Justin Broadrick performing as Final, 2012
|Also known as||Atrocity Exhibition (1982)|
Smear Campaign (1983)
|Origin||Birmingham, England, UK|
|Genres|| Power electronics, industrial music (early)|
Drone music, ambient, dark ambient (currently)
|Labels|| Avalanche Recordings |
Post Mortem Rekordings
|Associated acts|| Godflesh, Jesu, Iroha, Khost, Council Estate Electronics, White Static Demon|
1980s one-off projects: Crusade, Dead Pulp, Last Exit, Mindless Scum, Mesh
|Past members||Andrew Swan|
Final is a project of Justin Broadrick, creator of the band Godflesh, which he started when he was just 13 years old.Unlike Godflesh, Final is primarily electronic in nature, taking on a space-like, dark ambient sound.
Justin Karl Michael Broadrick is a British singer, songwriter, guitarist and drummer. He is best known as a founding member of the band Godflesh, one of the first bands to combine elements of extreme metal and industrial music. He was briefly in the English grindcore band Napalm Death when he was a teenager in the mid-1980s, writing and recording guitar for Side One of Napalm Death's debut album, Scum. Broadrick has also maintained a parallel career as a producer, producing records and remixes for groups such as Pantera, Isis, Mogwai and Hydra Head labelmates Pelican. Since 2012, he has been releasing hard techno music under the solo moniker JK Flesh. Broadrick has set up record labels such as HeadDirt, Avalanche Recordings, Post Mortem Productions, Lo Fibre and Heartache.
Godflesh are an English industrial metal band from Birmingham, England. The group formed in 1982 under the title Fall of Because but did not release any complete music until 1988 when Justin Broadrick and G. C. Green (bass) renamed the band and decided to use a drum machine for percussion. Melding heavy metal with industrial music and later with electronic music and dub, Godflesh's innovative sound is widely regarded as a foundational influence on other industrial metal and post-metal acts and as significant to both experimental metal and extreme metal.
Electronic music is music that employs electronic musical instruments, digital instruments and circuitry-based music technology. In general, a distinction can be made between sound produced using electromechanical means, and that produced using electronics only. Electromechanical instruments include mechanical elements, such as strings, hammers, and so on, and electric elements, such as magnetic pickups, power amplifiers and loudspeakers. Examples of electromechanical sound producing devices include the telharmonium, Hammond organ, and the electric guitar, which are typically made loud enough for performers and audiences to hear with an instrument amplifier and speaker cabinet. Pure electronic instruments do not have vibrating strings, hammers, or other sound-producing mechanisms. Devices such as the theremin, synthesizer, and computer can produce electronic sounds.
Final was the guise under which Broadrick, then aged 14, performed his first ever live concert in 1984 in The Mermaid Pub in Birmingham, using his stepfather's shortwave radio and distortion pedals. At that point the project was a duo with Andy Swan who Broadrick met at the city's Rag Market and both shared an interest in power electronics and industrial bands such as Throbbing Gristle, Ramleh and Whitehouse. Swan would later go on to form the bands Iroha and Khost, both of which Broadrick has made remixes for. Before that the project briefly went under the names Atrocity Exhibition and Smear Campaign.Final played at the pub alongside Con-Dom and Family Patrol Group and was briefly signed on The Grey Wolves's label. Broadrick started a cassette label called Post Mortem Rekordings on which he released over 50 tapes until 1986, many of which were Final tapes. Other contributors during this period included Guy Pearce, Nicholas Bullen (of Scum fame), Kevin Johnson, and Paul Neville. The music from this period is expected to receive a boxset reissue on Hospital Productions.
Birmingham is the second-most populous city in the United Kingdom, after London, and the most populous city in the English Midlands. It is also the most populous metropolitan district in the United Kingdom, with an estimated 1,137,123 inhabitants, and is considered the social, cultural, financial, and commercial centre of the Midlands. It is the main local government of the West Midlands conurbation, which is the third most populated urban area in the United Kingdom, with a population of 2,897,303 in 2017. The wider Birmingham metropolitan area is the second largest in the United Kingdom with a population of over 4.3 million. It is frequently referred to as the United Kingdom's "second city".
Shortwave radio is radio transmission using shortwave radio frequencies. There is no official definition of the band, but the range always includes all of the high frequency band (HF), and generally extends from 30–3 MHz ; above the medium frequency band (MF), to the end of the HF band.
Distortion and overdrive are forms of audio signal processing used to alter the sound of amplified electric musical instruments, usually by increasing their gain, producing a "fuzzy", "growling", or "gritty" tone. Distortion is most commonly used with the electric guitar, but may also be used with other electric instruments such as bass guitar, electric piano, and Hammond organ. Guitarists playing electric blues originally obtained an overdriven sound by turning up their vacuum tube-powered guitar amplifiers to high volumes, which caused the signal to distort. While overdriven tube amps are still used to obtain overdrive in the 2010s, especially in genres like blues and rockabilly, a number of other ways to produce distortion have been developed since the 1960s, such as distortion effect pedals. The growling tone of distorted electric guitar is a key part of many genres, including blues and many rock music genres, notably hard rock, punk rock, hardcore punk, acid rock, and heavy metal music.
Final was then put on hiatus while Broadrick played in Napalm Death and Head of David and later co-founded Godflesh. Final was eventually revived in 1993as an experimental ambient solo project meant to "explore beat-less spaces" and focus on textures, now expanding its influences to the likes of Brian Eno and Maurizio Bianchi. This new incarnation started utilizing electric guitar, tape decks, synthesizers and samplers. One was released on Sentrax and Subharmonic and was Final's first ever CD release. 2 (1996) and 3 (2006) which both compiled pieces recorded over several years were collaborations with Broadrick's bass players: Godflesh's G. C. Green and Jesu's Diarmuid Dalton respectively. Two series of live improvised music were self released under the Final name on Avalanche Recordings, Infinite Guitar (2007-2009) and Guitar & Bass Improvisations (2007-2013). A collaborative avant-garde drone album with Dirk Serries was also released in 2009, Final + Fear Falls Burning.
Napalm Death are a British extreme metal band formed in Meriden, West Midlands, England, in 1981. While none of its original members remain in the group since December 1986, the lineup of vocalist Mark "Barney" Greenway, bassist Shane Embury, guitarist Mitch Harris and drummer Danny Herrera has remained consistent of the band's career since 1992's Utopia Banished, although, from 1989 to 2004, Napalm Death were a five-piece band after they added Jesse Pintado as the replacement of one-time guitarist Bill Steer; following Pintado's departure, the band reverted to a four-piece rather than replace him.
Head of David is a British heavy metal band that features vocalist Stephen R. Burroughs and ex-Napalm Death member Justin Broadrick. The band's sound paved way to various music genres, including industrial metal, grindcore and noise rock.
Ambient music is a genre of music that emphasizes tone and atmosphere over traditional musical structure or rhythm. A form of slow instrumental music, it uses repetitive, but gentle, soothing sound patterns that can be described as sonic wallpaper to complement or alter one’s space and to generate a sense of calmness. The genre is said to evoke an "atmospheric", "visual", or "unobtrusive" quality.
Final played its first live show in 20 years as support for The Living Jarboe in 2005, with a laptop as the only instrument. A European tour followed in 2006 alongside L'Enfance Rouge and a further show was played later that year at Supersonic Festival and as support for Isis at All Tomorrow's Parties. One-off shows were played in Birmingham in 2009, during Broadrick's Roadburn Festival residence in 2012 and as a double bill with the live debut of Council Estate Electronics in 2014. The Birmingham show saw a Bandcamp release as Live Reprocessed (2016). Dalton assisted Broadrick on some of these dates. Final is scheduled to play its first ever United States show on 8 December, 2018 at Hospital Fest in Queens, New York.
Jarboe La Salle Devereaux, known mononymously as Jarboe (;), is an American singer-songwriter and keyboardist who came to prominence as a member of the New York City-based band Swans in 1985. Jarboe and Michael Gira, the founder of Swans, were the two constant members of the group until it broke up in 1997.
A laptop computer is a small, portable personal computer (PC) with a "clamshell" form factor, typically having a thin LCD or LED computer screen mounted on the inside of the upper lid of the clamshell and an alphanumeric keyboard on the inside of the lower lid. The clamshell is opened up to use the computer. Laptops are folded shut for transportation, and thus are suitable for mobile use. Its name comes from lap, as it was deemed to be placed on a person's lap when being used. Although originally there was a distinction between laptops and notebooks, as of 2014, there is often no longer any difference. Laptops are commonly used in a variety of settings, such as at work, in education, for playing games, Internet surfing, for personal multimedia, and general home computer use.
Supersonic Festival is a yearly music festival in Birmingham featuring a combination of music, art, film and other crafts.
Dirk Serries is a Belgian composer and ambient musician. He is best known as Vidna Obmana, a pseudonym he used from 1984 until 2007.
Jesu is a British experimental band formed in 2003 by Justin Broadrick following the 2002 breakup of his band Godflesh. It is named after the last song on Hymns, the final album of Godflesh's initial run. Jesu's sound is heavily layered and textured, incorporating a diverse mix of influences. Broadrick himself has stated that "...it's very loosely speaking pop/rock/metal/electronica ... I'm intentionally writing what I consider to be coherent "pop" songs".
Jesu is the first full-length album by British experimental music band Jesu, released through Hydra Head Records on 8 December 2004. Unlike the Heart Ache EP, where Justin Broadrick executed all instrumentation himself, this release features Ted Parsons on drums, Diarmuid Dalton on bass, and a guest appearance by Paul Neville on guitar on the track "Man/Woman". The album was released in Japan by Daymare Recordings and contains two additional instrumental remixes on a bonus disc. In February 2005, a double vinyl picture disc set was released by Hydra Head, limited to 1000 copies. The picture disc pressing contains an alternate, cleaner mix than the CD or standard LP editions.
The Heart Ache EP is the first release by Jesu. Justin Broadrick wrote both tracks, played all of the instruments as well as mixed and produced the EP. It was originally released on 30 August 2004 by Dry Run Records; Avalanche Recordings released a 12" vinyl version in January 2008 also. The vinyl version is limited to 1500 copies.
Nicholas Bullen is a composer, artist and writer.
Streetcleaner is the debut studio album by English industrial metal band Godflesh. It was released on 13 November 1989 through Earache Records and was reissued with a second disc of previously unreleased material on 21 June 2010. The album is widely acclaimed by critics and is often cited as a landmark release in industrial metal; though not the genre's first release, Streetcleaner helped define what industrial metal would become.
Ben George Christian "G. C." Green is an English musician, best known as the co-founder and bass guitarist of the Birmingham-based industrial metal band, Godflesh.
Selfless is the third studio album by British industrial metal band Godflesh. It was released on 26 September 1994 in Europe and on 18 October 1994 through Earache and Columbia Records. Being the band's major-label debut, the record features a more conventional and rock-oriented sound compared to Godflesh's previous releases. It spawned two singles, "Xnoybis" and "Crush My Soul". The music video for the latter was directed by photographer Andres Serrano.
Paul Neville is an underground experimental industrial metal guitarist and musician from Birmingham, England.
This is a partial discography of Justin Broadrick, a prolific English songwriter, guitarist, singer, producer and general multi-instrumentalist musician most known for being the leading force of the industrial metal band Godflesh. Broadrick is also recognized for his experimental project Jesu, his key contributions to the seminal grindcore album Scum (1987) by Napalm Death, and his strong presence in the electronic and industrial remix community.
Continuum is a collaborative ambient and drone music project between Bass Communion and Dirk Serries. The project looks to expand on the artists' "collective ambition and vision, motivated by their immense passion for a wide-range of musical styles, ranging from spacious ambience to pounding doom metal."
Messiah is an EP by industrial metal band Godflesh. The EP was originally recorded and mixed during 1994, and was released independently to members of the band's fan club on 5 December 2000 along with four remixes, which were created in 1995. After Justin Broadrick disbanded Godflesh, he reissued the material through Relapse Records on 1 April 2003.
Avalanche Recordings is an independent record label, founded by English musician Justin Broadrick in 1999. It is named after Broadrick's own recording studio, Avalanche Studios, and mainly releases Justin Broadrick's side projects.
Greymachine is an experimental music project founded in 2006. It is led by Godflesh and Jesu frontman Justin Broadrick. The act also features Isis frontman and guitarist Aaron Turner, Jesu bassist Diarmuid Dalton and Head of David bassist Dave Cochrane.
"Vultures Descend" is a song by experimental music project Greymachine, from the act's debut album, Disconnected. Produced by the band leader Justin Broadrick, it was released on 12 May 2009 as a single via bandmember Aaron Turner's own record label, Hydra Head Records.
Diarmuid Dalton is a British musician and songwriter. He is best known as the bass guitarist of post-metal bands, Jesu and Iroha. Dalton frequently collaborates with Justin Broadrick, who is the founder of Godflesh and Jesu.
Streetcleaner: Live at Roadburn 2011 is the first live album from English industrial metal band Godflesh. The release was recorded on 14 April 2011 at the Roadburn Festival in Tilburg, Netherlands. Apart from being the group's debut live album, it was also the first time they played Streetcleaner in its entirety.
Post Self is the eighth studio album by English industrial metal band Godflesh. It was released on 17 November 2017 through frontman Justin Broadrick's own record label, Avalanche Recordings, and was the band's second album since reforming in 2010. The single "Post Self" was released for streaming on 31 October 2017, and a second track, "Be God", was released for streaming on 11 November 2017, six days in advance of the full release. Godflesh avoided interviews in the wake of Post Self, hoping to retain some of the album's purity and give listeners a chance to digest the music in a vacuum.
Life Is Easy is a compilation album by Birmingham-based industrial metal group Fall of Because, compiling songs recorded in 1986 and 1987 before the band became Godflesh. Released on 24 August 1999 through Alleysweeper and distributed by Martin Atkins' label Invisible Records, Life Is Easy contains many songs that went on to be rerecorded and turned into Godflesh tracks.
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