Conceptual dictionary

Last updated

A conceptual dictionary (also ideographic or ideological dictionary) is a dictionary that groups words by concept or semantic relation instead of arranging them in alphabetical order. Examples of conceptual dictionaries are picture dictionaries, thesauri, and visual dictionaries. and Diccionario Ideológico de la Lengua Española (for Spanish) [1] are specific online and print examples.

This is sometimes called a reverse dictionary because it organized by concepts, phrases, or the definitions rather than headwords. This is similar to a thesaurus, where one can look up a concept by some common, general word, and then find a list of near-synonyms of that word. (For example, in a thesaurus one could look up "doctor" and be presented with such words as healer, physician, surgeon, M.D., medical man, medicine man, academician, professor, scholar, sage, master, expert.) In theory, a reverse dictionary might go further than this, allowing you to find a word by its definition only (for example, to find the word "doctor" knowing only that he is a "person who cures disease"). Such dictionaries have become more practical with the advent of computerized information-storage and retrieval systems (i.e. computer databases).

An example of this type of reverse dictionary is the Diccionario Ideológico de la Lengua Española (Spanish Language Ideological Dictionary). [1] This allows the user to find words based on a small set of general concepts.



Related Research Articles

The meaning of the word American in the English language varies according to the historical, geographical, and political context in which it is used. American is derived from America, a term originally denoting all of the New World. In some expressions, it retains this Pan-American sense, but its usage has evolved over time and, for various historical reasons, the word came to denote people or things specifically from the United States of America.

Dictionary Collection of words and their meanings

A dictionary is a listing of words in one or more specific languages, often arranged alphabetically, which may include information on definitions, usage, etymologies, pronunciations, translation, etc. or a book of words in one language with their equivalents in another, sometimes known as a lexicon. It is a lexicographical reference that shows inter-relationships among the data.

Metaphor Figure of speech

A metaphor is a figure of speech that, for rhetorical effect, directly refers to one thing by mentioning another. It may provide clarity or identify hidden similarities between two ideas. Metaphors are often compared with other types of figurative language, such as antithesis, hyperbole, metonymy and simile. One of the most commonly cited examples of a metaphor in English literature comes from the "All the world's a stage" monologue from As You Like It:

Thesaurus Reference work that lists words grouped by similarity of meaning

A thesaurus or synonym dictionary is a reference work for finding synonyms and sometimes antonyms of words. They are often used by writers to help find the best word to express an idea: find the word, or words, by which [an] idea may be most fitly and aptly expressed

Royal Spanish Academy Official regulator for the Spanish language

The Royal Spanish Academy is Spain's official royal institution with a mission to ensure the stability of the Spanish language. It is based in Madrid, Spain, but is affiliated with national language academies in 22 other hispanophone nations through the Association of Academies of the Spanish Language. The RAE's emblem is a fiery crucible, and its motto is Limpia, fija y da esplendor.

Gringo Spanish and Portuguese term for foreigner

A gringo (male) or gringa (female) is someone considered a foreigner from the perspective of Spanish and Portuguese-speaking countries in Latin America. Gringo usually refers to a foreigner, especially from the United States or Canada. Although it is considered an offensive term in Spanish-speaking countries, in Brazilian Portuguese, the term simply means "foreign". In English it often carries a derogatory connotation, and occasionally does so in Spanish and Portuguese. Possible other connotations may include monolingualism, a lack of understanding of Hispanic culture, and blond hair with white skin.

Che (interjection) Spanish interjection

Che is an interjection commonly used in Argentina, Uruguay, Rio Grande do Sul (Brazil) and Valencia (Spain), signifying "hey!", "fellow", "guy". Che is mainly used as a vocative to call someone's attention, but it is often used as filler too. The Argentine revolutionary Ernesto "Che" Guevara earned his nickname from his frequent use of the expression, which was perceived as foreign by his Cuban comrades.

<i>Inshallah</i> ("if God wills") phrase used by Muslims and Arab Christians when referring to future events

Inshallah, also spelled InshAllah or In sha Allah, is an Arabic language expression meaning "if God wills" or "God willing". The term is mentioned in the Quran[Quran 37:102] and is used to fulfill a Quranic command of speaking on future events.[Quran 18:24] The phrase is commonly used by Muslims, Arab Christians, and Arabic-speakers of other religions to refer to events that one hopes will happen in the future. It expresses the belief that nothing happens unless God wills it and that his will supersedes all human will.

Dictionary (software) software developed by Apple

Dictionary is an application developed by Apple Inc. as a part of macOS. The application provides definitions and synonyms from various dictionaries, Wikipedia articles and a glossary of Apple-related terms.

Spanish orthography The system for writing in Spanish

Spanish orthography is the orthography used in the Spanish language. The alphabet uses the Latin script. The spelling is fairly phonemic, especially in comparison to more opaque orthographies like English, having a relatively consistent mapping of graphemes to phonemes; in other words, the pronunciation of a given Spanish-language word can largely be predicted from its spelling and to a slightly lesser extent vice versa. Notable features of Spanish punctuation include the lack of the serial comma and the inverted question and exclamation marks: ⟨¿⟩ ⟨¡⟩.

Electronic dictionary Dictionary whose data exists in digital form and can be accessed through a number of different media

An electronic dictionary is a dictionary whose data exists in digital form and can be accessed through a number of different media. Electronic dictionaries can be found in several forms, including software installed on tablet or desktop computers, mobile apps, web applications, and as a built-in function of E-readers. They may be free or require payment.

<i>Diccionario de la lengua española</i> Dictionary of the Spanish language by the Royal Spanish Academy, first published in 1780

The Diccionario de la lengua española is a dictionary of the Spanish language. Previously known as Diccionario de la Real Academia Española, it is produced, edited, and published by the Real Academia Española with participation of the Asociación de Academias de la Lengua Española. It was first published in 1780, and subsequent editions have been published about once a decade. The twenty-third edition was published in 2014.

In Romani culture, a gadjo is a person who has no Romanipen. This usually corresponds to not being an ethnic Romani, but it can also be an ethnic Romani who does not live within Romani culture. It is often used by Romanies to address or denote outsider neighbors living within or very near their community.

Gabacho is a word used in the Spanish language to describe foreigners of different origins. In Spain it is used as a pejorative reference to someone French, coming from the Catalan word gavatx which translates as foreigner. It can also mean place when the definite article el is used in front of it "el gabacho". It derives from the Occitan word gavach, which translates as "someone who speaks with a faulty speech". In Spain it has been used as a debasing reference for French people for hundreds of years. In Mexico, Guatemala and El Salvador it is used a deprecatory reference for United States people. In Mexico, el gabacho can also mean the US, as in the place.

Google Dictionary online dictionary service by Google

Google Dictionary is an online dictionary service of Google that can be accessed by using the "define" operator and other similar phrases in Google Search. It is also available in Google Translate and in the form of an extension for Google Chrome. The dictionary content is licensed from Oxford University Press's It is available in different languages such as English, Spanish and French. The service also contains pronunciation audio, Google Translate, word origin chart, Ngram Viewer, and word games among other features for the English-language version. Originally available as a standalone service it was integrated into Google Search with the separate service being discontinued in August 2011.

Macmillan English Dictionary for Advanced Learners, also known as MEDAL, was first published in 2002 by Macmillan Education. MEDAL is an advanced learner’s dictionary and shares most of the features of this type of dictionary: it provides definitions in simple language, using a controlled defining vocabulary; most words have example sentences to illustrate how they are typically used; and information is given about how words combine grammatically or in collocations. MEDAL also introduced a number of innovations. These include:

Taíno language Arawakan language; the principal language throughout the Caribbean at the time of Spanish contact

Taíno is an Arawakan language that was spoken by the Taíno people of the Caribbean. At the time of Spanish contact, it was the principal language throughout the Caribbean. Classic Taíno was the native language of the northern Leeward Islands, Puerto Rico, the Turks and Caicos Islands, and most of Hispaniola, and it was expanding into Cuba. The Ciboney dialect is essentially unattested, but colonial sources suggest it was very similar to Classic Taíno and was spoken in the westernmost areas of Hispaniola, the Bahamas, Jamaica, and most of Cuba.

The Diccionario panhispánico de dudas or DPD is an elaborate work undertaken by the Real Academia Española and the Association of Spanish Language Academies with the goal of resolving questions related to the proper use of the Spanish language. Like other publications of the Academy, such as the Diccionario de la lengua española de la Real Academia Española, the work follows a linguistically prescriptive philosophy as opposed to a descriptive one. The first edition was published in 2005 and is now being revised to more properly align with principles set forth by the Academy's other publications.

<i>Tesoro de la lengua castellana o española</i> Early dictionary of Spanish.

The Tesoro de la lengua castellana o española is a dictionary of the Spanish language, written by Sebastián de Covarrubias in 1611.


  1. 1 2 Casares Sánchez, Julio (ed.), Diccionario Ideológico de la Lengua Española, Editorial Gustavo Gili, Barcelona, 1943.