# Complex dynamics

Last updated

Complex dynamics is the study of dynamical systems defined by iteration of functions on complex number spaces. Complex analytic dynamics is the study of the dynamics of specifically analytic functions.

## Notes

1. The Mandelbrot Set, Theme and Variations (London Mathematical Society Lecture Note Series) (No 274) by Tan Lei (Editor), Cambridge University Press, 2000
2. Flek, R; Keen, L (July 13, 2009), "Boundaries of bounded Fatou components of quadratic maps" (PDF), Journal of Difference Equations and Applications, retrieved 2014-12-12
3. John H. Hubbard and Dierk Schleicher (1991). "The Spider Algorithm" (PDF).Cite journal requires `|journal=` (help)

## Related Research Articles

Complex analysis, traditionally known as the theory of functions of a complex variable, is the branch of mathematical analysis that investigates functions of complex numbers. It is useful in many branches of mathematics, including algebraic geometry, number theory, analytic combinatorics, applied mathematics; as well as in physics, including the branches of hydrodynamics, thermodynamics, and particularly quantum mechanics. By extension, use of complex analysis also has applications in engineering fields such as nuclear, aerospace, mechanical and electrical engineering.

The Mandelbrot set is the set of complex numbers for which the function does not diverge when iterated from , i.e., for which the sequence , , etc., remains bounded in absolute value. Its definition is credited to Adrien Douady who named it in tribute to the mathematician Benoit Mandelbrot, a pioneer of fractal geometry.

In complex analysis, the Riemann mapping theorem states that if U is a non-empty simply connected open subset of the complex number plane C which is not all of C, then there exists a biholomorphic mapping f from U onto the open unit disk

In mathematics, a conformal map is a function that locally preserves angles, but not necessarily lengths.

In the context of complex dynamics, a topic of mathematics, the Julia set and the Fatou set are two complementary sets defined from a function. Informally, the Fatou set of the function consists of values with the property that all nearby values behave similarly under repeated iteration of the function, and the Julia set consists of values such that an arbitrarily small perturbation can cause drastic changes in the sequence of iterated function values. Thus the behavior of the function on the Fatou set is "regular", while on the Julia set its behavior is "chaotic".

Pierre Joseph Louis Fatou was a French mathematician and astronomer. He is known for major contributions to several branches of analysis. The Fatou lemma and the Fatou set are named after him.

An external ray is a curve that runs from infinity toward a Julia or Mandelbrot set. Although this curve is only rarely a half-line (ray) it is called a ray because it is an image of a ray.

In mathematics, the tricorn, sometimes called the Mandelbar set, is a fractal defined in a similar way to the Mandelbrot set, but using the mapping instead of used for the Mandelbrot set. It was introduced by W. D. Crowe, R. Hasson, P. J. Rippon, and P. E. D. Strain-Clark. John Milnor found tricorn-like sets as a prototypical configuration in the parameter space of real cubic polynomials, and in various other families of rational maps.

The filled-in Julia set of a polynomial is :

In mathematics, Fatou components are components of the Fatou set. They were named after Pierre Fatou.

A complex quadratic polynomial is a quadratic polynomial whose coefficients and variable are complex numbers.

Siegel disc is a connected component in the Fatou set where the dynamics is analytically conjugate to an irrational rotation.

Arithmetic dynamics is a field that amalgamates two areas of mathematics, dynamical systems and number theory. Classically, discrete dynamics refers to the study of the iteration of self-maps of the complex plane or real line. Arithmetic dynamics is the study of the number-theoretic properties of integer, rational, p-adic, and/or algebraic points under repeated application of a polynomial or rational function. A fundamental goal is to describe arithmetic properties in terms of underlying geometric structures.

In the mathematical discipline known as complex dynamics, the Herman ring is a Fatou component where the rational function is conformally conjugate to an irrational rotation of the standard annulus.

In mathematics, the Koenigs function is a function arising in complex analysis and dynamical systems. Introduced in 1884 by the French mathematician Gabriel Koenigs, it gives a canonical representation as dilations of a univalent holomorphic mapping, or a semigroup of mappings, of the unit disk in the complex numbers into itself.

In mathematics, a quasicircle is a Jordan curve in the complex plane that is the image of a circle under a quasiconformal mapping of the plane onto itself. Originally introduced independently by Pfluger (1961) and Tienari (1962), in the older literature they were referred to as quasiconformal curves, a terminology which also applied to arcs. In complex analysis and geometric function theory, quasicircles play a fundamental role in the description of the universal Teichmüller space, through quasisymmetric homeomorphisms of the circle. Quasicircles also play an important role in complex dynamical systems.

Böttcher's equation is the functional equation

Nessim Sibony is a French mathematician, specializing in the theory of several complex variables and complex dynamics in higher dimension. Since 1981, he has been a professor at the University of Paris-Sud in Orsay.