List of Presidents of Portugal

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President of the
Portuguese Republic
Coat of arms of Portugal.svg
Flag of the President of Portugal.svg
Marcelo Rebelo de Sousa Rio2016.png
Marcelo Rebelo de Sousa

since 9 March 2016
Style Excellency
Residence Belém Palace
Term length Five years, renewable once; may run for third and final non-consecutive term.
Inaugural holder Manuel de Arriaga
Formation5 October 1910
Coat of arms of Portugal.svg
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The complete list of Presidents of the Portuguese Republic consists of the 20 heads of state in the history of Portugal since the 5 October 1910 revolution that installed a republican regime. This list includes not only those persons who were sworn into office as President of Portugal but also those who de facto served as head of state since 1910. This is the case of Teófilo Braga who served as President of the Provisional Government after the republican coup d'état. Also Sidónio Pais, Mendes Cabeçadas, Gomes da Costa, as well as Canto e Castro and Óscar Carmona in their early months, were not sworn into office as the President of the Republic, usually being the President of the Ministry (Prime Minister), but de facto accumulation this functions with that of the Head of State. See the notes for more information.

History of Portugal history of Portugal

The history of Portugal can be traced from circa 400,000 years ago, when the region of present-day Portugal was inhabited by Homo heidelbergensis. The oldest human fossil is the skull discovered in the Cave of Aroeira in Almonda. Later Neanderthals roamed the northern Iberian peninsula. Homo sapiens arrived in Portugal around 35,000 years ago.

5 October 1910 revolution October 1910 coup détat in Portugal

The 5 October 1910 revolution was the overthrow of the centuries-old Portuguese Monarchy and its replacement by the Portuguese Republic. It was the result of a coup d'état organized by the Portuguese Republican Party.

Republicanism is a representative form of government organization. It is a political ideology centered on citizenship in a state organized as a republic. Historically, it ranges from the rule of a representative minority or oligarchy to popular sovereignty. It has had different definitions and interpretations which vary significantly based on historical context and methodological approach.



The numbering reflects the uninterrupted terms in office served by a single man. For example, Jorge Sampaio served two consecutive terms and is counted as the 19th president (not the 19th and 20th). Teófilo Braga served as the first and sole president of the Provisional Government, and therefore is not considered to be the first President, although he would serve again as head of state and be the second president after the resignation of Manuel de Arriaga. However, Bernardino Machado served two non-consecutive terms, and he is counted as both the third and the eighth presidents. Because of this, the list below contains 20 presidencies, but only 19 presidents.

Jorge Sampaio President of Portugal

Jorge Fernando Branco de Sampaio, GColTE, GCIH, GColL is a Portuguese lawyer and politician who was the 18th President of Portugal from 1996 to 2006.

Teófilo Braga Portuguese politician

Joaquim Teófilo Fernandes Braga was a Portuguese writer, playwright, politician and the leader of the Republican Provisional Government after the overthrow of King Manuel II, as well as the second elected President of the First Portuguese Republic, after the resignation of President Manuel de Arriaga.

Manuel de Arriaga Portuguese president

Manuel José de Arriaga Brum da Silveira e Peyrelongue was a Portuguese lawyer, the first Attorney-General and the first elected President of the First Portuguese Republic, following the deposition of King Manuel II of Portugal and a Republican Provisional Government headed by Teófilo Braga.

Under the Constitution of Portugal adopted in 1976, in the wake of the 1974 Carnation Revolution, the President is elected to a five-year term; there is no limit to the number of terms a president may serve, but a president who serves two consecutive terms may not serve again in the next five years after the second term finishes.

Constitution of Portugal

The present Constitution of Portugal was adopted in 1976 after the Carnation Revolution. It was preceded by a number of constitutions including ones created in 1822, 1838, 1911, and 1933.

Carnation Revolution revolution

The Carnation Revolution, also known as the 25th of April, was initially a 25 April 1974 military coup in Lisbon which overthrew the authoritarian Estado Novo regime. The revolution began as a coup organised by the Armed Forces Movement, composed of military officers who opposed the regime, but it was soon coupled with an unanticipated, popular civil resistance campaign. The revolution led to the fall of the Estado Novo, the end of 48 years of authoritarian rule in Portugal, and Portugal's withdrawal from its African colonies.

The official residence of the President of Portugal is the Belém Palace.

Belém Palace building in Santa Maria de Belém, Lisbon District, Portugal

The Belém Palace, or alternately National Palace of Belém, has, over time, been the official residence of Portuguese monarchs and, after the installation of the First Republic, the Presidents of the Portuguese Republic. Located in the civil parish of Santa Maria de Belém, the palace is located on a small hill that fronts the Praça Afonso de Albuquerque, near the historical centre of Belém and the Monastery of the Jerónimos, close to the waterfront of the Tagus River. The five buildings that make up the main façade of the Palace date back to the second half of the 17th century, and were built at a time when the monarchy and nobility increasingly desired to seek respite from the urbanized confines of Lisbon.

The current President of Portugal is Marcelo Rebelo de Sousa, the winner of the 2016 presidential election.

Marcelo Rebelo de Sousa President of Portugal

Marcelo Nuno Duarte Rebelo de Sousa, ComSE, GCIH is a Portuguese academic, journalist, and politician, currently serving as the 20th and current President of Portugal, since 9 March 2016. A member of the Social Democratic Party (PSD), Rebelo de Sousa has served as a government minister, parliamentarian in the Assembly of the Portuguese Republic, legal scholar, journalist, political analyst and pundit, gaining him nationwide recognition prior to his election.

The colors indicate the political affiliation of each President.

     National Republican/Sidonist
     Evolutionist Party/Republican Liberal
     National Union/Popular National Action
     Democratic Renewal
     Social Democratic
    No party

The Portuguese Republican Party was a Portuguese political party formed during the late years of monarchy that proposed and conducted the substitution of the Constitutional Monarchy by the Portuguese First Republic.

Democratic Party (Portugal) political party in Portugal

The Democratic Party, officially known as the Portuguese Republican Party, was a Portuguese left-wing political party during the Portuguese First Republic. It was also the self-proclaimed successor to the original Portuguese Republican Party, which had been behind the revolution that established the Portuguese First Republic in 1910.

National Republican Party (Portugal) political party

The National Republican Party, unofficially known as the Sidonist Party after its leader Sidónio Pais, was a political party in Portugal

First Republic (1910–1926)

PortraitElectedTerm of officePolitical party
President of the Provisional Government of the Republic (1910–1911)
1 Teófilo Braga [1]
Teofilo Braga.jpg October 5, 1910August 24, 1911 Republican
Presidents of the Republic (1911–1926)
2 Manuel de Arriaga
Manuel de Arriaga - Fotografia Vasques.png 1911 August 24, 1911May 26, 1915 [R] Republican
later Democratic
3 Teófilo Braga [2]
Teofilo Braga.jpg May
May 29, 1915October 5, 1915 Democratic
4 Bernardino Machado
Bernardino Machado.jpg August
October 5, 1915December 5, 1917 [C] Democratic
5 Ministry
(Head of State ex officio)
President: Sidónio Pais
December 12, 1917April 28, 1918
6 Sidónio Pais [3]
President Paes of Portugal.jpg April
April 28, 1918December 14, 1918 [A] National Republican
or "Sidonist"
7 Ministry
(Head of State ex officio)
President: João do Canto e Castro
December 14, 1918December 16, 1918
8 João do Canto e Castro [4]
Canto e Castro.jpg December
December 16, 1918October 5, 1919 National Republican
or "Sidonist"
9 António José de Almeida
Antonio Jose de Almeida.jpg 1919 October 5, 1919October 5, 1923 Evolutionist Party
later Republican Liberal
10 Manuel Teixeira Gomes
Marques-oliveira teixeira-gomes-1.jpg 1923 October 5, 1923December 11, 1925 [R] Democratic
11 Bernardino Machado
2nd time
Bernardino Machado.jpg 1925 December 11, 1925May 31, 1926 [C] Democratic

Second Republic (1926–1974)

PortraitElectedTerm of officePolitical party
Ditadura Nacional (National Dictatorship) (1926–1932)
12 José Mendes Cabeçadas [5]
President Jose Mendes Cabecadas.jpg May 31, 1926June 17, 1926 [C] Military officer
13 Ministry
(Head of State ex officio)
President: Manuel Gomes da Costa
June 17, 1926June 29, 1926
14 Manuel Gomes da Costa [5]
Gomes da costa.jpg June 29, 1926July 9, 1926 [C] Military officer
15 Ministry
(Head of State ex officio)
President: Óscar Carmona
July 9, 1926November 29, 1926
16 Óscar Carmona [5] [6]
OscarCarmona(official).jpg November 29, 1926April 15, 1928Military officer
Estado Novo (New State) (1932–1974)
17 Óscar Carmona
OscarCarmona(official).jpg 1928 April 15, 1928April 26, 1935Military officer
from 1932
National Union
1935 April 26, 1935April 15, 1942
1942 April 15, 1942April 20, 1949
1949 April 20, 1949April 18, 1951 [D]
18 António de Oliveira Salazar [7]
Antonio Salazar-1.jpg April 18, 1951July 21, 1951 National Union
19 Francisco Craveiro Lopes
General Francisco Higino Craveiro Lopes, Presidente de Portugal.tif 1951 July 21, 1951August 9, 1958 National Union
20 Américo Tomás
AmericoThomaz.png 1958 August 9, 1958August 9, 1965 National Union
from 1970
People's National Action
1965 August 9, 1965August 9, 1972
1972 August 9, 1972April 25, 1974 [C]

Third Republic (1974–present)

PortraitElectedTerm of officePolitical party
Presidents appointed in the aftermath of the Carnation Revolution (1974–1976)
21 National Salvation Junta [8]
President: António de Spínola
April 25, 1974May 15, 1974
22 António de Spínola
Antonio de Spinola (1974).png May 15, 1974September 30, 1974 [R] Military officer
23 Francisco da Costa Gomes
September 30, 1974July 13, 1976Military officer
Presidents elected under the Constitution of the Republic (1976–present)
24 António Ramalho Eanes
(born 1935)
Antonio Ramalho Eanes.jpg 1976 July 14, 1976January 14, 1981Military officer
from 1985
Democratic Renewal
1980 January 14, 1981March 9, 1986
25 Mário Soares
Mario Soares (2003) portrait.jpg 1986 March 9, 1986March 9, 1991 Socialist
1991 March 9, 1991March 9, 1996
26 Jorge Sampaio
(born 1939)
Jorge Sampaio 3.jpg 1996 March 9, 1996March 9, 2001 Socialist
2001 March 9, 2001March 9, 2006
27 Aníbal Cavaco Silva
(born 1939)
Anibal Cavaco Silva 2014.jpg 2006 March 9, 2006March 9, 2011 Social Democratic
2011 March 9, 2011March 9, 2016
28 Marcelo Rebelo de Sousa
(born 1948)
Marcelo Rebelo de Sousa, Visita de Estado ao Mexico 2017-07-17.png 2016 March 9, 2016Incumbent Social Democratic
[A] Assassinated.
[D] Died in office of natural causes.
[R] Resigned.
[C] Forced to resign due to a coup d'état.


Flag of Portugal.svg Presidents of Portugal (1910–Present)
Marcelo Rebelo de SousaCavaco SilvaJorge SampaioMário SoaresRamalho EanesCosta GomesAntónio de SpínolaAmérico TomásCraveiro LopesOliveira SalazarÓscar CarmonaGomes da CostaMendes CabeçadasManuel Teixeira GomesAntónio José de AlmeidaCanto e CastroSidónio PaisBernardino MachadoManuel de ArriagaTeófilo BragaList of Presidents of Portugal


See also


  1. Teófilo Braga served as President of the Provisional Government, the de facto head of government and head of state, from the republican revolution of 1910 to the election of Manuel de Arriaga, the 1st President of Portugal.
  2. "Teófilo Braga". PRESIDENCY OF THE PORTUGUESE REPUBLIC. Retrieved 2016-08-17.
  3. After leading a coup d'état, Sidónio Pais became President of the Revolutionary Junta and later Prime Minister (President of the Ministry). He then abolished the post of Prime Minister, assuming himself as the head of government as President of the Republic. He was assassinated in 1918.
  4. Canto e Castro was head of the Council of Ministers that served as the head of state of Portugal after the assassination of Sidónio Pais in 1918, from December 14 to December 16. He then became interim president until the election of António José de Almeida.
  5. 1 2 3 Mendes Cabeçadas, Gomes da Costa and Óscar Carmona were the heads of the revolutionary provisional governments during the year of 1926. Although not called Presidents, they were de facto heads of state.
  6. Óscar Carmona served initially as head of the revolutionary government after a counter-coup deposed Gomes da Costa. He was de facto head of state between July 9 and November 16, 1926. However he officially took office as President of the Republic on November 16, 1926. Six years later, in 1932, the Estado Novo was proclaimed and the National Union, the only legal party, was formed by António de Oliveira Salazar. Carmona joined the party and was the party's candidate for every presidential election (that were considered fraudulent) until 1951, when he died.
  7. António de Oliveira Salazar, the dictatorial President of the Council of Ministers (Prime Minister) occupied the post of president interim between the death of Óscar Carmona and the election of Francisco Craveiro Lopes.
  8. Between the Carnation Revolution on April 25, 1974 and May 15 of the same year, António de Spínola was the head of the National Salvation Junta, being the de facto head of state and government. After May 15 Adelino da Palma Carlos became the Prime Minister, and Spínola continued as de jure head of state as President of the Republic.

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José Mendes Cabeçadas President of Portugal

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Manuel de Oliveira Gomes da Costa President of Portugal

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Francisco da Costa Gomes, ComTE, GOA was a Portuguese military officer and politician, the 15th President of the Portuguese Republic.

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28 May 1926 coup détat May 1926 coup détat in Portugal

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João Tamagnini Barbosa Portuguese politician

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National Salvation Junta

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João José Sinel de Cordes was a Portuguese general and politician.

Events in the year 1910 in Portugal.

Events in the year 1926 in Portugal.