Chris Cutler

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Chris Cutler
ChrisCutler April2007.jpg
Cutler with the Peter Blegvad Trio performing at a RIO Festival in Southern France, April 2007
Background information
Birth nameChris Cutler
Born (1947-01-04) 4 January 1947 (age 73)
Washington, D.C.,
United States [1]
Genres Avant-rock, cyber jazz, experimental, free improvisation
Occupation(s)Musician, lyricist,
Music theorist,
Record company executive
InstrumentsPercussion
Years active1960s–present
Labels Recommended
Associated acts Henry Cow, Art Bears, Cassiber, News from Babel, Pere Ubu, The Science Group, Fred Frith, Lutz Glandien, Peter Blegvad, Brainville 3, The Residents
Website www.ccutler.co.uk
Cutler in Aarhus, Denmark, February 2017 Chris-cutler DSC02634.jpg
Cutler in Aarhus, Denmark, February 2017

Chris Cutler (born 4 January 1947) [1] is an English percussionist, composer, lyricist and music theorist. Best known for his work with English avant-rock group Henry Cow, Cutler was also a member and drummer of other bands, including Art Bears, News from Babel, Pere Ubu and (briefly) Gong/Mothergong. He has collaborated with many musicians and groups, including Fred Frith, Lindsay Cooper, Zeena Parkins, Peter Blegvad, Telectu and The Residents, and has appeared on over 100 recordings. Cutler's career spans over four decades and he still performs actively throughout the world.

Contents

Cutler created and runs the British independent record label Recommended Records and is the editor of its sound-magazine, RēR Quarterly . He has given a number of public lectures on music, published numerous articles and papers, and written a book on the political theory of contemporary music, File Under Popular (1984). [2] Cutler also assembled and released The 40th Anniversary Henry Cow Box Set (2009), a collection of over 10 hours of previously unreleased recordings by the band.

Biography

Chris Cutler was born in January 1947 in Washington, D.C. [1] to a British intelligence officer and his Austrian wife. [3] In 1948 the family moved to England, where Cutler was brought up. [4] He never studied music but tried his hand at banjo, guitar, trumpet and flute while at school. He finally settled for drums "because I wanted to be in a band and drummers were scarcest." [5] Cutler formed his first band in 1963, playing Shadows and Ventures instrumental covers, then played in several R&B and soul bands. In 1966 he joined a band called Louise, with Tony Durant (later of Fuchsia), which performed on the London psychedelic club circuit for three years before breaking up. [6] Looking for work, Cutler placed a series of advertisements in Melody Maker over a period of nine months in 1970. This put him in touch with a number of musicians which led to Cutler and keyboardist Dave Stewart of Egg forming The Ottawa Music Company, a 26 piece rock composer's orchestra, in 1971. Soon afterwards, Henry Cow, looking to replace the drummer who had just left them, responded to one of Cutler's adverts and invited him to a rehearsal. [7]

Henry Cow

Henry Cow had been formed in 1968 by Cambridge University students Fred Frith (guitar) and Tim Hodgkinson (woodwind and keyboards). By 1971 the band had gone through a number of personnel changes and it was only when Cutler joined them in September 1971 that the group stabilised. Frith, Hodgkinson and Cutler became Henry Cow's permanent core until the band split up in 1978. [8]

Henry Cow's prominence in progressive rock circles [9] launched the careers of many of its members, including Cutler's. Their music was uncompromising and this eventually put them at odds with the mainstream music business, forcing the band to do everything themselves: from recording, manufacturing and releasing their own albums, to organising their own tours and being their own management and agency. All this proved invaluable experience for Cutler that would assist him greatly in his future endeavours. The group spent most of its last three years touring Europe and many of Cutler's future collaborations resulted from contact made with musicians on these tours. In Henry Cow's last few months they initiated Rock in Opposition (RIO), a collective of like-minded bands they had encountered through Europe that were united in their opposition to the music industry. [lower-alpha 1]

After Henry Cow disbanded in 1978, Cutler created Recommended Records in London, an independent label and distribution network for RIO artists. The record label quickly filled the gap left by commercial labels and soon began to also release non-RIO bands and musicians. [10] Recommended Records's aim was to produce records of high technical and musical quality, placing the musicians' interests first and profits second. This strategy, however, led to the label experiencing financial difficulties from time to time, but it stuck to its principles and has survived for over 25 years. There are a number of musicians whose work would never have seen the light of day had it not been for Cutler's label. [10]

Cutler also founded November Books in 1982, the publishing wing of Recommended Records.

Other bands and projects

Cutler's first post-Henry Cow project was Art Bears (1978–1981), a group formed by Cutler, and fellow Henry Cow members, Fred Frith (guitar and keyboards) and Dagmar Krause (vocals), six months before Henry Cow split up. Art Bears were a song-oriented group that recorded three studio albums. Cutler's main contributions were the songs' texts and (with Frith) the album productions. Art Bears (in the wake of Henry Cow) were well received by critics [11] which further boosted Cutler's reputation in "progressive" circles.

In 1982, Cutler co-founded the Anglo-German group Cassiber (1982–1992) with German musicians Heiner Goebbels, Alfred Harth and Christoph Anders. Over the next ten years Cassiber produced five albums and toured Europe, Asia, South and North America. Their music was very experimental and often involved spontaneously improvising pre-existing structured and arranged material. [12]

Chris Cutler at the Hyperion Ensemble Spectrum XXI festival in Paris, 3 November 2007. ChrisCutler November2007.jpg
Chris Cutler at the Hyperion Ensemble Spectrum XXI festival in Paris, 3 November 2007.

In 1983, Cutler formed News from Babel (1983–1986), another song-orientated group with core members Cutler, Lindsay Cooper (from Henry Cow), Zeena Parkins (a United States harpist) and Dagmar Krause. With guest musicians (including Robert Wyatt and Sally Potter) they made two critically acclaimed studio albums, but did not perform live. [13]

Cutler was a member of the United States experimental rock band Pere Ubu between 1987 and 1989. He had first encountered them in Washington DC in 1978 while exploring the possibility of Henry Cow touring America (which never materialised as Henry Cow disbanded soon after). Cutler kept in touch with Pere Ubu until they split in the early 1980s and their singer, David Thomas began a solo career. Cutler and Lindsay Cooper joined Thomas in 1982 to form David Thomas and the Pedestrians, and for the next three years they toured Europe and North America and made two albums. Over the next few years, some of the ex-Pere Ubu members began joining Thomas's Pedestrians. Cooper left in 1985 and by 1987 the group (now called David Thomas and the Wooden Birds) was effectively Pere Ubu again. As Pere Ubu, the band (with Cutler) made two albums. Cutler left in 1989.

In 1991, Cutler and German composer Lutz Glandien recorded the critically acclaimed song project Domestic Stories. Cutler wrote the song texts and played drums, while Glandien composed and performed the music with samplers and computers. The supporting musicians were Dagmar Krause (vocals), Fred Frith (bass and guitar) and Alfred Harth (saxophone and clarinet). Cutler collaborated with Glandien again in 1994 to record Scenes from no Marriage and to participate in p53, a commission for the 25th Frankfurt Jazz Festival with Zygmunt Krauze, Marie Goyette, Otomo Yoshihide.

The (ec) Nudes were a band Cutler, Wädi Gysi (guitar) and Amy Denio (vocals, bass, saxophone, accordion) formed in 1993. The trio recorded Vanishing Point, a CD of songs with texts by Cutler and music by Gysi and Denio, and toured all over Europe and visited Brasil. [14] Bob Drake later joined the group on bass and as a quartet they toured all over Europe, Canada and Brazil, but did not record. Cutler left the group in 1994.

Cutler and Yugoslav keyboardist and composer Stevan Tickmayer formed The Science Group in 1997 to record A Mere Coincidence (1999), an album of songs on science topics, including quantum mechanics. Cutler wrote the texts, Tickmayer composed the music, and the rest of the group comprised Bob Drake (bass guitar, vocals) and Claudio Puntin (bass clarinet), with guests Amy Denio (vocals) and Fred Frith (guitar). In 2003 Cutler and Tickmayer reconstituted The Science Group as a quartet with Bob Drake (bass guitar) and Mike Johnson (guitars), and released an instrumental album, Spoors. In 1998, he joined John Wolf Brennan's sextet "HeXtet" to record a series of poetry settings, from Edgar Allan Poe to contemporary Irish poets like Theo Dorgan and Paula Meehan, together with legendary singer Julie Tippetts, saxophonist Evan Parker, trombonist Paul Rutherford and clarinetist Peter Whyman.

Other collaborations

Fred Frith (left) and Cutler performing in Austria, November 2009. FredFrith & ChrisCutler Nov2009.jpg
Fred Frith (left) and Cutler performing in Austria, November 2009.

The ex-Henry Cow members have always maintained close contact with each other and Cutler still collaborates with many of them. [8] Cutler and Fred Frith have been touring Europe, Asia and the Americas since 1978 and have given over 100 duo performances. Four albums from some of these concerts have been released. In December 2006, Cutler, Frith and Tim Hodgkinson performed together at The Stone in New York City, only their second concert performance since Henry Cow's demise in 1978. [15] [16] Cutler, John Greaves and Geoff Leigh formed The Artaud Beats with Yumi Hara. Cutler and Hara also work together in Half the Sky, a band formed in 2015 to play the music of former Henry Cow member Lindsay Cooper, principally pieces she wrote for News from Babel and Henry Cow. The band have performed in Japan, France, the UK and Germany. [17]

Cutler setting up before a live performance by the band Half the Sky, in London, June 2017 Chris Cutler setting up before a Half the Sky performance.jpg
Cutler setting up before a live performance by the band Half the Sky, in London, June 2017

On 4 November 2006 Cutler, Jon Rose (violin) and Zeena Parkins (harp) performed with the BBC Scottish Symphony Orchestra conducted by Ilan Volkov, at the Glasgow City Halls in Glasgow, Scotland. The concert was recorded and later broadcast by BBC Radio 3 on 24 March 2007. [18]

Other musicians and bands Cutler has performed and recorded with over the years include Tim Hodgkinson, Lindsay Cooper, Peter Blegvad, John Greaves, René Lussier, Jean Derome, Tom Cora, Aksak Maboul, The Residents, The Work, Duck and Cover, Les 4 Guitaristes de l'Apocalypso-Bar, Kalahari Surfers, Hail, Biota and Brainville 3.

In 2009, Cutler toured North America with avant-garde Czech violinist Iva Bittová. In 2015 he collaborated with Alfred Harth founding a group Hope, a commission for the 46th Frankfurt Jazz Festival with Kazuhisa Uchihashi, Mitsuru Nasuno.

Solo performances

Since the late 1990s, Cutler began giving solo electrified percussion performances to audiences across the world. His first was in Tokyo in June 1998, which was recorded in a documentary film, At the Edge of Chaos (also known as 12 June 1998), by award-winning film director Shinji Aoyama. The first part of the film is equipment set-up and sound-checks, plus interviews with Cutler, while the second part is the improvised concert itself.

In 2001 Cutler released Solo: A Descent Into the Maelstrom, an album of solos on his electrified drum kit taken from live performances in Europe and the United States between August 2000 and May 2001. In 2005 he released Twice Around the World, an album of real-time recordings made from all over the world between 23.30 and midnight GMT. The material was taken from a daily half-hour radio programme Cutler ran for Resonance FM: Out of the Blue Radio between July 2001 and July 2002. A companion album, There and Back Again, comprising 44 environmental recordings, was released by Cutler in 2006.

Electrified drum kit

Chris Cutler never studied music and taught himself drumming on makeshift drum kits assembled with whatever was on hand. He slowly developed a technique using a "top-down" approach as opposed to the traditional "bottom-up" approach used by schooled drummers. Drummers are first taught basic patterns which are later combined into more complex patterns. Cutler learned the opposite way, hearing or imagining a sound and then disciplining his hands and feet to reproduce it. This "top-down" approach resulted in a unique style of drumming that pervades all of Cutler's performances and recordings.

By the time Cutler was drumming for Henry Cow in 1971, he had become a perfectly competent, albeit unconventional, drummer. The nature of Henry Cow was to experiment and explore and it was here that Cutler developed and refined his drumming techniques. It was also here that he started to electrify his drum kit. He began by attaching old telephone mouthpieces to drums and cymbals, and connecting them to an amplifier and a reverb unit. He later added a small mixer for four independent inputs. The effect was very basic: a few low-grade inputs with only equalisation and reverberation to manipulate.

By 1982, Cutler had added another small mixer, a pitch shifter and a delay unit. He had also begun using cheap guitar transducers and a table full of additional wired objects (pans, metal trays, small tambours and egg-slicers).

Cutler experimented briefly with drum pads triggered to play sampled or synthesized sounds, but quickly dismissed this option because he found them unresponsive and inflexible. They reduced a drum to nothing more than a switch: hit it and a pre-programmed sound is emitted, irrespective of how hard or in what manner the drum is struck. Cutler preferred real-time processing: amplifying and modifying actual sounds produced by the drum, making it a kind of an electroacoustic instrument, immediate and responsive, and retaining all the qualities of an acoustic drum kit.

Cutler went on to wire his entire drum kit, using a 16 channel mixer with multi-effect processors, a "Space pedal", a "Whammy pedal", a PDS 8000 and an old Boss pitch shifter/delay unit. In addition to transducers, he also attached miniature microphones to some of the drums and sticks. Cutler introduced feedback into the mix by placing a monitor speaker near the kit.

The electrified drum kit continues to evolve and to Cutler it is "satisfyingly unpredictable", responsive to all his old techniques while continuing to generate new ones. It has a unique "voice" that Cutler still has not plumbed the depths of. This is what prompted him to start giving solo performances because it tested his skill at playing an instrument he had to treat as an equal and evolve with. [19]

Writings and talks

Talks

In the early 1980s, Chris Cutler became active in the International Association for the Study of Popular Music (IASPM) and started giving talks and participating in symposia throughout the world. Some of the talks he has given are:

Essays

Cutler has written and published a number of essays on music, including:

Radio broadcasts

From 2012, Cutler has been producing a series of podcasts/lectures entitled "Probes" that examine the history of music from the invention of sound recording to the present day. The series was commissioned by the Museum of Modern Art, Barcelona, and published and broadcast by Quaderns d'àudio/Ràdio Web MACBA.

Podcast transcripts:

Books

Cutler has also published two books:

Discography

Here is a selection of albums Chris Cutler has performed on, showing the year they were first released:

Bands and projects

With Henry Cow
With Henry Cow/Slapp Happy
With Art Bears
With The Residents
With Aksak Maboul
With Cassiber
With The Work
With Fred Frith
With Lindsay Cooper, Bill Gilonis, Tim Hodgkinson and Robert Wyatt
With News from Babel
With David Thomas and the Pedestrians
With Duck and Cover
Les 4 Guitaristes de l'Apocalypso-Bar
With Peter Blegvad
With Pere Ubu
With Hail
With Lutz Glandien
With The (ec) Nudes
With p53
With Biota
With Zeena Parkins
With René Lussier and Jean Derome
With John Wolf Brennan
With Thomas Dimuzio
With The Science Group
With Roberto Musci, Jon Rose and Claudio Gabbiani
With Vril
With The Orckestra
With Brainville 3
With Thomas Dimuzio and Fred Frith

Solo

Bibliography

Films

See also

Footnotes

  1. See Rock in Opposition.
  2. Golden State is an LP-only release; "a CD just wouldn't be the same, sonically, visually or ontologically." – Chris Cutler. [25]

Related Research Articles

Henry Cow English avant-rock group

Henry Cow were an English experimental rock group, founded at Cambridge University in 1968 by multi-instrumentalists Fred Frith and Tim Hodgkinson. Henry Cow's personnel fluctuated over their decade together, but drummer Chris Cutler, bassist John Greaves, and bassoonist/oboist Lindsay Cooper were important long-term members alongside Frith and Hodgkinson.

Tim Hodgkinson English experimental music composer and performer

Timothy "Tim" George Hodgkinson is an English experimental music composer and performer, principally on reeds, lap steel guitar, and keyboards. He first became known as one of the core members of the British avant-rock group Henry Cow, which he formed with Fred Frith in 1968. After the demise of Henry Cow, he participated in numerous bands and projects, eventually concentrating on composing contemporary music and performing as an improviser.

Recommended Records British independent record label

Recommended Records (RēR) is a British independent record label and distribution network founded by Chris Cutler with Nick Hobbs in March 1978. RēR features largely "Rock in Opposition" and related music, but it also distributes selected music released on other independent labels.

<i>Legend</i> (Henry Cow album) 1973 studio album by Henry Cow

The Henry Cow Legend is the debut album of British avant-rock group Henry Cow. It was recorded at Virgin Records' Manor studios over three weeks in May and June 1973, mixed in July 1973, and released in September 1973.

<i>Unrest</i> (Henry Cow album) 1974 studio album by Henry Cow

Unrest is an album by British avant-rock group Henry Cow, recorded at Virgin Records' Manor studios in February and March 1974. It was their second album and was released in May 1974. It was their first album including oboe and bassoon player Lindsay Cooper, who replaced saxophonist Geoff Leigh.

<i>In Praise of Learning</i> 1975 studio album by Henry Cow with Slapp Happy

In Praise of Learning is a studio album by British avant-rock group Henry Cow, recorded at Virgin Records' Manor studios in February and March 1975, and released in May 1975. On this album, Henry Cow had expanded to include members of Slapp Happy, who had merged with the group after the two had collaborated on Desperate Straights in 1974. The merger ended after recording In Praise of Learning when Peter Blegvad and Anthony Moore from Slapp Happy left the group.

<i>Concerts</i> (Henry Cow album) 1976 live album by Henry Cow

Concerts is a live double album by English avant-rock group Henry Cow, recorded at concerts in London, Italy, the Netherlands and Norway between September 1974 and October 1975. Sides one and two of the LP record consist of composed material while sides three and four contain improvised pieces.

<i>Western Culture</i> (album) 1979 studio album by Henry Cow

Western Culture is a studio album by English avant-rock group Henry Cow, recorded at Sunrise Studios in Kirchberg, Switzerland in January and July–August 1978. It was their last album and was released on Henry Cow's own private label, Broadcast, in 1979. Later editions appeared on Interzone in the US and Celluloid in France. Only the UK Broadcast pressing used the custom label artwork design.

Lindsay Cooper English musician, composer and activist

Lindsay Cooper was an English bassoon and oboe player, composer and political activist. Best known for her work with the band Henry Cow, she was also a member of Comus, National Health, News from Babel and David Thomas and the Pedestrians. She collaborated with a number of musicians, including Chris Cutler and Sally Potter, and co-founded the Feminist Improvising Group. She wrote scores for film and TV and a song cycle Oh Moscow which was performed live around the world in 1987. She also recorded a number of solo albums, including Rags (1980), The Gold Diggers (1983), and Music For Other Occasions (1986).

Aksak Maboul are a Belgian avant-rock band founded in 1977 by Marc Hollander with Vincent Kenis. Aksak Maboul hasn't stopped changing shape and form throughout its existence, exploring diverse musical styles, which however share common aesthetic and musical foundations.

<i>Speechless</i> (Fred Frith album) 1981 studio album by Fred Frith

Speechless is a 1981 solo album by English guitarist, composer and improviser Fred Frith of the group Henry Cow. It was Frith's third solo album, and was originally released in the United States on LP record on The Residents' Ralph record label. It was the second of three solo albums Frith made for the label.

The Work (band) English post-punk rock group

The Work were an English post-punk rock group, founded in 1980 by multi-instrumentalist/composer Tim Hodgkinson and guitarist/composer Bill Gilonis, with bass guitarist Mick Hobbs and drummer Rick Wilson. The band toured Europe in 1981 and 1982, and recorded their first album, Slow Crimes in 1982. After a tour of Japan later that year and releasing Live in Japan, the band split up. In 1989, the Work reformed to record Rubber Cage and performed throughout Europe between 1989 and 1994, releasing another album, See in 1992. A live album, The 4th World, recorded in Germany in 1994, was released in 2010.

<i>Hopes and Fears</i> (Art Bears album) 1978 studio album by Art Bears

Hopes and Fears is the debut album by the English avant-rock group Art Bears. It comprises tracks by Henry Cow, Art Bears's predecessor, recorded at Sunrise Studios, Kirchberg in Switzerland in January 1978, and tracks by Art Bears, recorded at Kaleidophon Studios in London in March 1978.

<i>Greasy Truckers Live at Dingwalls Dance Hall</i> 1974 live album by various artists

Greasy Truckers Live at Dingwalls Dance Hall is a 1974 live double album by various artists recorded at an October 1973 Greasy Truckers concert at the Dingwalls Dance Hall at Camden Lock in Camden Town, London. The concert featured four bands, Camel, Henry Cow, Global Village Trucking Company and Gong, and was recorded with Virgin Records' "Manor Mobile" recording truck.

Cassiber German avant-rock group

Cassiber were a German avant-rock group founded in 1982 by German composer and saxophonist Alfred Harth, German composer, music-theatre director and keyboardist Heiner Goebbels, English drummer Chris Cutler from Henry Cow and German guitarist Christoph Anders. They recorded five albums, toured extensively across Europe, Asia and North America, and disbanded in 1992.

<i>Henry Cow Box</i> 2006 box set by Henry Cow

Henry Cow Box is a seven-CD limited edition box set by English avant-rock group Henry Cow. It was released in December 2006 by Recommended Records and comprises the six original albums Henry Cow released between 1973 and 1979, including those recorded with Slapp Happy. A bonus 3" CD-single was given to advance subscribers of the box set which contains previously unreleased material taken from live performances in Europe by the Orckestra, a merger of Henry Cow, the Mike Westbrook Brass Band and folk singer Frankie Armstrong in 1977. The two bonus CD Orckestra tracks were later reissued on the 2019 Henry Cow Box Redux: The Complete Henry Cow bonus CD, Ex Box – Collected Fragments 1971–1978.

<i>Stockholm & Göteborg</i> 2008 live album by Henry Cow

Volume 6: Stockholm & Göteborg is a live album by English avant-rock group Henry Cow, and is disc 6 of the 10-disc 40th Anniversary Henry Cow Box Set. It was released in September 2008 by RēR Megacorp as a free-standing album in advance of the box set release in January 2009.

<i>The 40th Anniversary Henry Cow Box Set</i> 2009 box set by Henry Cow

The 40th Anniversary Henry Cow Box Set is a nine-CD plus one-DVD limited edition box set by English avant-rock group Henry Cow, and was released by RēR Megacorp in January 2009. It consists of almost 10 hours of previously unreleased recordings made between 1972 and 1978 from concerts, radio broadcasts, one-off projects, events and the studio. Included are new compositions, over four hours of free improvisation, and live performances of some of Henry Cow's original LP repertoire.

Les 4 Guitaristes de lApocalypso-Bar Canadian electric guitar quartet

Les 4 Guitaristes de l'Apocalypso-Bar, also known as Les Quatre Guitaristes de l'Apocalypso-Bar was an electric guitar quartet founded by André Duchesne in Montreal, Quebec, Canada in 1986. It was one of the first electric guitar quartets and was billed as a band from post-apocalypse Canada "inspired by the ghost of Jimi Hendrix".

<i>The Henry Cow Box Redux: The Complete Henry Cow</i> 2019 box set by Henry Cow

The Henry Cow Box Redux: The Complete Henry Cow is a seventeen-CD plus one-DVD box set by English avant-rock group Henry Cow; it was released by RēR Megacorp in December 2019. The box set comprises the previously released 2006 Henry Cow Box and the 2009 40th Anniversary Henry Cow Box Set, totalling over sixteen hours. A bonus CD: Ex Box – Collected Fragments 1971–1978 was given to advance subscribers of the 2019 Box Redux, and contains newly recovered and previously unreleased recordings, plus the contents of the 2006 box set bonus CD-single: "Unreleased Orckestra Extract". The 2019 Box Redux plus the Ex Box bonus CD contains all the officially released studio and live recordings of Henry Cow.

References

  1. 1 2 3 Larkin, Colin (2002). The Virgin Encyclopedia of 70s Music (3rd revised ed.). Virgin. p. 175. ISBN   978-1-85227-947-9.
  2. Cutler, Chris. "Talks and articles". Chris Cutler homepage. Retrieved 22 October 2007.
  3. Piekut 2019, p. 52.
  4. Jones 1995, p. 17.
  5. Cutler, Chris. "Long biography". Chris Cutler homepage. Retrieved 22 November 2006.
  6. "Louise". British Music Archive. Archived from the original on 2 September 2017. Retrieved 2 September 2017.
  7. Ansell, Kenneth. "Dissecting the Cow". Calyx: The Canterbury Music Website. Archived from the original on 4 August 2008. Retrieved 22 December 2009.
  8. 1 2 "Henry Cow". Calyx: The Canterbury Music Website. Retrieved 22 October 2007.
  9. Boisen, Myles. "Henry Cow biography". AllMusic. Retrieved 22 October 2007.
  10. 1 2 Colli, Giuseppe. "Chris Cutler interview, Blow Up, June 1999". Chris Cutler homepage. Retrieved 22 October 2007.
  11. Dougan, John. "The Art Bears". AllMusic. Retrieved 22 October 2007.
  12. Cutler, Chris. "Cassiber". Chris Cutler homepage. Retrieved 22 November 2006.
  13. See News from Babel.
  14. Cutler, Chris. "The (ec) Nudes". Chris Cutler homepage. Retrieved 22 October 2007.
  15. "The Stone calendar". The Stone, New York City. Retrieved 18 December 2006.
  16. "Fred Frith – Tim Hodgkinson – Chris Cutler, The Stone NYC, 16 Dec 2006". Punkcast. Retrieved 10 April 2007.
  17. "Half the Sky", by Osamu Sakamoto, Euro Rock Press, vol. 72, Feb 2017 issue
  18. "Hear and Now: BBC Scottish Symphony Orchestra". BBC Radio 3. Retrieved 30 March 2007.
  19. Cutler, Chris. "The electrified kit". Chris Cutler homepage. Retrieved 22 November 2006.
  20. Cutler, Chris. "Necessity and Choice in Musical Forms: Concerning Musical and Technical Means and Political Needs". The Cassette Mythos. Archived from the original on 8 October 2007. Retrieved 8 June 2007.
  21. Cutler, Chris. "Plunderphonia". Chris Cutler homepage. Retrieved 8 June 2007.
  22. Cutler, Chris. "Scale". Chris Cutler homepage. Retrieved 8 June 2007.
  23. Cutler, Chris. "Thoughts on Music and the Avant Garde". Perfect Sound Forever. Retrieved 8 June 2007.
  24. 1 2 Cutler, Chris. "The Road to Plunderphonia" (PDF). Ràdio Web MACBA. Retrieved 7 January 2011.
  25. Cutler, Chris. "CUTLER, CHRIS, THOMAS DIMUZIO, FRED FRITH: Golden State (LP)". ReR Megacorp. Archived from the original on 15 July 2011. Retrieved 27 May 2010.

Works cited

Further reading