The Loch Line of Glasgow, Scotland, was a group of ill-fated colonial clippers managed by Messrs William Aitken and James Lilburn, whose sailing ships plied between the United Kingdom and Australia from 1867 to 1911.
Glasgow is the most populous city in Scotland, and the third most populous city in the United Kingdom, as of the 2017 estimated city population of 621,020. Historically part of Lanarkshire, the city now forms the Glasgow City council area, one of the 32 council areas of Scotland; the local authority is Glasgow City Council. Glasgow is situated on the River Clyde in the country's West Central Lowlands. It is the fifth most visited city in the UK.
Colonialism is the policy of a nation seeking to extend or retain its authority over other people or territories, generally with the aim of economic dominance. The colonising country seeks to benefit from the colonised country or land mass. In the process, colonisers impose their religion, economics, and medicinal practices on the natives. Colonialism is the relationship of domination of indigenous by foreign invaders where the latter rule in pursuit of their interests.
A clipper was a type of mid-19th-century merchant sailing ship, designed for speed. Developed from a type of schooner known as Baltimore clippers, clipper ships had three masts and a square rig. They were generally narrow for their length, small by later 19th century standards, could carry limited bulk freight, and had a large total sail area. Clipper ships were mostly constructed in British and American shipyards, though France, Brazil, the Netherlands and other nations also produced some. Clippers sailed all over the world, primarily on the trade routes between the United Kingdom and China, in transatlantic trade, and on the New York-to-San Francisco route around Cape Horn during the California Gold Rush. Dutch clippers were built beginning in the 1850s for the tea trade and passenger service to Java.
In the late 1860s, Messrs Aitken and Lilburn formed the Glasgow Shipping Company with six 1,200-ton iron sailing clippers.In 1873 a second company, the General Shipping Company, was formed with a different group of investors, but also managed by Aitken and Lilburn. Originally, the Glasgow Shipping Company was intended to serve Adelaide and Melbourne and the General Shipping Company to serve Sydney, but over time the two companies merged and were only distinguished for shareholding purposes. The merged companies rapidly grew and became commonly and officially known as the Loch Line. The Loch Line fleet grew to 25 ships.
Adelaide is the capital city of the state of South Australia, and the fifth-most populous city of Australia. The demonym Adelaidean is used to denote the city and the residents of Adelaide.
Melbourne is the capital and most populous city of the Australian state of Victoria, and the second most populous city in Australia and Oceania. Its name refers to an urban agglomeration of 2,080 km2 (800 sq mi), comprising a metropolitan area with 31 municipalities, and is also the common name for its city centre. The city occupies much of the coastline of Port Phillip bay and spreads into the hinterlands towards the Dandenong and Macedon ranges, Mornington Peninsula and Yarra Valley. It has a population of 5 million, and its inhabitants are referred to as "Melburnians".
Sydney is the state capital of New South Wales and the most populous city in Australia and Oceania. Located on Australia's east coast, the metropolis surrounds Port Jackson and extends about 70 km (43.5 mi) on its periphery towards the Blue Mountains to the west, Hawkesbury to the north, the Royal National Park to the south and Macarthur to the south-west. Sydney is made up of 658 suburbs, 40 local government areas and 15 contiguous regions. Residents of the city are known as "Sydneysiders". As of June 2017, Sydney's estimated metropolitan population was 5,230,330 and is home to approximately 65% of the state's population.
At first, it had been intended to name the ships after clans, but the Clan Line registered the name first. As a consequence, the decision was made to name the fleet after Lochs in Scotland.A keen yachtsman, and one-time Commodore of the Royal Northern Yacht Club, James Lilburn was a man who thoroughly understood ships, but loved them for their own sake. It was under such owners that sailors considered themselves lucky to serve.
A Scottish clan is a kinship group among the Scottish people. Clans give a sense of shared identity and descent to members, and in modern times have an official structure recognised by the Court of the Lord Lyon, which regulates Scottish heraldry and coats of arms. Most clans have their own tartan patterns, usually dating from the 19th century, which members may incorporate into kilts or other clothing.
The Clan Line was a passenger and cargo shipping company that operated in one incarnation or another from the late nineteenth century and into the twentieth century.
A yacht is a watercraft used for pleasure or sports. The term originates from the Dutch word jacht, and originally referenced light, fast sailing vessels that the Dutch Republic navy used to pursue pirates and other transgressors around and into the shallow waters of the Low Countries. The yacht was popularized by Charles II of England as a pleasure or recreation vessel following his restoration in 1660.
The usual route was to load general cargo and passengers at Glasgow and then sail to Adelaide. They then sailed onto Melbourne or Sydney where they loaded wool or grain, generally for London. The company never changed to steamships but persisted with sail, and from 1900 consistently ran at a financial loss. Passengers generally preferred the speed and comfort of steamers and also as a consequence, freight rates dropped. The ships usually managed one round voyage to Australia per year, and half of this time was unprofitably spent in port, loading, unloading or waiting for cargos. Experimental homeward voyages via San Francisco, South Africa and New Caledonia also proved unprofitable, and the service finally closed in 1911. The remaining six ships were sold.
London is the capital and largest city of England and the United Kingdom. Standing on the River Thames in the south-east of England, at the head of its 50-mile (80 km) estuary leading to the North Sea, London has been a major settlement for two millennia. Londinium was founded by the Romans. The City of London, London's ancient core − an area of just 1.12 square miles (2.9 km2) and colloquially known as the Square Mile − retains boundaries that follow closely its medieval limits. The City of Westminster is also an Inner London borough holding city status. Greater London is governed by the Mayor of London and the London Assembly.
A steamship, often referred to as a steamer, is a type of steam-powered vessel, typically ocean-faring and seaworthy, that is propelled by one or more steam engines that typically move (turn) propellers or paddlewheels. The first steamships came into practical usage during the early 1800s; however, there were exceptions that came before. Steamships usually use the prefix designations of "PS" for paddle steamer or "SS" for screw steamer. As paddle steamers became less common, "SS" is assumed by many to stand for "steam ship". Ships powered by internal combustion engines use a prefix such as "MV" for motor vessel, so it is not correct to use "SS" for most modern vessels.
A passenger is a person who travels in a vehicle but bears little or no responsibility for the tasks required for that vehicle to arrive at its destination or otherwise operate the vehicle. The vehicles may be buses, passenger trains, airliners, ships, ferryboats, and other methods of transportation.
The Loch Line had a reputation of misfortune, as it lost several vessels. Seventeen vessels bearing the Loch name sank in accidents, disappeared, were wrecked or torpedoed in oceans and ports around the globe. Of the 25 ships in the Loch Line fleet, only five remained and were sold off when the company finally closed in 1911.
Luck is the phenomenon that defines the experience of notably positive, negative, or improbable events. The naturalistic interpretation is that positive and negative events happen all the time in human lives, both due to random and non-random natural and artificial processes, and that even improbable events can happen by random chance. In this view, being "lucky" or "unlucky" is simply a descriptive label that points out an event's positivity, negativity, or improbability.
A modern torpedo is a self-propelled weapon with an explosive warhead, launched above or below the water surface, propelled underwater towards a target, and designed to detonate either on contact with its target or in proximity to it.
|Loch Ard||1873||Three masted ship. She was wrecked on 1 June 1878 near Curdies Inlet on the Victorian coastline, 27 miles (43 km) west from Cape Otway on voyage from London to Melbourne. Only two of the 54 passengers and crew aboard survived.|
|Loch Broom||1885||Four masted barque sold in 1912 to Skibsakties Songdal, Norway and renamed Songdal. She was sunk by German submarine U-81 at position on 2 February 1917 en route to London from Buenos Aires carrying maize.|
|Loch Carron||1885||Four masted barque that collided with Inverskip in 1904, resulting in £30,000 damages against Loch Line. Sold to Kristiansand, Norway in 1912 and renamed Seileren.|
On 11 October 1915, she was sunk in a collision with SS Vittoria off Torr Head, Co. Antrim on voyage from Greenock to Delaware.
|Loch Earn||1868||Three masted ship abandoned at sea in November 1873 while sinking after colliding with and sinking the French steamer Ville du Havre in the North Atlantic. All 85 passengers and crew were saved. However, there was a loss of 226 lives from the French ship.|
|Loch Etive||1877||Three masted ship. Five days out of Glasgow, on 21 September 1894, her Master, Captain Stuart died at sea on his 63rd birthday. He was buried at sea some 300 miles (480 km) South-West of Queenstown.|
In 1911, the ship was sold for scrapping in Italy.
|Loch Fyne||1876||Three masted ship that sailed from Lyttelton on 14 May 1883 for the Channel with a cargo of wheat and went missing. Was suspected that she went down during a heavy gale which swept over the Bay of Biscay and English Channel on 1 & 2 September the same year. All 42 passengers and crew perished.|
|Loch Garry||1875||Three masted ship. In 1884 she was part of the relief expedition for the ill fated Lady Franklin Bay Expedition in the Canadian Arctic. She had two serious mishaps, the worst in 1889, when she was dismasted and nearly lost off the Cape of Good Hope in a furious gale, yet still made it to Mauritius 2,600 miles (4,200 km) away. After lying idle for nearly two years, In 1911, the ship was sold for just 1800 pounds for scrapping in Italy. However in early 1912 she was bought by Italian merchants from the breakers for 2500 pounds and continued in the nitrate trade and later converted to a coal hulk, until laid up after the end of the war in 1919. She was broken up for scrap at Genoa later that same year.|
|Loch Garve||1890||Three masted, square rigged ship. Little is known about the fate of this ship other than it appears it was sold in 1911 to an Italian company to ship roofing tiles to Auckland and Wellington in New Zealand. She was still operational in 1913.|
|Loch Katrine||1869||Three masted ship. In 1907, she was nearly lost outbound to Australia. Heavy seas smashed the lifeboats and broke the cabin skylights. Men at the wheel were washed away and the ship broached filling her main deck to the rail. All hands were called to save her. In 1910, she was dismasted off Cape Howe and picked up by a Swedish Steamer. In October 1910, she was sold for carrying coal around the Australian coastline and subsequently taken to Rabaul and sunk as a breakwater.|
|Loch Laggan||1872||Three masted ship (originally named America) purchased from J. H. Watt, Glagow in 1875 and renamed Loch Laggan. She was spoken to on 25 November 1875 in position but was never seen again.|
She was an iron ship built at Glasgow only three and a half years before she disappeared.
She was classed 100 at Lloyds and valued at £25.000, and the hull was largely underwritten at Glasgow. The loss of the cargo fell chiefly on London and Liverpool merchants.
The vessel was owned by Mr James AITKEN, of Glasgow and chartered by Messers Thomas MARWOOD and Co, Water St, Liverpool.
About 20 passengers embarked by her on the voyage to Melbourne, but in consequence of her going on to the Tuskar Rocks she had to be put back to Liverpool and the passengers were then transferred to another vessel. Crew of 38 all perished.
|Loch Leven||1870||Three masted ship stranded on 24 October 1871 at King Island, Bass Strait on voyage from Geelong to London with wool. All saved but the Captain drowned when he returned to the ship to retrieve the ship's papers and she capsized.|
|Loch Lomond||1870||Three masted ship (later barque rigged), 1908 sold to C. H. Cooper, London, 1908 resold to the Union SS Co. of New Zealand.|
On 16 July 1908, sailed from Newcastle NSW for Lyttelton with cargo of 1,700 tons of coal. The vessel reached Cook Strait on 8 August, but was forced back by south easterly gales. The barque was partially dismasted, losing her spanker boom, steering binnacle and the saloon deck skylight. The Loch Lomond's skipper, Captain James F. Thompson decided to sail his damaged vessel north around the top of New Zealand. It was this decision that led to the Loch Lomond running aground off of Cape Maria Van Diemen and sinking with the loss of all 19 of her crew.
|Loch Long||1876||Three masted ship that sailed from New Caledonia for Glasgow on 29 April 1903, with a cargo of nickel ore and went missing with 24 crew.|
Wreckage was discovered on the East coast of the Chatham Islands – the wreck was reported by Chatham islanders to be lying just inside Blind Reef, near the NE tip of the island.
The Loch Long's skipper, Captain James Strachan was deeply concerned about his heavy cargo (ore-carrying was the death of many a sailing vessel) and the fact that a passage had to be made to and round the Horn 'out of season'. In the event, the Loch Long did not make it south to pick up the westerlies, having apparently struck the NE tip of the Chathams in fog.
It was assumed that she had foundered with all hands on the Chatham Islands, as wreckage and one sailor's body was found washed up on there afterwards.
|Loch Maree||1873||Three masted ship, commanded by Captain Alex Scott, that sailed from Geelong on 29 October 1881 bound for London. Her cargo was valued at about £150,000, and consisted chiefly of 8,847 bales of wool intended for the February sales. One day out, she was spoken to by the three-masted schooner Gerfalcon and the barque Don Diego, who was in company with the Loch Maree off Kent's Group on 30 October. The Don Diego was bound for Otago through Foveaux Straits, and before entering there encountered a heavy Northerly gale. The sea was very high at the time, and the weather thick, and the vessels lost sight of each other. Expected to arrive in London in January or early February, the Loch Maree never arrived. The ship Mermerus, that sailed from Melbourne on 20 November 1881 came across a huge iceberg as she crossed the South Pacific on her way to the Horn. Floating in the water at the base of the berg was a large quantity of wreckage that the crew identified as having come from the Loch Maree.|
|Loch Moidart||1881||Four masted barque. On 27 January 1890, she was wrecked and capsized at Callantsoog, Nieuwe Diep on voyage from Pisagua to Hamburg with nitrate. Only two of the 32 crew were saved.|
|Loch Ness||1869||Three masted ship. In 1908 she was sold to Stevedore & Shipping Co., Sydney (a subsidiary of Deutsche-Australische Line) for use as a coal hulk.|
In 1914 she was seized by the Australian Government and was sunk in 1926 by gunfire practice by HMAS Melbourne in the Rottnest ship graveyard off Rottnest Island, Western Australia.
|Loch Nevis||1894||Four masted barque that was sold in 1900 to "Rhederei-Actien-Gesellschaft von 1896" ("Shipping Company Corporation of 1896") in Hamburg and renamed Octavia.|
On 6 August 1905 she was beached at Bahía Blanca after explosion in the coal cargo, but was salvaged and converted to hulk at Puerto Madryn. On 17 August 1922 she wrecked at Deseado near Penguin Island on voyage to Buenos Aires.
|Loch Rannoch||1868||Three masted ship purchased in 1875 from Kidston, Ferrier-Kerr and Black, Glasgow and renamed Loch Rannoch.|
In 1907, she was sold to M. Nielsen of Laurvig, Norway and in 1909 was scrapped at Harburg.
|Loch Ryan||1877||Three masted ship, sold to Government of Victoria, Melbourne in 1909 for use as a training ship.|
In 1910 she was renamed John Murray, and in 1917 was sold to Government of Australia and returned to service. On 29 May 1918, she was wrecked on the Maldon Islands, South Pacific on voyage from San Francisco to Melbourne.
|Loch Shiel||1878||Three masted ship. On 30 January 1894, she was stranded and subsequently sank on Thorn Island near Milford Haven while seeking shelter from gale, on voyage from Glasgow to Adelaide and Melbourne. Heroic rescue of all 33 aboard by Angle lifeboat.|
|Loch Sloy||1877||Three masted ship. On 24 April 1899 she was wrecked off Kangaroo Island on voyage from Glasgow to Adelaide and Melbourne. Five passengers and 25 crew drowned. There were only 3 survivors.|
|Loch Sunart||1878||Three masted ship. On 11 January 1879, en route from Glasgow to Melbourne, she hit the Skulmartin reef off Ballywalter and sank. All 45 passengers were rescued when taken ashore by lifeboats. Captain Gavin Weir’s certificate was suspended for nine months and the Mate’s (David Higie) for three months. At the enquiry it transpired that the Mate mistook the rock for a schooner.|
|Loch Tay||1869||Three masted ship. In 1909 she was sold to Huddart Parker & Co., Melbourne for use as a coal hulk. In 1958 she was scrapped at Port Adelaide|
|Loch Torridon||1881||Four masted barque that was sold in 1912 to A. E. Blom, Nystad, Norway. On 27 December 1914, she lost all of her rigging and was severely damaged in a hurricane in the North Atlantic. On 24 January 1915, the crew abandoned her in sinking conditions at on voyage from Fredrikstad to Geelong with a load of timber. The crew were rescued by the steamer Orduna.|
|Loch Vennachar||1875||Three masted ship rammed and sunk by the SS Cato on 12 November 1901 while at anchor off Thameshaven, later salvaged and repaired.|
On 14 June 1905 sailed from Glasgow for Adelaide and Melbourne, spoken to in and then disappeared in September 1905 with loss of all 27 lives. Wreckage discovered by the Society for Underwater Historical Research in 1976 off Kangaroo Island.
The Australian National Maritime Museum (ANMM) is a federally operated maritime museum in Darling Harbour, Sydney. After considering the idea of establishing a maritime museum, the federal government announced that a national maritime museum would be constructed at Darling Harbour, tied into the New South Wales state government's redevelopment of the area for the Australian bicentenary in 1988. The museum building was designed by Philip Cox, and although an opening date of 1988 was initially set, construction delays, cost overruns, and disagreements between the state and federal governments over funding responsibility pushed the opening to 1991.
The Scottish Maritime Museum is an industrial museum with a collection recognised as Nationally Significant to Scotland. It is located at two sites in the West of Scotland in Irvine and Dumbarton, with a focus on Scotland's shipbuilding heritage.
The passenger ship SS Yongala sank off Cape Bowling Green, Queensland, Australia on 23 March 1911. En route from Melbourne to Cairns she steamed into a cyclone and sank south of Townsville. All 122 aboard died, and traces of the ship were not found until days later, when cargo and wreckage began to wash ashore at Cape Bowling Green and at Cleveland Bay. It was believed that the hull of the ship had been ripped open by a submerged rock. The wreck, which has become a tourist attraction and dive site, was not found until 1958.
Iron-hulled sailing ships represented the final evolution of sailing ships at the end of the age of sail. They were built to carry bulk cargo for long distances in the nineteenth and early twentieth centuries. They were the largest of merchant sailing ships, with three to five masts and square sails, as well as other sail plans. They carried lumber, guano, grain or ore between continents. Later examples had steel hulls. They are sometimes referred to as "windjammers" or "tall ships". Several survive, variously operating as school ships, museum ships, restaurant ships, and cruise ships.
Blackadder was a clipper ship, a sister ship to Hallowe'en, built in 1870 by Maudslay, Sons & Field at Greenwich for Jock Willis & Sons.
Loch Ard was a clipper which was wrecked at Mutton bird Island just off the Shipwreck Coast of Victoria, Australia in 1878. The name was drawn from Loch Ard, a loch which lies to the west of Aberfoyle, and to the east of Loch Lomond. It means "high lake" in Scottish Gaelic.
The Falls of Halladale was a four-masted iron-hulled barque that was built in 1886 for the long-distance bulk carrier trade. Her dimensions were 83.87m x 12.64m x 7.23m and she displaced 2,085 GRT and 2,026 NRT. Built for the Falls Line at the shipyard of Russell & Co., Greenock on the River Clyde, she was named after a waterfall on the Halladale River in the Caithness district of Scotland. The ship's design was advanced for her time, incorporating features that improved crew safety and efficiency such as elevated bridges to allow the crew to move between forward and aft in relative safety during heavy seas.
Blackwall frigate was the colloquial name for a type of three-masted full-rigged ship built between the late 1830s and the mid-1870s.
The 63 ton schooner Postboy was built at Port Adelaide in 1874. The schooner was owned by Messrs. Weman and Morgan and registered at Port Adelaide. She was a regular trading vessel between Port Adelaide and the gulf ports.
The technique of composite ship construction emerged in the mid-19th century as the final stage in the evolution of fast commercial sailing ships.
Loch Vennachar was a three-masted iron sailing ship (clipper) that operated between Great Britain and Australia between the late 19th century and 1905. The name was drawn from Loch Venachar, a lake which lies to the south-west of the burgh of Callander, in the Stirling region of Scotland. It is understood to mean "most beautiful lady" in Scottish Gaelic.
Red Jacket was a clipper ship, one of the largest and fastest ever built. She was also the first ship of the White Star Line company. She was named after Sagoyewatha, a famous Seneca Indian chief, called "Red Jacket" by settlers. She was designed by Samuel Hartt Pook, built by George Thomas in Rockland, Maine, and launched in 1853, the last ship to be launched from this yard.
Loch Sloy was a Scottish sailing barque that operated between Great Britain and Australia from the late 19th century until 1899. Her name was drawn from Loch Sloy, a freshwater loch which lies to the north of the Burgh of Helensburgh, in the region of Argyll and Bute, Scotland. Ships Captains: 1877 - 1885 James Horne, 1885 – 1890 John McLean, 1890 – 1895 Charles Lehman, 1895 – 1896 James R. George, 1896 – 1899 William J. Wade, 1899 Peter Nicol.
The Santiago was a 455-ton barque launched in 1856. It was built by Henry Balfour of Methil, Fife for the Liverpool shipping company Balfour Williamson. It sailed mainly between Liverpool and Chile, but also to Australia. Its remnant hull, which lies in a ships' graveyard in South Australia, is considered 'the oldest intact iron hull sailing vessel in the world.'
SS Ferret was an iron screw steamship of 460 tons built in Glasgow (Scotland) in 1871 by J & G Thomson, Glasgow.
Cimba was a British-built clipper in the Australian wool trade. She sailed between London and Sydney for 20 years, from 1878 to 1898. In 1905, Cimba set the sailing ship record for a passage from Callao to Iquique, of 14 days.
Lahloo was a British tea clipper known for winning the Tea Race of 1870, and finishing second in the Tea Race of 1871. She sailed from Foochow to London with over a million pounds of tea in 1868.
The SS Erl King was built at A and J Inglis, Pointhouse, Glasgow and launched in 1865 and owned by Robertson & Co London. She was designed as an Auxiliary Steam Ship - steam power would be used to supplement the propulsion from the sails, when there was no wind or if there was a light head wind. She was fitted with a propeller that could be lifted up when sailing, so as to reduce drag. The engine was not powerful enough to push the ship, with all the windage of standing rigging, directly into a strong headwind. Auxiliary steam power had the advantage of allowing this vessel to use the Suez Canal when it opened in 1869 - something which was not possible for sailing vessels.
'Coonatto, was a clipper ship trading between London and Adelaide for 12 years. She was wrecked on the English coast in February 1876.
The Falls Line was a shipping line in the late C19th and early C20th.
The SS Schomberg a clipper (built in Aberdeen, by Alexander Hall & Co. for "the Black Ball line", for carrying large cargoes and steerage passengers, and to "outdo the Americans". When built she was regarded as the most luxurious and well built clipper of the period.
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to Ships of the Loch Line .|