Dual-threat quarterback

Last updated
Lamar Jackson passing 2020.jpg
Lamar Jackson vs. Bengals 2018.jpg
Lamar Jackson both passing and running with the football

In gridiron football, a dual-threat quarterback, also known as a running quarterback, [1] is a quarterback (QB) who is able to run with the ball as effectively as they can pass. With the rise of several blitz-heavy defensive schemes and increasingly faster defensive players, the importance of a mobile quarterback has been redefined. While arm power, accuracy, and pocket presence  the ability to successfully operate from within the "pocket" formed by his blockers   are still the most important quarterback virtues, the ability to elude or run past defenders creates an additional threat that allows greater flexibility in the team's passing and running game.

Contents

Dual-threat quarterbacks have historically been more prolific at the college level. Typically, a quarterback with exceptional quickness is used in an option offense, which allows the quarterback to either hand the ball off, run it himself, or pitch it to the running back following him at a distance of three yards outside and one yard behind. This type of offense forces defenders to commit to either the running back up the middle, the quarterback around the end, or the running back trailing the quarterback. It is then that the quarterback has the "option" to identify which match up is most favorable to the offense as the play unfolds and exploit that defensive weakness. In the college game, many schools employ several plays that are designed for the quarterback to run with the ball.

For much of the NFL's modern existence, this was less common in professional football, except for a quarterback sneak; however, there was still some of an emphasis on being mobile enough to escape a heavy pass rush. Historically, dual-threat quarterbacks in the National Football League (NFL) were uncommon through the AFL–NFL merger, although Tobin Rote and Fran Tarkenton proved to be successful scrambling quarterbacks. Players like Steve Young, Randall Cunningham, and John Elway had success running in the 1980s and 1990s, as did Steve McNair and Donovan McNabb in the late 1990s into the mid-2000s. Michael Vick is often credited as having ushered dual-threat quarterbacking into the sport's mainstream in the 2000s. [2] In the 2010s, quarterbacks with dual-threat capabilities became increasingly more common. Two quarterbacks who found success in the 2010s and the 2020s, such as Cam Newton and Lamar Jackson, have cited Vick's influence on their playing styles. [3] [4] [5]

History in the NFL

Pre-modern era and early modern era (1920s–1940s)

The NFL's modern era is generally thought to have begun in 1933, [6] as a result of the NFL breaking away from college rules and the introduction of its own rule book, which included many foundational game elements. [7] [8] One such game feature was allowing for forward passes to be made from anywhere behind the line of scrimmage; [9] as such the era since 1933 has also been referred to as the "forward pass era". [10]

Prior to the advent of the modern era, many players were two-way players, as league rules prohibited most substitutions. [11] Largely interchangeable, players would play multiple positions on offense and defense even into the early 1940s. [11] Due to this, passers were just as, if not more likely to run with the football than to pass. However, they would become more specialized in position over time, "as coaches adopted new strategies to take advantage of players with unique physical attributes and skills — all in the name of trying to gain an edge on their opponents." [11] As a result, quarterbacks became distinct passers of the football, whereas halfbacks would absorb much of the run play responsibilities on a team.

Early history of dual-threats (1950s–70s)

Fran Tarkenton (pictured in 1974) scrambling Tarkenton Scrambling.PNG
Fran Tarkenton (pictured in 1974) scrambling

In the 1950s, Tobin Rote was a rare example of a dual-threat quarterback; [12] he led the Green Bay Packers in rushing in three seasons, and retired with 3,128 rushing yards. [13] [14]

The next decade, however, saw Fran Tarkenton influence the game in both passing and running aspects. Tarkenton writes, "When I began my NFL career in 1961, I was a freak. The reason was simple: I played quarterback and I ran. There were no designed runs in our playbook, but I would scramble out of the pocket when a play broke down." [15] Tarkenton adds by describing the reaction to his scrambling at the time, "It was not a skill set that was embraced. Plenty of people mocked it, and the rest wrote it off." [15] At the time of his retirement, Tarkenton was the all-time leader in rushing yards by a quarterback, with 3,674. [16]

Roger Staubach, quarterback of the Dallas Cowboys from 19691979, was another early dual-threat quarterback; in 2012, Bleacher Report placed him sixth on their list of the greatest dual-threats of all-time. [17] The website noted Staubach "would run, juke, dive or underhand toss the ball in almost any situation." [17]

Greg Landry was also cited as a dual-threat during the 1970s. Following his 1971 season with the Detroit Lions—in which he became the first quarterback to pass for over 2,000 yards and rush for over 500 yards in the same season— Sports Illustrated asserted that Landry's ability to both pass and run with the football gave the Lions "the pro offense of the future." [18] [19] Landry replicated the feat in 1972. [18] The Lions' head coach Joe Schmidt "installed option plays—the heart of the old split-T formation, the granddaddy of the Wishbone—to take advantage of Landry's running ability." [19] This allowed Landry to run on designed plays, in contrast to the scrambling nature displayed by Tarkenton and Staubach. [19]

Also in 1972, Chicago Bears quarterback Bobby Douglass set the single-season rushing yards record for a quarterback, as he logged 968 yards. [20] [21] Douglass, however, was not considered a good passer. His receivers complained that his arm was "too strong," and he often overthrew the ball. [20] The Bears attempted to create wild schemes, before discovering his rushing ability, leading to his record-breaking 1972 season. [20]

Another rare dual-threat quarterback that emerged in the 1970s was Steve Grogan. Drafted by the New England Patriots in 1975, Grogan scored 12 rushing touchdowns in the 1976 season, a record for quarterbacks which stood for 35 years. During the 1978 season, Grogan ran for 539 yards, on a team which set the NFL record for total rushing yards (3,165), which was held until the 2019 Baltimore Ravens rushing offense surpassed it. [22] Limited by injuries during the middle part of his career, Grogan would transition to a more traditional pocket-passer by the mid-1980s.

Increased frequency (1980s−1990s)

Randall Cunningham Pro Bowl.JPG
SteveYoungAnalyst.PNG
Randall Cunningham (left) and Steve Young (right) were prominent dual-threat quarterbacks during the 1980s and 90s

During the 1980s and 90s, dual-threat quarterbacks were more frequently seen than in previous decades. Randall Cunningham and Steve Young were prominent rushing quarterbacks during this era. [23] Cunningham was able to exceed Young in statistical regards. On October 18, 1992, Cunningham surpassed Tarkenton's record for career rushing yards by a quarterback. [16] Following the 2001 NFL season, Cunningham retired with a then-record 4,928 rushing yards. Despite Cunningham having more rushing yards, Young held the record for most career rushing touchdowns by a quarterback (43) until being surpassed by Cam Newton in 2016. [24] [25]

There is debate as to whether Young or Cunningham was the better rushing quarterback. CraveOnline writes that, although, "there may be two others [Vick and Cunningham] that hold an edge to Steve Young in amount of yards rushed, career wise, by a QB but make no mistake about it, if you are a QB that can run, then Young is who you want to emulate," adding that, Young, "had the rare gift of explosive speed combined with deadly accuracy." [24] As for Cunningham, Jeff Darlington, an NFL Media reporter, writes, "True, Steve Young had legs that merited the respect of defenders. But Cunningham ... Cunningham was different. And today's quarterbacks know it." [26] Darlington adds to his point by referring to an anecdote from Robert Griffin III, a 2010s rushing quarterback, in which Griffin III would watch Cunningham's highlights with his father. [26] Griffin III elaborates, "We'd watch how well he moved in the pocket to avoid defenders and make plays -- not just with his legs, but with his arm. He was one of the first true game-changers the league saw." [26]

In addition to Cunningham and Young, John Elway, Steve McNair, and Kordell Stewart, were also considered dynamic running quarterbacks of the 1980s and 1990s. [27] [28] Elway appeared in 5 Super Bowls and holds the record of most rushing TDs by any quarterback in the Super Bowl. [29]

The Michael Vick effect (2000s)

Michael Vick running during his record 2006 season Michael Vick running, November 2006.jpg
Michael Vick running during his record 2006 season

As Young, Cunningham, and John Elway all retired between 1998 and 2001, a new generation of mobile quarterbacks was ushered in. Donovan McNabb was drafted by the Eagles in 1999, beginning a successful quarterbacking career, in which his running ability was frequently noted. [30] [31] In 2000, McNabb became joined Douglass (1972) and Cunningham (1987–1990) as players to lead their teams in both passing and rushing yards. [32] On his mobility, McNabb once joked, "I think you run a lot better when you don't want to be hit." [33] After sustaining an injury in the 2003 season, there was speculation as to whether McNabb would be able to retain his mobility, as Ray Buchanan stated, "We'd probably rather see McNabb, because he's not as mobile right now," to which McNabb responded, "According to everyone else I'm not mobile. I'll just let people continue to think that, and when the time comes, I'll make sure I showcase that a little bit." [33]

McNabb was also connected to Michael Vick, one of the most prolific running quarterbacks in the history of the NFL. [34] While attending Syracuse University, McNabb attempted to assist in the recruitment of Michael Vick, and in addition to that, McNabb also mentored Vick about the speed of the professional level. [33] Vick also served as McNabb's backup in Philadelphia in 2009, later succeeding McNabb as the starter for the franchise. [35] Michael Vick was drafted first overall by Atlanta Falcons in 2001. [36] Vick would go on to be a successful runner for the Falcons from 2001 to 2006. [37] 14 games into his 2006 season, Vick broke Douglass' single-season rushing yards record by a quarterback. [38] A week later, Vick surpassed the 1,000 rushing yards milestone, becoming the first quarterback to reach the mark in a single season. [39] He finished the season with a record 1,039 yards. [40] Vick's mobility influenced future mobile quarterbacks; Jenny Vrentas of Sports Illustrated writes, "Young players go out of their way to tell Vick that they were always him when they played Madden growing up, and wore his Nike cleats." [36]

After his return to the NFL, and a season as McNabb's backup, Vick earned his second starting opportunity. His 2010 rushing statistics (league-leading 676 yards among quarterbacks and 9 touchdowns [41] ) were the foundation for the acceptance of mobile quarterbacks in the early 2010s. On his overall impact and legacy in regards to dual-threat quarterbacks, Vick stated, "I was the guy who started it all," adding, "I revolutionized the game. I changed the way it was played in the NFL." [37] [42] However, Vick has also stated that he looked up to Cunningham while he was growing up. [43]

Newfound implementation of dual-threats (early 2010s)

Cam Newton (pictured running with the ball) established himself as a dominant dual-threat quarterback in the 2010s Cam Newton (50121508306).jpg
Cam Newton (pictured running with the ball) established himself as a dominant dual-threat quarterback in the 2010s

During the 2011 season, on October 9, Vick surpassed Cunningham's career rushing yardage record for quarterbacks. [44] That season also saw Cam Newton drafted first overall by the Carolina Panthers. Newton went on to lead quarterbacks in rushing yards, with 706, and broke Steve Grogan's 1976 single-season record for rushing touchdowns by a quarterback (12), with 14. [45] [46]

In addition to Newton, notable dual-threat quarterbacks in the early 2010s included Aaron Rodgers, Robert Griffin III, Tim Tebow, Colin Kaepernick, Russell Wilson, and Andrew Luck. [47] [48] [49] [50] Rodgers, often cited as one of the most talented players to play quarterback, is noted for often using his mobility to avoid pressure and extend plays. [51] [52]

In spite of success found by dual-threats in the early 2010s, some analysts were still skeptical of dual-threat quarterbacks' value, suggesting that quarterbacks who run may be more likely to overlook more-productive passing plays. [53] During the 2014 season, Kaepernick, Griffin III, and Newton were all cited as declining or regressing players. [54] Kaepernick was labeled, "symbolic of running QB struggles," by NFL.com writer Chris Wesseling. [55] This status came after Kaepernick and the 49ers were defeated by Derek Carr and the Oakland Raiders. Carr is not considered a dual-threat quarterback, though his "mindset, athleticism, pocket presence, quick release and strong arm" have all been praised by executives, coaches and analysts. [55] Steve Young, who ranks third all-time in rushing yards for a quarterback, was cited as believing scrambling away from pressure limits and stunts the development of a quarterback's pocket presence. [55] [56] During the season, Bill Polian, a former Indianapolis Colts president, stated, "What we're seeing this year is the incredible erosion of the running quarterback." [54] Obstacles such as high expectations and an increased risk of injury hindered the perception that mobile quarterbacks would dominate the position. [57]

Robert Griffin III (left, running) was often touted as a dynamic dual-threat talent in the early 2010s RG3 eagles.JPG
Robert Griffin III (left, running) was often touted as a dynamic dual-threat talent in the early 2010s

While Kaepernick, Newton, and Griffin III struggled during the season, the mobility of other quarterbacks was praised. Success in the passing game, while using mobility to extend plays, was regarded more highly than pure running athleticism in 2014. Aaron Rodgers' mobility, for example, was considered by one NFL.com writer to be critical to the Packers' offense. [58] New England Patriots head coach Bill Belichick praised Rodgers' mobility, stating, "he has a great ability to extend plays, either sliding in the pocket or at times scrambling outside the pocket." [59] Luck's mobility was also acclaimed by NFL head coach Chip Kelly. [60] Despite early-season reports of a decline in the performance of dual-threat quarterbacks, Russell Wilson rushed for a career-high 849 yards, 6 touchdowns and a league high 7.2 yards per attempt in 2014, [61] leading the Seattle Seahawks to a second consecutive Super Bowl appearance. [62]

Introduction of the run-pass option (late 2010s–2020s)

Referred to as "the most complex position in sports" by Bleacher Report , [63] the dual-threat quarterback position had its long-term viability in the NFL debated by sports publications midway through the 2010s. [64] [65] "Waning results and injuries" to quarterbacks such as Robert Griffin III and Johnny Manziel were cited as reasons why "the league [seemed] less keen on dual-threat quarterbacks." [64] Griffin and Kaepernick had their futures as starting NFL quarterbacks called into question by sports writers in 2015. [66] [67] Local Bay Area media described Kaepernick's run as the 49ers' starter as "flashy" and cited a league source predicting his release following the 2015 season. [67] College quarterbacks with dual-threat abilities were being cited as potentially not having their skill sets translate into the NFL. [64]

However, new dual-threat quarterbacks emerged as starters during 2015, such as Marcus Mariota and Tyrod Taylor. [68] [69] Cam Newton also had a resurgent season, scoring 10 rushing touchdowns en route to an MVP selection and a Super Bowl berth. [70] However, as Newton was also successful in his passing game, one Wall Street Journal reporter wrote that "defenses say it is Newton's ability to do anything on any given play that really keeps them up at night", adding "[Newton] is a pass-first quarterback capable of picking up a first down with his legs at any moment." [71]

Dual-threat quarterbacks have continued to rise in significance in the NFL during the late 2010s; Deshaun Watson and Lamar Jackson, among others, emerged as dynamic starting options during their rookie seasons (2017 and 2018, respectively). [72] [73] [74] In 2019, Jackson surpassed Vick's single-season rushing yards record among quarterbacks, while also recording a league-leading 36 passing touchdowns en route to an MVP award. [75] [76]

Josh Allen emerged as an effective dual-threat quarterback when he began playing in the late 2010s. Josh Allen (44286993811).jpg
Josh Allen emerged as an effective dual-threat quarterback when he began playing in the late 2010s.

In addition to Jackson and Watson, Josh Allen, Daniel Jones, Patrick Mahomes, Kyler Murray, and Dak Prescott emerged as mobile threats from the late 2010s NFL draft classes. [n 1] By 2022, the budding rivalry between Allen and Mahomes, who had met in the playoffs in consecutive years, began to see comparisons to the Tom Brady–Peyton Manning rivalry, though Gary Gramling of Sports Illustrated noted that detractors would claim that the mobile style of play used by Allen and Mahomes was "less sustainable" than that of Brady and Manning, two classic pocket quarterbacks. [83]

Around the time of these quarterbacks entering the league, NFL offenses began to increasingly adopt run-pass option (RPO) plays during games. [84] [85] [86] [87] The Philadelphia Eagles are often credited with popularizing RPOs in the NFL, due to their success running them late in 2017, en route to a Super Bowl LII victory. [84] [86]

In the 2020s, Jalen Hurts and Justin Fields emerged as dual-threat talents. [88] [89] [90] The presence of two dual-threat quarterbacks as starters in Super Bowl LVII (Mahomes and Hurts) was cited as the style being able to succeed at a high level in the NFL. [91]

Criticism of term's racial connotation

Deshaun Watson (pictured in 2018) has been vocally critical of the "dual-threat" term. Deshaun Watson 2018.jpg
Deshaun Watson (pictured in 2018) has been vocally critical of the "dual-threat" term.

Black quarterbacks often get tagged as dual-threats, rather than "pro-style" quarterbacks while still high school prospects. [93] In 2012, Bleacher Report wrote, "By the time kids establish themselves as prospects to watch, they're already christened 'pro style' or 'dual threat.' Either they're the kind of quarterback that can succeed in the NFL, or they're black." [93] The term's usage as a stereotyping of black quarterbacks in draft scouting reports has also been documented. [94]

Some quarterbacks have expressed discontent with being tagged as a "dual-threat quarterback". [95] The term has been noted to be used disproportionately more often for black quarterbacks, "with racial undertones to how they are perceived in the NFL." [96] Michael Vick opined that "A lot of us [black quarterbacks] aren't viewed as passers -- we're viewed as athletes. I think it's unfair and unfortunate." [97] In 2018, The Undefeated writer Jeff Rivers commented:

"Even in recent years, the term 'dual-threat' (running and passing) has been used as a barrier in the final goal-line stand between black athletes and equal access to the NFL quarterback position, its glory and all its risks and rewards. To some, running was evidence that quarterbacks, especially black quarterbacks, weren't smart enough to decide when to pass." [98]

In an interview with Bleacher Report, while still a college quarterback at Clemson, Deshaun Watson called the term a "code word" and expressed that he was stereotyped as a run-first quarterback due to his race. [99] [100] In 2018, while playing for the Houston Texans, Watson was the target of a racially-charged criticism from a Texas school district superintendent. [101] The superintendent criticized a late-game mistake by Watson, commenting, "When you need precision decision making you can't count on a black quarterback." [101]

See also

Notes

  1. Sources describing these quarterbacks as dual-threats include: [32] [77] [78] [79] [80] [81] [82]

Related Research Articles

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Quarterback</span> Position in gridiron football

The quarterback, colloquially known as the "signal caller", is a position in gridiron football. Quarterbacks are members of the offensive platoon and mostly line up directly behind the offensive line. In modern American football, the quarterback is usually considered the leader of the offense, and is often responsible for calling the play in the huddle. The quarterback also touches the ball on almost every offensive play, and is almost always the offensive player that throws forward passes. When the QB is tackled behind the line of scrimmage, it is called a sack.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Jeff Garcia</span> American football player (born 1970)

Jeffrey Jason Garcia is an American former professional football player who was a quarterback in the National Football League (NFL). After attending high school and junior college in Gilroy, California, Garcia played college football at San Jose State University.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Fran Tarkenton</span> American football player (born 1940)

Francis Asbury Tarkenton, nicknamed "the Scrambler", is an American former football quarterback who played in the National Football League (NFL) for 18 seasons, primarily with the Minnesota Vikings. He played college football for the Georgia Bulldogs, where he was recognized as a twice first-team All-SEC, and was selected by the Vikings in the third round of the 1961 NFL draft. After retiring from football, he became a media personality and computer software executive.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Donovan McNabb</span> American football player (born 1976)

Donovan Jamal McNabb is an American former football quarterback who played in the National Football League (NFL) for 13 seasons, primarily with the Philadelphia Eagles. He played college football for the Syracuse Orange and was selected with the second overall pick in the 1999 NFL draft by the Eagles, where he spent 11 seasons. McNabb also spent a year each with the Washington Redskins and the Minnesota Vikings. The Eagles retired McNabb's no. 5 jersey number when he was inducted to the Philadelphia Eagles Hall of Fame in 2013.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Randall Cunningham</span> American football player (born 1963)

Randall Wade Cunningham Sr. is an American former football quarterback who played in the National Football League (NFL) for 16 seasons. He spent the majority of his career with the Philadelphia Eagles and is also known for his Minnesota Vikings tenure. A four-time Pro Bowl selection, Cunningham is fourth in NFL quarterback rushing yards, which he led at the time of his retirement.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Option offense</span> American football offense style

An option offense is an American football offensive system in which a key player has several "options" of how each play will proceed based upon the actions of the defense. Traditionally, option-based offenses rely on running plays, though most mix in forward passes from an option formation as a change of pace. A successful option-based offense can keep possession of the ball for long periods of time, giving the opposing offense fewer possessions and keeping the option team's defense rested. However, because passing is often not a strength of the system, it can be difficult for option-based offenses to come back from a large deficit or to score quickly when needed.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Kevin Kolb</span> American football player (born 1984)

Kevin Benjamin Kolb is an American former professional football player who was a quarterback in the National Football League (NFL). He played college football for the Houston Cougars and was selected by the Philadelphia Eagles in the second round of the 2007 NFL draft. He was also a member of the Arizona Cardinals and the Buffalo Bills.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Cam Newton</span> American football player (born 1989)

Cameron Jerrell Newton is an American football quarterback who has played in the National Football League (NFL) for 11 seasons. Nicknamed "Super Cam", he is the NFL leader in career quarterback rushing touchdowns and second in career quarterback rushing yards. Following a stint with the Florida Gators, Newton played college football for the Auburn Tigers, where he won the Heisman Trophy and the 2011 BCS National Championship Game as a junior. He was selected first overall by the Carolina Panthers in the 2011 NFL draft.

The pistol offense is an American football formation and strategy developed by coaches Michael Taylor of Mill Valley, California and popularized by Chris Ault when he was head coach at the University of Nevada, Reno. It is a hybrid of the traditional shotgun and single back offenses. In the pistol offense, also commonly referred to as the "pistol formation", the quarterback lines up four yards behind the center, which is much closer than the seven-yard setback in a traditional shotgun formation. The running back then lines up three yards directly behind the quarterback, which is in contrast to the shotgun, where they are beside each other. It is argued that the position of the quarterback in the pistol formation strikes an advantageous compromise: the quarterback is close enough to the line of scrimmage to be able to read the defense, as with run situation sets such as the I formation, but far enough back to give him extra time and a better vision of the field for passing plays, as in the shotgun. The pistol formation is thus very versatile, particularly if the quarterback himself is a threat to run the ball, which makes it difficult for the defense to correctly anticipate the play. This flexibility is enhanced by the option, where the quarterback reads one or more defenders and reacts to their responses to the snap, then makes a rapid decision whether to hand off the ball to the running back or keep it and run himself.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Colin Kaepernick</span> American football player (born 1987)

Colin Rand Kaepernick is an American civil rights activist and former football quarterback. He played six seasons for the San Francisco 49ers in the National Football League (NFL). In 2016, he knelt during the national anthem at the start of NFL games in protest of police brutality and racial inequality in the United States.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Christian Ponder</span> American football player (born 1988)

Christian Andrew Ponder is an American former professional football player who was a quarterback in the National Football League (NFL). He played college football for the Florida State Seminoles, and was selected by the Minnesota Vikings with the 12th overall pick in the 2011 NFL draft. He played for the Vikings, Denver Broncos and San Francisco 49ers.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Mike Kafka</span> American football player and coach (born 1987)

Michael John Kafka is an American football coach and former quarterback who is the assistant head coach and offensive coordinator for the New York Giants of the National Football League (NFL). After attending St. Rita of Cascia High School in Chicago, Illinois, he played college football for the Northwestern Wildcats, receiving second-team All-Big Ten Conference honors as a senior. He was drafted by the Philadelphia Eagles in the fourth round of the 2010 NFL draft, and spent six seasons in the NFL as a journeyman quarterback. Kafka became the quarterbacks coach for the Chiefs in 2018, and Patrick Mahomes, the starting quarterback for the Chiefs, earned the NFL Most Valuable Player award that season. Kafka helped the team win Super Bowl LIV the following season.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Deshaun Watson</span> American football player (born 1995)

Derrick Deshaun Watson is an American football quarterback for the Cleveland Browns of the National Football League (NFL). He played college football for the Clemson Tigers, leading the team to a national championship in 2016. Watson was selected in the first round of the 2017 NFL draft by the Houston Texans.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Lamar Jackson</span> American football player (born 1997)

Lamar Demeatrice Jackson Jr. is an American football quarterback for the Baltimore Ravens of the National Football League (NFL). He played college football for the Louisville Cardinals, winning the Heisman Trophy in 2016, and was selected by the Ravens with the final pick in the first round of the 2018 NFL draft. Intended to serve as a backup in his rookie season, Jackson became the Ravens' starting quarterback after an injury to the incumbent Joe Flacco. He went on to clinch a division title with the team and became the youngest NFL quarterback to start a playoff game at age 21.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Jalen Hurts</span> American football player (born 1998)

Jalen Alexander Hurts is an American football quarterback for the Philadelphia Eagles of the National Football League (NFL). He began his college football career with the Alabama Crimson Tide, leading the team to consecutive College Football Playoff National Championship appearances in 2016 and 2017. After being benched for Tua Tagovailoa during Alabama's victory in the latter championship, Hurts spent one season as a backup in 2018. He played his final season with the Oklahoma Sooners, leading them to an appearance in the 2019–20 College Football Playoff.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Kellen Mond</span> American football player (born 1999)

Kellen Louis Mond is an American football quarterback who is a free agent. He played college football at Texas A&M, where he was a four-year starter and became one of three SEC quarterbacks to record over 9,000 career passing yards with 1,500 rushing yards. Mond was drafted by the Minnesota Vikings in the third round of the 2021 NFL Draft.

In gridiron football and its variants, American football and Canadian football, the quarterback position is often considered the most important on the team. While there have been a growing number of players of African or minority descent throughout the history of collegiate and professional football, black players have historically faced difficulty in landing and retaining quarterback roles due to a number of factors. In addition, some black quarterbacks claim to have experienced bias towards or against them due to their race. Black players as a whole are disproportionately over represented in the NFL, being only ~13% of the U.S. population yet 67% of NFL players are black, with 17% of quarterbacks being black.

The Eagles–Falcons rivalry is a National Football League (NFL) rivalry between the Philadelphia Eagles and the Atlanta Falcons. The rivalry first emerged when the Falcons rallied in the fourth quarter against the Eagles in the 1978 Wild Card Round, and only intensified further in the 2000s with the emergence of star dual-threat quarterbacks in Donovan McNabb and Michael Vick.

References

  1. Benoit, Andy (June 5, 2014). "NFL's Best Running Quarterback? The Answer May Surprise You". Sports Illustrated . Retrieved December 8, 2014.
  2. "Jimmy Garoppolo reveals Mike Vick was his favorite player growing up". NBC Sports . April 30, 2020. Retrieved February 19, 2021. He [Michael Vick] spear-headed making the dual-threat QB mainstream, especially in pop culture with video games like Madden.
  3. Hartwell, Darren (September 27, 2020). "Newton hits historic mark on first Week 3 rush for Pats". NBC Sports . Retrieved February 19, 2021.
  4. Wesseling, Chris (July 6, 2016). "Is Cam Newton the greatest dual-threat QB in history?". NFL.com . Retrieved February 11, 2017.
  5. Mink, Ryan (May 2, 2018). "Lamar Jackson Modeled His Game After Michael Vick, Starting With 'Madden'". baltimoreravens.com . Retrieved February 19, 2021.
  6. Sheridan, Phil (November 11, 2014). "Chip Kelly: Eagles didn't play 'up to potential'". ESPN . Retrieved February 12, 2024.
  7. Kendle, Jon (July 29, 2018). "Passing through time, a 1930s rule change started the NFL on its way to wide-open offense". The Repository . Archived from the original on February 27, 2021. Retrieved February 20, 2021.
  8. "Bent but not Broken". NFL Football Operations . Retrieved February 20, 2021.
  9. "1933". Pro Football Hall of Fame . Retrieved February 12, 2024.
  10. Hoffman, Benjamin (May 26, 2019). "There Wasn't a Before or an After. There Was Only Bart Starr". The New York Times . Archived from the original on May 30, 2019. Retrieved February 12, 2024.
  11. 1 2 3 "Evolution of the NFL Player". NFL Football Operations . Retrieved February 20, 2021.
  12. Smith, Michael David (June 21, 2014). "Vick isn't the first rushing quarterback, but he is the best (for now)". Pro Football Talk . Retrieved December 10, 2014.
  13. "Packer Hall of Famer Tobin Rote Dead at 72". Green Bay Packers. June 28, 2000. Archived from the original on December 11, 2014. Retrieved December 10, 2014.
  14. Litsky, Frank (June 30, 2000). "Tobin Rote, 72, a Championship Quarterback for the Lions". The New York Times. Retrieved December 10, 2014.
  15. 1 2 Tarkenton, Fran (January 15, 2013). "Fran Tarkenton: 'In 1961, I was a freak.' Today, running quarterbacks embraced". St. Paul Pioneer Press . Retrieved December 10, 2014.
  16. 1 2 Jones, Riley (October 18, 2013). "Today in Performance Sneaker History: Randall Cunningham Sets QB Rushing Record in Nike Cleats". Sneaker Report. Retrieved December 10, 2014.
  17. 1 2 Kostora, Nick (April 18, 2012). "NFL Football: 10 Best Dual-Threat Quarterbacks of All Time". Bleacher Report . Retrieved February 25, 2021.
  18. 1 2 Smith, Michael David (June 21, 2014). "Vick isn't the first rushing quarterback, but he is the best (for now)". NBC Sports . Retrieved February 26, 2021.
  19. 1 2 3 Maule, Tax (December 13, 1971). "Look What's Afoot". Sports Illustrated . Archived from the original on November 21, 2011. Retrieved February 26, 2021.
  20. 1 2 3 Yellon, Al (August 31, 2010). "Bobby Douglass: A Bears Quarterback Who Was One Of A Kind". SB Nation . Retrieved December 10, 2014.
  21. Bedard, Greg A. (December 4, 2011). "Grogan reflects on his record-setting feet". The Boston Globe. Retrieved January 26, 2016.
  22. Stevens, Matthew (December 29, 2019). "Ravens break 41-year-old NFL record for single-season rushing yards". USA Today . Retrieved February 20, 2021.
  23. Weintraub, Robert (August 27, 2002). "The Case for Cunningham". Slate. Retrieved December 10, 2014.
  24. 1 2 LeBeau, James (October 26, 2011). "Top 5 Rushing Quarterbacks Of All Time". CraveOnline . Retrieved December 10, 2014.
  25. "Cam Newton Passes Steve Young for Most Rushing TDs by a QB in NFL History". Bleacher Report . September 8, 2016.
  26. 1 2 3 Darlington, Jeff (March 26, 2013). "Randall Cunningham at 50: Reflections on career, new QBs, more". NFL.com . Archived from the original on March 27, 2013. Retrieved December 10, 2014.
  27. "Ex-Steelers QB Kordell Stewart retires". FoxSports.com . Fox Sports. June 2, 2014. Retrieved December 10, 2014.
  28. "A Look Back at the Career of Steve McNair". Tennessee Titans. July 4, 2009. Archived from the original on February 14, 2015. Retrieved December 10, 2014.
  29. "Super Bowl Leaders". Pro-Football-Reference.com . Retrieved March 13, 2016.
  30. Kolp, Curt (March 11, 2009). "Donovan McNabb: The Greatest Philadelphia Eagle Quarterback of All Time?". Bleacher Report. Retrieved December 10, 2014.
  31. Silver, Michael (January 20, 2003). "Back in Stride Buoyed by Donovan McNabb's speedy recovery, the Eagles advanced to their second straight NFC Championship Game". Sports Illustrated . Retrieved December 10, 2014.
  32. 1 2 Brown, Chris (January 2, 2019). "5 noteworthy numbers on where Josh Allen and the Bills defense led the NFL in 2018". buffalobills.com . Retrieved February 20, 2021.
  33. 1 2 3 Longman, Jere (January 8, 2003). "PRO FOOTBALL; McNabb Starts Anew". The New York Times. Retrieved December 10, 2014.
  34. Spiegelman, Sam (July 10, 2014). "New York Jets QB Michael Vick to visit Independence Stadium in Shreveport Friday, site says". The Times-Picayune . Archived from the original on July 16, 2014. Retrieved December 10, 2014.
  35. Rhoden, William C. (November 22, 2010). "An Unsung Role in Vick's Success". The New York Times. Retrieved December 10, 2014.
  36. 1 2 Vrentas, Jenny (August 22, 2014). "The Franchise Backup". Sports Illustrated . Retrieved December 10, 2014.
  37. 1 2 SI Wire (June 23, 2014). "Jets quarterback Michael Vick: 'I revolutionized the game'". Sports Illustrated. Retrieved December 10, 2014.
  38. Newberry, Paul (December 17, 2006). "Vick Breaks 34-Year-Old Rushing Record". Washington Post. Retrieved December 10, 2014.
  39. "Vick first NFL QB to rush for 1,000 yards in season". ESPN . December 24, 2006. Retrieved December 10, 2014.
  40. "Michael Vick". Pro-Football-Reference.com . Retrieved December 10, 2014.
  41. "NFL Stats: by Player Category (Rushing, 2010)". NFL.com . Retrieved December 10, 2014.
  42. Cimini, Rick (June 20, 2014). "Michael Vick: 'I revolutionized' game". ESPN . Retrieved December 10, 2014.
  43. "NFL 100 Greatest Game Changers: Randall Cunningham". Philadelphia Eagles . Retrieved November 20, 2023. I looked up to Randall Cunningham growing up. He kind of shocked the world....
  44. "Vick breaks Cunningham's NFL record for QB rushing yards". NFL.com . October 9, 2011. Retrieved December 10, 2014.
  45. "NFL Stats: by Player Category (Rushing, 2011)". NFL.com . Retrieved December 10, 2014.
  46. "Cam Newton scores three rushing TDs, breaking NFL record". Sporting News. December 4, 2011. Archived from the original on December 11, 2014. Retrieved December 10, 2014.
  47. Madu, Zito (September 16, 2016). "Do the risks outweigh the rewards for dual-threat QBs like Cam Newton?". SB Nation . Retrieved February 20, 2021.
  48. Berman, Zach (September 6, 2013). "Dual-threat QBs Vick and RG3 set to square off". The Philadelphia Inquirer . Archived from the original on December 20, 2014. Retrieved December 10, 2014.
  49. Hale, David M. (September 29, 2016). "Lamar Jackson, Deshaun Watson are true 'dual-threat' QBs". ESPN . Retrieved February 20, 2021. Tim Tebow, [...] was considered a dual-threat.
  50. Samuel, Ebenezer (February 1, 2014). "Super Bowl XLVIII: Russell Wilson is the man on the run". New York Daily News . Retrieved February 11, 2017. If Russell Wilson can make good decisions on Sunday night at MetLife Stadium, he may finally change the NFL's perception of the dual-threat quarterback.
  51. Ruiz, Steven (December 14, 2016). "ESPN's Smith: Rodgers the most talented QB ever". USA Today . Retrieved October 22, 2019.
  52. Brinson, Will (July 7, 2017). "This odd stat might be proof that Aaron Rodgers could claim to be best QB ever". CBS Sports . Retrieved October 22, 2019.
  53. Cosell, Greg (November 8, 2014). "The Question of the Mobile Quarterback". Yahoo Sports. Retrieved January 30, 2024.
  54. 1 2 King, Peter (December 3, 2014). "The QB Market Crash". Sports Illustrated . Retrieved December 9, 2014.
  55. 1 2 3 Wesseling, Chris (December 8, 2014). "Colin Kaepernick symbolic of running QB struggles". NFL.com . Retrieved December 9, 2014.
  56. Branch, Eric (November 21, 2014). "Steve Young and the art of molding a mobile quarterback". San Francisco Gate. Retrieved December 9, 2014.
  57. Boyer, Zac (November 20, 2014). "Pocket Change: NFL's young, mobile QBs caught in adjustment process". Washington Times. Retrieved December 10, 2014.
  58. Patra, Kevin (November 4, 2014). "Aaron Rodgers (hamstring) 'looked good' in workout". NFL.com . Retrieved December 10, 2014.
  59. Young, Shalise Manza (November 26, 2014). "Bill Belichick heaps praise on Packers QB Aaron Rodgers". Boston Globe. Retrieved December 10, 2014.
  60. Mosher, Geoff (September 15, 2014). "Chip Kelly on Andrew Luck: 'He's in that Manning, Brady category'". Yahoo! Sports . Retrieved December 10, 2014.
  61. "Russell Wilson". Pro-Football-Reference.com . Retrieved January 26, 2016.
  62. Tomasson, Chris (January 30, 2015). "Super Bowl: Seahawks aiming for rare repeat championship". St. Paul Pioneer Press. Retrieved January 26, 2016.
  63. "B/R CFB 250: Top 20 Dual-Threat Quarterbacks". Bleacher Report. December 15, 2014. Retrieved December 15, 2014.
  64. 1 2 3 Ahern, Gerry (December 27, 2015). "Clemson's Deshaun Watson expects his dual-threat skills to translate to NFL". USA Today . Retrieved February 20, 2021.
  65. Boyd, Ian (February 19, 2015). "The future of the dual-threat quarterback". SB Nation . Retrieved February 20, 2021.
  66. "Roundtable: Is there hope for Robert Griffin III's NFL future?". Sports Illustrated . August 31, 2015. Retrieved February 20, 2021.
  67. 1 2 Inman, Cam (November 13, 2015). "49ers: What will become of Colin Kaepernick?". The Mercury News . Retrieved February 20, 2021.
  68. Wolfe, Cameron (October 19, 2017). "Pocket passing lesson helps dual-threat Marcus Mariota for long term". ESPN . Retrieved December 18, 2017.
  69. Teel, David (September 12, 2015). "Unassuming, unflappable Tyrod Taylor waited patiently for NFL starting chance". Daily Press . Retrieved February 20, 2021.
  70. Schein, Adam (January 25, 2016). "Cam Newton is, quite simply, the best player in the NFL today". NFL.com . Retrieved January 26, 2016.
  71. Clark, Kevin (January 26, 2016). "Why Cam Newton Can't Be Stopped". The Wall Street Journal. Retrieved January 26, 2016.
  72. Starr, Patrick (November 2, 2017). "Texans Deshaun Watson Locks Up Player of the Month Honors". scout.com. Archived from the original on November 2, 2017. Retrieved November 2, 2017.{{cite web}}: CS1 maint: bot: original URL status unknown (link)
  73. "Deshaun Watson, Jalen Hurts see 'dual-threat QB' in different light". USA Today. January 8, 2017. Retrieved August 24, 2018.
  74. Brown, Clifton (November 25, 2018). "Lamar Jackson Shows Dual Threat Ability, Makes Big Plays With Arm". baltimoreravens.com . Retrieved November 26, 2018.
  75. Platko, Frank J. (September 16, 2019). "Ravens vs. Cardinals: By the numbers". SB Nation . Retrieved September 16, 2019.
  76. "Lamar Jackson Broke Another Record And He's The 1st One To Do This In The NFL". CBS Baltimore. December 18, 2019. Retrieved December 19, 2019.
  77. Dunne, Tyler (February 26, 2016). "At QB, dual-threat Dak Prescott is the wild-card option for Bills". The Buffalo News . Retrieved February 20, 2021.
  78. Rock, Tom (October 21, 2020). "Daniel Jones' running game becoming an increasingly large part of Giants' plan". Newsday . Retrieved February 20, 2021. Jones' ability to carry the football [...] is becoming the game plan.
  79. Lee, Nick (November 5, 2020). "It's Time to Acknowledge Russell Wilson as Greatest Dual-Threat Quarterback in NFL History". Sports Illustrated . Retrieved February 20, 2021.
  80. Weinfuss, Josh (September 13, 2019). "Kyler Murray and Lamar Jackson: Pass-first dual-threat QBs". ESPN . Retrieved October 9, 2019.
  81. Parrino, Matt (November 25, 2018). "Welcome back, Josh Allen: 8 observations from rookie's return to Bills (videos)". NYUp.com . Retrieved November 25, 2018. The big arm is there and the toughness is there, but he's able to accelerate and run away from linebackers at the second level. He's a true dual-threat quarterback.
  82. Skretta, Dave (January 26, 2020). "Mahomes' dual-threat play on display in Chiefs' road to Super Bowl". FoxSports.com . Fox Sports . Retrieved January 30, 2022.
  83. Gramling, Gary (January 23, 2022). "Mahomes-Allen could reach Brady-Manning rivalry levels". Sports Illustrated . Retrieved January 24, 2022.
  84. 1 2 Renner, Michael (June 29, 2018). "RPOs – what they are, which NFL team used them best in 2017?". Pro Football Focus . Retrieved February 20, 2021.
  85. Mays, Robert (August 14, 2018). "The RPO Takeover Isn't Complete Just Yet". The Ringer . Retrieved February 20, 2021.
  86. 1 2 Ruiz, Steven (September 6, 2018). "A casual NFL fan's guide to RPOs". USA Today . Retrieved February 20, 2021.
  87. Nguyen, Ted (November 3, 2020). "How RPO concepts work and why they're a headache to defend". The Athletic . Retrieved February 20, 2021.
  88. Berman, Zach (January 24, 2023). "Why the Eagles' Jalen Hurts is a 'triple-threat' QB who uses his intellect to win" . The Athletic . Retrieved February 5, 2023.
  89. "Justin Fields' dual-threat abilities lead Bears to win over Patriots". 25 October 2022.
  90. Fitz, Jason; Harmon, Matt; Robinson, Charles. "Jayden Daniels' dual threat ability fits perfectly with the Commanders offense". Yahoo Sports. Retrieved 27 May 2024.
  91. Morgan, Emmanuel; Rhim, Kris (February 12, 2023) [February 10, 2023]. "Hurts and Mahomes Show There's More Than One Way to a Super Bowl". The New York Times . Retrieved January 30, 2024.
  92. Johnson, Martenzie (September 24, 2018). "Deshaun Watson and the Intellect of Black Quarterbacks". The Undefeated . Retrieved February 20, 2021.
  93. 1 2 Schalter, Ty (March 5, 2012). "Why African-American QBs Are Systemically Trained to Abandon Mechanics". Bleacher Report . Retrieved February 20, 2021.
  94. Boylan, Christopher; McMahon, Ryan; Monroe, Burt L. (April 27, 2017). "NFL draft profiles are full of racial stereotypes. And that matters for when quarterbacks get drafted". The Washington Post . Retrieved February 20, 2021.
  95. Shanker, Jared (August 17, 2016). "Clemson QB Deshaun Watson says dual-threat label stems from race". ESPN . Retrieved February 20, 2021.
  96. Johnson, Martenzie (January 16, 2021). "Lamar Jackson, Josh Allen and the fallacy of the dual-threat QB". The Undefeated . Retrieved February 20, 2021.
  97. Kimes, Mina (November 2, 2017). "The great Tyrod Taylor debate". ESPN . Retrieved February 20, 2021.
  98. Rivers, Jeff (December 3, 2018). "Mahomes, Prescott, Wilson and now Jackson are not just 'dual-threat' QBs". The Undefeated . Retrieved February 20, 2021.
  99. Goodbread, Chase (August 17, 2016). "Deshaun Watson: I'm stereotyped as run-first QB because of race". National Football League . Retrieved February 20, 2021.
  100. Hayes, Matt (August 17, 2016). "Deshaun Watson Hates Dual-Threat QB Code Word, Wants to Be Face of CFB". Bleacher Report . Retrieved February 20, 2021.
  101. 1 2 Bieler, Des (September 18, 2018). "Deshaun Watson takes high road while Texans coach blasts 'ignorant, idiotic' comment about QB". The Washington Post . Retrieved February 20, 2021.