Earl of Holland was a title in the Peerage of England. It was created in 1624 for Henry Rich, 1st Baron Kensington. He was the younger son of Robert Rich, 1st Earl of Warwick, and had already been created Baron Kensington in 1623, also in the Peerage of England, having married Isabelle Cope, daughter and sole heiress of Sir Walter Cope (c.1553-1614), of Cope Castle in Kensington, Middlesex. His eldest son, the second Earl, succeeded his first cousin as fifth Earl of Warwick in 1673. All the titles became extinct on the death of the eighth Earl of Warwick and fifth Earl of Holland in 1759 (see Earl of Warwick for a more detailed description of the descent of the titles).
Lady Mary Rich, daughter of the first Earl of Holland, married Sir John Campbell, 5th Baronet, who was created Earl of Breadalbane and Holland in the Peerage of Scotland in 1681. Also, Lady Elizabeth Rich, only daughter and heiress of the fifth Earl of Warwick and second Earl of Holland, married Francis Edwardes. Their son William Edwardes succeeded to parts of the Rich estates and was created Baron Kensington in the Peerage of Ireland in 1776.
The name "Holland" in the title refers to the area of Lincolnshire historically known as Holland.
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Edward Montagu, 2nd Earl of Manchester, KG, KB, FRS was an important commander of Parliamentary forces in the First English Civil War, and for a time Oliver Cromwell's superior.
Earl of Warwick is one of the most prestigious titles in the peerages of the United Kingdom. The title has been created four times in English history, and the name refers to Warwick Castle and the town of Warwick.
Earl of Hardwicke is a title in the Peerage of Great Britain. It was created in 1754 for Philip Yorke, 1st Baron Hardwicke, Lord High Chancellor of Great Britain from 1737 to 1756. He had already been created Baron Hardwicke, of Hardwicke in the County of Gloucestershire, in 1733, and was made Viscount Royston at the same time as he was given the earldom. These titles were also in the Peerage of Great Britain. He was succeeded by his eldest son, the second Earl. He represented Reigate and Cambridgeshire in the House of Commons and served as Lord Lieutenant of Cambridgeshire. Lord Hardwicke married Lady Jemima Campbell, only daughter of John Campbell, 3rd Earl of Breadalbane, and granddaughter and heiress of Henry Grey, 1st Duke of Kent, who succeeded her grandfather as Marchioness Grey in 1722. They had two daughters of whom the eldest, Lady Amabel, was created Countess De Grey in her own right in 1816.
Earl of Gainsborough is a title that has been created twice, once in the Peerage of England and once in the Peerage of the United Kingdom. The first creation ended in extinction when the sixth Earl died without heirs. However, the title was revived in 1841 for a female-line relative.
Baron Kensington is a title that has been created three times, in the Peerages of England, Ireland and the United Kingdom.
Earl of Breadalbane and Holland is a title in the Peerage of Scotland. It was created in 1681 for Sir John Campbell, 5th Baronet, of Glenorchy, who had previously been deprived of the title Earl of Caithness. He, as a principal creditor, had acquired the estates of George Sinclair, 6th Earl of Caithness who had died heavily in debt and without issue in 1670. Campbell was consequently created Earl of Caithness in 1673, but after much litigation and even bloodshed, George Sinclair of Keiss, second son of George, 5th Earl of Caithness, recovered the estates, and successfully petitioned parliament regarding the earldom, which was removed from Campbell. Sinclair's title was finally restored to him in 1681. Deprived by parliament of the Caithness earldom, Sir John Campbell was created Lord Glenorchy, Benederaloch, Ormelie and Weick, Viscount of Tay and Paintland, and Earl of Breadalbane and Holland on 13 August 1681, with the precedency of the former patent and with the power to nominate any of his sons by his first wife to succeed him. The titles were created with remainder to the heirs male of the son chosen to succeed him, failing which to the heirs male of his body, failing which to his own heirs male, failing which to his heirs whatsoever. The "of Holland" part of the title derived from the fact that Campbell was the husband of Lady Mary Rich, daughter of Henry Rich, 1st Earl of Holland.
The title Marquess of Halifax was created in the Peerage of England in 1682 for the George Savile, 1st Earl of Halifax.
Baron Clifton, of Leighton Bromswold in the County of Huntingdon, is a title in the Peerage of England. It was created in 1608 for Sir Gervase Clifton, who made Prebendal house which was built by John Thorpe and later owned by the Clifton baronets branch of the family. The peerage was created by writ, which means that it can descend through both male and female lines. Lord Clifton died without surviving male issue and was succeeded by his daughter Katherine, the second Baroness. She married Esmé Stewart, 3rd Duke of Lennox. They were both succeeded by their eldest son James, the fourth Duke and third Baron. When he died the titles passed to his son, the fifth Duke and fourth Baron. On his death in 1660 at the age of 11 the barony separated from the dukedom. The barony was inherited by the late Duke's sister Mary, the fifth Baroness. She married Richard Butler, 1st Earl of Arran, but died aged only 18. She was succeeded by her first cousin the sixth Duke of Lennox, who became the sixth Baron Clifton as well. He was the son of Lord George Stuart, fourth son of the third Duke and the second Baroness Clifton. On his death the barony and dukedom again separated.
Robert Montagu, 3rd Earl of Manchester JP was an English courtier and politician who sat in the House of Commons from 1660 to 1671 when he inherited the peerage as Earl of Manchester.
William George Cavendish, 2nd Baron Chesham was a British Liberal politician.
Archibald Acheson, 3rd Earl of Gosford KP, styled Viscount Acheson between 1807 and 1849, was a British peer and Member of Parliament.
William Edwardes, 1st Baron Kensington of Johnston Hall, Pembrokeshire, was a British landowner and a long-standing Member of Parliament.
Francis Edwardes of Pembrokeshire in Wales, was a Member of Parliament.
Baron Rich was a title in the Peerage of England. It was created in 1547 and was absorbed into the Earldom of Warwick in 1618. It became extinct in 1759.
Richard Butler, 1st Earl of Arran (1639–1686) was the fourth son of James Butler, 1st Duke of Ormonde. He served as Lord Deputy of Ireland from 1682 to 1684 while his father, the Lord Lieutenant, was absent. He sat in the Irish House of Lords as Earl of Arran and in the English one as Baron Butler of Weston. When William Howard, 1st Viscount Stafford was accused of treason during the Popish Plot, Arran braved the anti-Catholic hysteria and voted not guilty.
Edward Rich, 8th Baron Rich, 6th Earl of Warwick and 3rd Earl of Holland, of Holland House, Kensington, Middlesex, was an English peer and member of the House of Lords, styled Lord Rich until 1675.
Alice FitzHugh was the eldest daughter and co-heiress of Henry FitzHugh, 5th Baron FitzHugh, and Lady Alice Neville. Alice was born at the ancestral castle of Ravensworth. She married Sir John Fiennes, the son of Sir Richard Fiennes and Joan Dacre, 7th Baroness Dacre. Alice was a first cousin of Queen consort Anne Neville and great-aunt of Queen consort Catherine Parr.
Isabel Rich, Countess of Holland, formerly Isabel Cope, was the wife of Henry Rich, 1st Earl of Holland.
Holland House, originally known as Cope Castle, was an early Jacobean country house in Kensington, London, situated in a country estate that is now Holland Park. It was built in 1605 by the diplomat Sir Walter Cope. The building later passed by marriage to Henry Rich, 1st Baron Kensington, 1st Earl of Holland, and by descent through the Rich family, then became the property of the Fox family, during which time it became a noted gathering-place for Whigs in the 19th century. The house was largely destroyed by German firebombing during the Blitz in 1940 and today only the east wing and some ruins of the ground floor and south facade remain, along with various outbuildings and formal gardens. In 1949 the ruin was designated a grade I listed building and it is now owned by the Royal Borough of Kensington and Chelsea.
Edward Henry Rich, 10th Baron Rich, 8th Earl of Warwick and 5th Earl of Holland (1695–1759), of Holland House, Kensington, Middlesex, was an English peer.