Data link layer

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The data link layer, or layer 2, is the second layer of the seven-layer OSI model of computer networking. This layer is the protocol layer that transfers data between adjacent network nodes in a wide area network (WAN) or between nodes on the same local area network (LAN) segment. [1] The data link layer provides the functional and procedural means to transfer data between network entities and might provide the means to detect and possibly correct errors that may occur in the physical layer.

OSI model Model with 7 layers to describe communications systems

The Open Systems Interconnection model is a conceptual model that characterizes and standardizes the communication functions of a telecommunication or computing system without regard to its underlying internal structure and technology. Its goal is the interoperability of diverse communication systems with standard communication protocols. The model partitions a communication system into abstraction layers. The original version of the model had seven layers.

Computer network collection of autonomous computers interconnected by a single technology

A computer network is a digital telecommunications network which allows nodes to share resources. In computer networks, computing devices exchange data with each other using connections between nodes. These data links are established over cable media such as twisted pair or fiber-optic cables, and wireless media such as Wi-Fi.

Wide area network Computer network that connects devices across a large distance and area

A wide area network (WAN) is a telecommunications network that extends over a large geographical area for the primary purpose of computer networking. Wide area networks are often established with leased telecommunication circuits.

Contents

The data link layer is concerned with local delivery of frames between nodes on the same level of the network. Data-link frames, as these protocol data units are called, do not cross the boundaries of a local area network. Inter-network routing and global addressing are higher-layer functions, allowing data-link protocols to focus on local delivery, addressing, and media arbitration. In this way, the data link layer is analogous to a neighborhood traffic cop; it endeavors to arbitrate between parties contending for access to a medium, without concern for their ultimate destination. When devices attempt to use a medium simultaneously, frame collisions occur. Data-link protocols specify how devices detect and recover from such collisions, and may provide mechanisms to reduce or prevent them.

A frame is a digital data transmission unit in computer networking and telecommunication. In packet switched systems, a frame is a simple container for a single network packet. In other telecommunications systems, a frame is a repeating structure supporting time-division multiplexing.

Protocol data unit Unit of information transmitted between peer entities (at the same layer) of a computer network

In telecommunications, a protocol data unit (PDU) is a single unit of information transmitted among peer entities of a computer network. A PDU is composed of protocol specific control information and user data. In the layered architectures of communication protocol stacks, each layer implements protocols tailored to the specific type or mode of data exchange.

Examples of data link protocols are Ethernet for local area networks (multi-node), the Point-to-Point Protocol (PPP), HDLC and ADCCP for point-to-point (dual-node) connections. In the Internet Protocol Suite (TCP/IP), the data link layer functionality is contained within the link layer, the lowest layer of the descriptive model, which also includes the functionality encompassed in the OSI model's physical layer.

Ethernet computer networking technology

Ethernet is a family of computer networking technologies commonly used in local area networks (LAN), metropolitan area networks (MAN) and wide area networks (WAN). It was commercially introduced in 1980 and first standardized in 1983 as IEEE 802.3, and has since retained a good deal of backward compatibility and been refined to support higher bit rates and longer link distances. Over time, Ethernet has largely replaced competing wired LAN technologies such as Token Ring, FDDI and ARCNET.

In computer networking, Point-to-Point Protocol (PPP) is a data link layer communications protocol between two routers directly without any host or any other networking in between. It can provide connection authentication, transmission encryption, and compression.

In computer networking, the link layer is the lowest layer in the Internet Protocol Suite, the networking architecture of the Internet. It is described in RFC 1122 and RFC 1123. The link layer is the group of methods and communications protocols that only operate on the link that a host is physically connected to. The link is the physical and logical network component used to interconnect hosts or nodes in the network and a link protocol is a suite of methods and standards that operate only between adjacent network nodes of a local area network segment or a wide area network connection.

Overview

A frame's header contains source and destination addresses that indicate which device originated the frame and which device is expected to receive and process it. In contrast to the hierarchical and routable addresses of the network layer, layer-2 addresses are flat, meaning that no part of the address can be used to identify the logical or physical group to which the address belongs.

The data link thus provides data transfer across the physical link. That transfer can be reliable or unreliable; many data-link protocols do not have acknowledgments of successful frame reception and acceptance, and some data-link protocols might not even have any form of checksum to check for transmission errors. In those cases, higher-level protocols must provide flow control, error checking, and acknowledgments and retransmission.

In data communications, flow control is the process of managing the rate of data transmission between two nodes to prevent a fast sender from overwhelming a slow receiver. It provides a mechanism for the receiver to control the transmission speed, so that the receiving node is not overwhelmed with data from transmitting node. Flow control should be distinguished from congestion control, which is used for controlling the flow of data when congestion has actually occurred. Flow control mechanisms can be classified by whether or not the receiving node sends feedback to the sending node.

In some networks, such as IEEE 802 local area networks, the data link layer is described in more detail with media access control (MAC) and logical link control (LLC) sublayers; this means that the IEEE 802.2 LLC protocol can be used with all of the IEEE 802 MAC layers, such as Ethernet, token ring, IEEE 802.11, etc., as well as with some non-802 MAC layers such as FDDI. Other data-link-layer protocols, such as HDLC, are specified to include both sublayers, although some other protocols, such as Cisco HDLC, use HDLC's low-level framing as a MAC layer in combination with a different LLC layer. In the ITU-T G.hn standard, which provides a way to create a high-speed (up to 1 Gigabit/s) local area network using existing home wiring (power lines, phone lines and coaxial cables), the data link layer is divided into three sub-layers (application protocol convergence, logical link control and media access control).

IEEE 802 is a family of IEEE standards dealing with local area networks and metropolitan area networks.

In the IEEE 802 reference model of computer networking, the logical link control (LLC) data communication protocol layer is the upper sublayer of the data link layer of the seven-layer OSI model. The LLC sublayer acts as an interface between the media access control (MAC) sublayer and the network layer.

IEEE 802.2 is the original name of the ISO/IEC 8802-2 standard which defines logical link control (LLC) as the upper portion of the data link layer of the OSI Model. The original standard developed by the Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE) in collaboration with the American National Standards Institute (ANSI) was adopted by the International Organization for Standardization (ISO) in 1998, but it still remains an integral part of the family of IEEE 802 standards for local and metropolitan networks.

Within the semantics of the OSI network architecture, the data-link-layer protocols respond to service requests from the network layer and they perform their function by issuing service requests to the physical layer.

In the seven-layer OSI model of computer networking, the network layer is layer 3. The network layer is responsible for packet forwarding including routing through intermediate routers.

In the seven-layer OSI model of computer networking, the physical layer or layer 1 is the first and lowest layer. This layer may be implemented by a PHY chip.

Sublayers

The data link layer has two sublayers: logical link control (LLC) and media access control (MAC). [2]

The uppermost sublayer, LLC, multiplexes protocols running at the top of data link layer, and optionally provides flow control, acknowledgment, and error notification. The LLC provides addressing and control of the data link. It specifies which mechanisms are to be used for addressing stations over the transmission medium and for controlling the data exchanged between the originator and recipient machines.

Media access control sublayer

MAC may refer to the sublayer that determines who is allowed to access the media at any one time (e.g. CSMA/CD). Other times it refers to a frame structure delivered based on MAC addresses inside.

There are generally two forms of media access control: distributed and centralized. [3] Both of these may be compared to communication between people. In a network made up of people speaking, i.e. a conversation, they will each pause a random amount of time and then attempt to speak again, effectively establishing a long and elaborate game of saying "no, you first".

The Media Access Control sublayer also determines where one frame of data ends and the next one starts – frame synchronization. There are four means of frame synchronization: time based, character counting, byte stuffing and bit stuffing.

Services

The services that the data link layer provides are:

Error detection and correction

Beside framing, data link layers also include mechanisms to detect and even recover from transmission errors. For a receiver to detect transmission error, the sender must add redundant information (in the form of bits) as an error detection code to the frame sent. When the receiver obtains a frame with an error detection code it recomputes it and verifies whether the received error detection code matches the computed error detection code. If they match the frame is considered to be valid.

An error detection code can be defined as a function that computes the r (amount of redundant bits) corresponding to each string of N total number of bits. The simplest error detection code is the parity bit, which allows a receiver to detect transmission errors that have affected a single bit among the transmitted N + r bits. If there are multiple flipped bits then the checking method might not be able to unveil this on the receiver side. More advanced methods than parity error detection do exist providing higher grades of quality and features.

HELLO
85121215

A simple example of how this works using metadata is transmitting the word "HELLO", by encoding each letter as its position in the alphabet. Thus, the letter A is coded as 1, B as 2, and so on as shown in the table on the right. Adding up the resulting numbers yields 8 + 5 + 12 + 12 + 15 = 52, and 5 + 2 = 7 calculates the metadata. Finally, the "8 5 12 12 15 7" numbers sequence is transmitted, which the receiver will see on its end if there are no transmission errors. The receiver knows that the last number received is the error-detecting metadata and that all data before is the message, so the receiver can recalculate the above math and if the metadata matches it can be concluded that the data has been received error-free. Though, if the receiver sees something like a "7 5 12 12 15 7" sequence (first element altered by some error), it can run the check by calculating 7 + 5 + 12 + 12 + 15 = 51 and 5 + 1 = 6, and discard the received data as defective since 6 does not equal 7.

Protocol examples

Relation to the TCP/IP model

In the Internet Protocol Suite (TCP/IP), OSI's data link layer functionality is contained within its lowest layer, the link layer. The TCP/IP link layer has the operating scope of the link a host is connected to, and only concerns itself with hardware issues to the point of obtaining hardware (MAC) addresses for locating hosts on the link and transmitting data frames onto the link. The link layer functionality was described in RFC 1122 and is defined differently than the Data Link Layer of OSI, and encompasses all methods that affect the local link.

The TCP/IP model is not a top-down comprehensive design reference for networks. It was formulated for the purpose of illustrating the logical groups and scopes of functions needed in the design of the suite of internetworking protocols of TCP/IP, as needed for the operation of the Internet. In general, direct or strict comparisons of the OSI and TCP/IP models should be avoided, because the layering in TCP/IP is not a principal design criterion and in general considered to be "harmful" (RFC 3439). In particular, TCP/IP does not dictate a strict hierarchical sequence of encapsulation requirements, as is attributed to OSI protocols.

Layer names and number of layers in the literature

The following table shows various networking models. The number of layers varies between three and seven.

RFC 1122, Internet STD 3 (1989)Cisco Academy [4] Kurose, [5] Forouzan [6] Comer, [7] Kozierok [8] Stallings [9] Tanenbaum [10] Arpanet Reference Model (RFC 871) OSI model
Four layersFour layersFive layersFour+one layersFive layersFive layersThree layersSeven layers
"Internet model""Internet model""Five-layer Internet model" or "TCP/IP protocol suite""TCP/IP 5-layer reference model""TCP/IP model""TCP/IP 5-layer reference model""Arpanet reference model"OSI model
ApplicationApplicationApplicationApplicationApplicationApplicationApplication/ProcessApplication
Presentation
Session
TransportTransportTransportTransportHost-to-host or transportTransportHost-to-hostTransport
InternetInternetworkNetworkInternetInternetInternetNetwork
LinkNetwork interfaceData linkData link (Network interface)Network accessData linkNetwork interfaceData link
Physical(Hardware)PhysicalPhysicalPhysical

Some of the networking models are from textbooks, which are secondary sources that may conflict with the intent of RFC 1122 and other IETF primary sources. [11]

See also

Related Research Articles

Internetwork Packet Exchange (IPX) is the network layer protocol in the IPX/SPX protocol suite. IPX is derived from Xerox Network Systems' IDP. It may act as a transport layer protocol as well.

A media access control address of a device is a unique identifier assigned to a network interface controller (NIC). For communications within a network segment, it is used as a network address for most IEEE 802 network technologies, including Ethernet, Wi-Fi, and Bluetooth. Within the Open Systems Interconnection (OSI) model, MAC addresses are used in the medium access control protocol sublayer of the data link layer. As typically represented, MAC addresses are recognizable as six groups of two hexadecimal digits, separated by hyphens, colons, or no separator.

Carrier-sense multiple access with collision detection (CSMA/CD) is a media access control method used most notably in early Ethernet technology for local area networking. It uses carrier-sensing to defer transmissions until no other stations are transmitting. This is used in combination with collision detection in which a transmitting station detects collisions by sensing transmissions from other stations while it is transmitting a frame. When this collision condition is detected, the station stops transmitting that frame, transmits a jam signal, and then waits for a random time interval before trying to resend the frame.

A network packet is a formatted unit of data carried by a packet-switched network. A packet consists of control information and user data, which is also known as the payload. Control information provides data for delivering the payload, for example: source and destination network addresses, error detection codes, and sequencing information. Typically, control information is found in packet headers and trailers.

Medium access control a service layer in IEEE 802 network standards

In IEEE 802 LAN/MAN standards, the medium access control sublayer is the layer that controls the hardware responsible for interaction with the wired, optical or wireless transmission medium. The MAC sublayer and the logical link control (LLC) sublayer together make up the data link layer. Within the data link layer, the LLC provides flow control and multiplexing for the logical link, while the MAC provides flow control and multiplexing for the transmission medium.

HiperLAN is a wireless LAN standard. It is a European alternative for the IEEE 802.11 standards. It is defined by the European Telecommunications Standards Institute (ETSI). In ETSI the standards are defined by the BRAN project. The HiperLAN standard family has four different versions.

A multilayer switch (MLS) is a computer networking device that switches on OSI layer 2 like an ordinary network switch and provides extra functions on higher OSI layers.

AX.25 is a data link layer protocol originally derived from layer 2 of the X.25 protocol suite and designed for use by amateur radio operators. It is used extensively on amateur packet radio networks.

A frame check sequence (FCS) refers to an error-detecting code added to a frame in a communications protocol. Frames are used to send payload data from a source to a destination.

802.1AE is the IEEE MAC Security standard which defines connectionless data confidentiality and integrity for media access independent protocols. It is standardized by the IEEE 802.1 working group.

In computer networking, an Ethernet frame is a data link layer protocol data unit and uses the underlying Ethernet physical layer transport mechanisms. In other words, a data unit on an Ethernet link transports an Ethernet frame as its payload.

In telecommunication, a communication protocol is a system of rules that allow two or more entities of a communications system to transmit information via any kind of variation of a physical quantity. The protocol defines the rules, syntax, semantics and synchronization of communication and possible error recovery methods. Protocols may be implemented by hardware, software, or a combination of both.

References

  1. "What is layer 2, and Why Should You Care?". accel-networks.com. Archived from the original on February 18, 2010. Retrieved September 29, 2009.
  2. Regis J. Bates and Donald W. Gregory (2007). Voice & data communications handbook (5th ed.). McGraw-Hill Professional. p. 45. ISBN   978-0-07-226335-0.
  3. Guowang Miao; Guocong Song (2014). Energy and spectrum efficient wireless network design. Cambridge University Press. ISBN   978-1107039889.
  4. Dye, Mark; McDonald, Rick; Rufi, Antoon (October 29, 2007). Network Fundamentals, CCNA Exploration Companion Guide. Cisco Press. ISBN   9780132877435 . Retrieved September 12, 2016 via Google Books.
  5. James F. Kurose, Keith W. Ross, Computer Networking: A Top-Down Approach, 2008 ISBN   0-321-49770-8
  6. Forouzan, Behrouz A.; Fegan, Sophia Chung (August 1, 2003). Data Communications and Networking. McGraw-Hill Higher Education. ISBN   9780072923544 . Retrieved September 12, 2016 via Google Books.
  7. Comer, Douglas (January 1, 2006). Internetworking with TCP/IP: Principles, protocols, and architecture. Prentice Hall. ISBN   0-13-187671-6 . Retrieved September 12, 2016 via Google Books.
  8. Kozierok, Charles M. (January 1, 2005). The TCP/IP Guide: A Comprehensive, Illustrated Internet Protocols Reference. No Starch Press. ISBN   9781593270476 . Retrieved September 12, 2016 via Google Books.
  9. Stallings, William (January 1, 2007). Data and Computer Communications. Prentice Hall. ISBN   978-0-13-243310-5 . Retrieved September 12, 2016 via Google Books.
  10. Tanenbaum, Andrew S. (January 1, 2003). Computer Networks. Prentice Hall PTR. ISBN   0-13-066102-3 . Retrieved September 12, 2016 via Google Books.
  11. R. Bush; D. Meyer (December 2002), Some Internet Architectural Guidelines and Philosophy, Internet Engineering Task Force, archived from the original on February 29, 2012, retrieved January 7, 2012