, Michigan, U.S.|
|Body and chassis|
|Body style||4-door sedan |
|Layout||Transverse front-engine, front-wheel drive|
|Related|| Cadillac Sixty Special |
Buick Park Avenue
|Transmission||4-speed TH-440-T4 automatic |
4-speed 4T60 automatic
4-speed 4T60E automatic
|Wheelbase||1985–88: 110.8 in (2,814 mm)|
1989–92 2-doors: 110.8 in (2,814 mm)
1989–92 4-doors:113.8 in (2,891 mm)
|Length||1985–86: 195.0 in (4,953 mm)|
1987–88: 196.5 in (4,991 mm)
1989 2-door: 202.3 in (5,138 mm)
1989 4-door: 205.3 in (5,215 mm)
1990 2-door: 202.7 in (5,149 mm)
1991–92 2-door: 202.6 in (5,146 mm)
1990–92 4-door: 205.6 in (5,222 mm)
|Width||1985–88: 71.7 in (1,821 mm)|
1989: 72.5 in (1,842 mm)
1990: 71.7 in (1,821 mm)
1991–92: 73.4 in (1,864 mm)
|Height||1985–89: 55.0 in (1,397 mm)|
1990–92 2-door: 54.9 in (1,394 mm)
1990–92 4-door: 55.2 in (1,402 mm)
|Curb weight||3,500–3,900 lb (1,588–1,769 kg)|
A new front wheel drive C-body platform was introduced in 1985. The Fleetwood shared the same 110.8 inches (2,810 mm) wheelbase as the other C-body cars, the DeVille, Buick Electra, and Oldsmobile Ninety-Eight. The Fleetwood Brougham continued to use the RWD platform, (which was redesignated as "D-body" for 1985) through 1986.
As had been the case since the 1977 model year, there were little more than trim differences between the Fleetwood and the DeVille. For 1985, the Fleetwood was actually a DeVille trim option, rather than a separate model. The optional d'Elegance package, added tufted-button seating among other niceties for the FWD Fleetwood sedan. The Fleetwood coupe was dropped after the 1986 model year, but returned in 1989.
A new Cadillac Fleetwood Sixty Special model was added to the lineup for 1987 and 1988 and used a stretched 115.8 inches (2,940 mm) version of the new C-body platform, while the 1985 through 1987 Fleetwood Series 75 used a 134.4 inches (3,410 mm) stretched version of the same platform. The aluminum 4.1 L HT-4100 V8 was replaced by the 4.5 L HT-4500 for 1988. The engine displacement was increased for 1991 to the 4.9 L HT-4900 .
The Fleetwood line was redesigned for the 1989 model year. To visually differentiate from the DeVilles which had also been redesigned, the upper-rung Fleetwood and Sixty Special models came with fender skirts over the rear wheels, while the DeVille had full rear-wheel openings. The Fleetwood coupe remained on the old 110.8 in (2,810 mm) wheelbase, while the sedan's wheelbase increased by 3 inches (76 millimetres). The US$30,000+ sticker prices were lower compared to the large German luxury cars of the time. but the Fleetwoods lacked the performance and cornering/handling characteristics of the import rivals.
Power was increased to 180 hp (134 kW) from the same 4.5 L engine for 1990 through the use of a dual-stage intake manifold and other changes. It was replaced by the 200 hp (149 kW) 4.9 L HT-4900 for 1991.
The Fleetwood nameplate departed the front-drive lineup for 1993 (as Fleetwood was transferred to the new rear-drive replacement for the 1992 Brougham). Instead, the Sixty Special nameplate was used on the front-wheel drive model for 1993. A total of 5,292 Sixty Specials were built during 1993, including 688 with the optional "Ultra" Package that featured 22-way adjustable front seats, designed in Italy by Giorgio Giugiaro. This seating package had been standard on the Sixty Special since 1989, but in 1993, it became a $3,550 option. While it was based upon the DeVille, the Sixty Special included eleven items as standard equipment, while those eleven items were optional at extra cost on DeVilles. There were options for the Sixty Special, that were unavailable on the DeVille, such as "Memory Seat" for the driver with two recall settings, an "Exit" button" when pushed automatically powered the driver seat all the way rearward, and dual front seat power recliners.
Both the Fleetwood and DeVille were coded as C-bodies in the fourth digit of the VIN. The fifth digit coded the DeVille as "D" (with the later Touring Sedan becoming "T"), the Fleetwood as "B", and the Fleetwood Sixty Special as "S". The Sixty Special became the "G" code for 1991, and switched back to "B" for its 1993 run.
|Displacement||Power at rpm||Torque at rpm|
|249.4 cu in (4,087 cc) HT-4100 V8||125 hp (93 kW) at 4200||190 lb⋅ft (258 N⋅m) at 2200|
|272.6 cu in (4,467 cc) HT-4500 V8||155 hp (116 kW)|
|272.6 cu in (4,467 cc) HT-4500 V8||180 hp (134 kW)|
|298.6 cu in (4,893 cc) HT-4900 V8||200 hp (149 kW)||275 lb⋅ft (373 N⋅m)|
|262.5 cu in (4,302 cc) LS2 V6||85 hp (63 kW) at 3600||165 lb⋅ft (224 N⋅m) at 1600|
|Assembly||Arlington, Texas, U.S.|
|Body and chassis|
|Body style||4-door sedan|
|Related|| Buick Roadmaster |
Chevrolet Impala SS
Oldsmobile Custom Cruiser
|Engine||5.7 L L05 V8 |
5.7 L LT1 V8
|Transmission||4-speed 4L60 automatic |
4-speed 4L60E automatic
|Wheelbase||121.5 in (3,086 mm)|
|Length||225.0 in (5,715 mm)|
|Width||78.0 in (1,981 mm)|
|Height||57.1 in (1,450 mm)|
|Curb weight||4,600–4,700 lb (2,087–2,132 kg)|
For 1993, the Fleetwood name (and exterior) was switched from the DeVille's front wheel drive C-body to the newly revised rear wheel drive D-body that the Cadillac Brougham had used previously. It was one of the first American front wheel drive vehicles to be returned to rear-wheel drive. At 225 inches (5,700 mm) overall, the Fleetwood was the longest production car made in the United States at the time. All Fleetwoods except for the commercial chassis had standard antilock brakes, traction control, and dual front airbags. In 1994, Cadillac used the Corvette-derived LT1 350 cu in (5.7 L) engine to rated at 260 hp (194 kW) along with the new 4L60E automatic transmission. Between 1993 and 1996, the Fleetwood commercial chassis was used instead of the DeVille for most funeral coaches and limousines produced during these years. The DeVille was used again in 1997, after production of the Fleetwood ceased. After 1996, the Cadillac Fleetwood was retired by General Motors along with all other rear-wheel drive sedans and the assembly plant was converted to truck production for the Chevrolet Suburban and Tahoe because of the increasing demand for SUVs.
The Brougham option package included a full vinyl top, C-pillar badging, specific seat design with six-way driver's seat memory, and heated three-position lumbar front seats, instrument panel badging, rear-seat vanity mirrors, and rear-seat storage armrest. The full vinyl top could be deleted from the package, and the seats could be upholstered in either Prestwick Cloth, or leather.
Other options included a CD player, a full size spare tire, a sliding glass moonroof (dubbed "Astro roof"), chrome wheels, a security package, and an automatically dimming rear-view mirror.
The 7,000 lb (3,200 kg) trailer towing package was made available 1993, a return to production sedan since the 1971–1976 Cadillac Sixty Special.[ citation needed ] The RPO V4P package included heavy-duty cooling (RPO V08, which consisted of a seven-blade mechanical primary fan, a heavy-duty electrical secondary fan, and an extra capacity radiator), RPO FE2 Suspension System Ride Handling, HD 4L60 transmission, RPO KC4 Cooling System Engine Oil, RPO KD1 Cooling System Transmission Oil, RPO KG9 140 amp alternator, and RPO GT4 3.73 gears with an 8.5-inch ring gear. In 1994–1996, the V4P package was revised with RPO GU6 3.42 gears with the new more powerful RPO LT1 260 hp (194 kW) V8, and HD 4L60E transmission with revised accumulators to shift smoother with the shorter rear axle gearing.
|350 cu in (5.7 L) L05 V8||185 hp (138 kW)||304 lb⋅ft (412 N⋅m)|
|350 cu in (5.7 L) LT1 V8||260 hp (194 kW)||330 lb⋅ft (447 N⋅m)|
|Total Production = 90,535|
The Fleetwood Limited, an extended-wheelbase modification of the Cadillac DeVille, was built between 1998 and 1999 by the Superior Coach Company (Accubuilt) in Lima, Ohio. A regular production Cadillac DeVille's wheelbase was stretched by 6.0 in (150 mm), and its overall length by 12.0 in (300 mm), giving it more rear legroom and a larger trunk than the standard DeVille. A total of 781 were built in the two years the model was in production (314 in 1998, and 467 in 1999).
The Cadillac Motor Car Division is a division of the American automobile manufacturer General Motors Company (GM) that designs and builds luxury vehicles. Its major markets are the United States, Canada, and China. Cadillac models are distributed in 34 additional markets worldwide. Cadillac automobiles are at the top of the luxury field within the United States. In 2019, Cadillac sold 390,458 vehicles worldwide, a record for the brand.
The Cadillac Eldorado is a luxury car manufactured and marketed by Cadillac from 1952 to 2002 over twelve generations.
The Seville was manufactured by Cadillac between 1975 and 2004 as a smaller-sized, premium model. It was replaced by the STS in 2004.
The Oldsmobile 98 is the full-size flagship model of Oldsmobile that was produced from 1940 until 1996. The name — reflecting a "Series 90" fitted with an 8-cylinder engine — first appeared in 1941 and was used again after American consumer automobile production resumed post-World War II. It was, as it would remain, the division's top-of-the-line model, with lesser Oldsmobiles having lower numbers such as the A-body 66 and 68, and the B-body 76 and 78. The Series 60 was retired in 1949, the same year the Oldsmobile 78 was replaced by the 88. The Oldsmobile 76 was retired after 1950. This left the two remaining number-names to carry on into the 1990s as the bread and butter of the full-size Oldsmobile lineup until the Eighty Eight-based Regency replaced the 98 in 1997.
The Pontiac Bonneville is an automobile built by Pontiac from 1957 to 2005. Bonnevilles were full-sized, with the exception of a brief period of mid-size between 1982–1986. The brand was introduced as a limited production performance convertible during the 1957 model year. The Bonneville, and its platform partner, the Grand Ville, are some of the largest Pontiacs ever built; in station wagon body styles they reached just over 230 inches (5.8 m) long, and at 5,000 pounds (2,300 kg) and more were also some of the heaviest cars produced at the time. They were also used as a basis for various specialty cars such as hearses.
The Lincoln Town Car is a model line of full-size luxury sedans that was marketed by the Lincoln division of the American automaker Ford Motor Company. Deriving its name from a limousine body style, Lincoln marketed the Town Car from 1981 to 2011, with the nameplate previously serving as the flagship trim of the Lincoln Continental. Produced across three generations for 30 model years, the Town Car served as the flagship sedan of Ford Motor Company, marketed directly against the Cadillac Fleetwood Brougham.
The Cadillac Cimarron is an entry-level luxury car that was manufactured and marketed by the Cadillac division of General Motors for model years 1982–1988. The first compact Cadillac, the Cimarron competed with similarly sized sedans from Europe.
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The Buick Roadmaster is an automobile that was built by Buick from 1936 to 1958, and again from 1991 to 1996. Roadmasters produced between 1936 and 1958 were built on Buick's longest non-limousine wheelbase and shared their basic structure with entry-level Cadillac and, after 1940, senior Oldsmobiles. Between 1946 and 1957 the Roadmaster served as Buick's flagship.
The GM D platform, was a General Motors automobile platform designation, used in two series for large body-on-frame rear-wheel drive automobiles. For the majority of its existence the D-Body represented the largest Cadillac, either the Fleetwood Series 75 or the Fleetwood Limousine.
The Cadillac Brougham was a line of luxury cars manufactured by the Cadillac Motor Car Division of General Motors from the 1987 through 1992 model years and was previously sold from 1977 to 1986 as the Cadillac Fleetwood Brougham. The optional "d'Elegance" trim package that was introduced during the Fleetwood era remained available. The model received a facelift in 1990 and was replaced by an all-new Cadillac Fleetwood in 1993.
The Cadillac Sixty Special is a name used by Cadillac to denote a special model since the 1938 Harley Earl–Bill Mitchell–designed extended wheelbase derivative of the Series 60, often referred to as the Fleetwood Sixty Special. The Sixty Special designation was reserved for some of Cadillac's most luxurious vehicles. It was offered as a four-door sedan and briefly as a four-door hardtop. This exclusivity was reflected in the introduction of the exclusive Fleetwood Sixty Special Brougham d'Elegance in 1973 and the Fleetwood Sixty Special Brougham Talisman in 1974, and it was offered as one trim package below the Series 70 limousine. The Sixty Special name was temporarily retired in 1976 but returned again in 1987 and continued through 1993.
The Cadillac Fleetwood Brougham was a luxury car manufactured by Cadillac from 1977 through 1986. In 1987, the Fleetwood Brougham name was shortened to simply Brougham, with production continuing through 1992 with only minor updates.
The Cadillac Series 70 is a full-size V8-powered series of cars that were produced by Cadillac from the 1930s to the 1980s. It replaced the 1935 355E as the company's mainstream car just as the much less expensive Series 60 was introduced. The Series 72 and 67 were similar to the Series 75 but the 72 and 67 were produced on a slightly shorter and longer wheelbase respectively. The Series 72 was only produced in 1940 and the Series 67 was only produced in 1941 and 1942. For much of the postwar era, it was the top-of-the-line Cadillac, and was Cadillac's factory-built limousine offering.
The Cadillac Series 62 is a series of cars which was produced by Cadillac from 1940 through 1964. Originally designed to complement the entry level Series 65, it became the Cadillac Series 6200 in 1959, and remained that until it was renamed to Cadillac Calais for the 1965 model year. The Series 62 was also marketed as the Sixty-Two and the Series Sixty-Two.
The Cadillac V-63 is a large luxury automobile that was introduced in September 1923 by Cadillac as a 1924 model, replacing the previous Type 61. It used the GM C platform and was replaced by the Cadillac Series 355 in 1931. It retained the name Cadillac V8 introduced with the previous generation Cadillac Type 51.
The Cadillac DeVille was originally a trim level and later a separate model produced by Cadillac. The first car to bear the name was the 1949 Coupe de Ville, a pillarless two-door hardtop body style with a prestige trim level above that of the Series 62 luxury coupe. The last model to be formally known as a DeVille was the 2005 Cadillac DeVille, a full-size sedan, the largest car in the Cadillac model range at the time. The next year, the DeVille was officially renamed the Cadillac DTS.
The GM C Platform was a rear wheel drive (RWD) automobile chassis used by General Motors for its full-sized cars from 1925 through 1984. From at least 1941, when the B-body followed suit in adopting the C-body's pioneering lower and wider bodystyle with no running boards, it may be viewed as a larger and more upscale version of the GM B platform. It was also related to the full-size luxury D platform. With the introduction of a severely downsized front-wheel drive new GM C platform in 1985 it was redesignated as GM's D platform and continued in production for a number of Cadillac models through 1996.
The Cadillac High Technology Engine was a V8 engine produced by the Cadillac division of General Motors from 1982 to 1995.
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to Cadillac Fleetwood .|
|Full-size||de Ville||de Ville||de Ville||de Ville||de Ville|
|V-63||355||70||Sixty Special||Sixty Special||Sixty Special||Sixty Special||Sixty Special||Sixty Special||Sixty Special Brougham||Brougham|
|V-16||Eldorado Brougham||Eldorado Brougham|
|Personal luxury||Eldorado convertible||Eldorado||Eldorado||Eldorado convertible||Eldorado convertible||Eldorado hardtop||Eldorado||Eldorado coupé|
|Full-size||de Ville||de Ville||DeVille||DeVille||DTS||XTS|
|Sixty Special (FWD)||CT6-V|
|Fleetwood Brougham||Brougham||Fleetwood (RWD)|
|Limousine||Fleetwood Limousine||Series 75|
|Extended length SUV||Escalade ESV||Escalade ESV||Escalade ESV||Escalade ESV|
|SUT||Escalade EXT||Escalade EXT|