Mayor (France)

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In France, a mayor (maire in French) is chairperson of the municipal council, which organizes the work and deliberates on municipal matters. The mayor also has significant powers and his or her own responsibilities, such as the responsibility for the activities of municipal police and for the management of municipal staff.

Municipal Police (France) French local police of towns and cities

The Municipal Police are the local police of towns and cities in France outside the capital. There are 18,000 municipal police officers in 3,500 communities. The Municipal Police are one of the three components of French policing, alongside the National Police and the National Gendarmerie, with about 145,000 police and 98,000 soldiers respectively.

Contents

The mayor is also the representative of the state in the commune. As such, the mayor is a civil officer of the State and a police officer. The term of office for a mayor is six years.

A nation is a stable community of people, formed on the basis of a common language, territory, history, ethnicity, or psychological make-up manifested in a common culture. A nation is distinct from a people, and is more abstract, and more overtly political, than an ethnic group. It is a cultural-political community that has become conscious of its autonomy, unity, and particular interests.

Elections

History

From 1789 to 1799 municipal officials (mayors) were directly elected for 2 years and re-elected by the active citizens of the commune with taxpayers contributing at least 3 days of work to the commune. Those who were eligible could instead pay a tax equivalent to not less than 10 days of work.

In 1799 the constitution of 22 Frimaire year VIII (13 December 1799) revoked the direct election of the mayor, with mayors of communes of less than 5,000 inhabitants being appointed by the prefect. This constitution established the nomination of mayors and councilors. After 1831 mayors were appointed (by the king for communes with more than 3,000 inhabitants, by the prefect for smaller), but councilors were elected for six years.

Frimaire month in the French Republican Calendar

Frimaire was the third month in the French Republican Calendar. The month was named after the French word frimas, which means frost.

Prefect (France) French states representative in a department or region

A prefect in France is the State's representative in a department or region. Sub-prefects are responsible for the subdivisions of departments, arrondissements. The office of a prefect is known as a prefecture and that of a sub-prefect as a subprefecture.

From 3 July 1848 to 1851 mayors were elected by the municipal council for communes with less than 6,000 inhabitants.

From 1851 to 1871 mayors were appointed by the prefect for communes with less than 3000 inhabitants and for a term of 5 years from 1855 on.

Since 1871 mayors have been elected by their peers by the municipal council following their election by universal suffrage.

Universal suffrage Political concept

The concept of universal suffrage, also known as general suffrage or common suffrage, consists of the right to vote of all adult citizens, regardless of property ownership, income, race, or ethnicity, subject only to minor exceptions. In its original 19th-century usage by political reformers, universal suffrage was understood to mean only universal manhood suffrage; the vote was extended to women later, during the women's suffrage movement.

There are, however, six French communes that do not elect their mayor by universal suffrage with the mayor being appointed by the Prefect. Specifically these are villages which were devastated during the Battle of Verdun in 1916 and never rebuilt because of large amounts of unexploded ordnance and land pollution. These are Bezonvaux, Beaumont-en-Verdunois, Cumières-le-Mort-Homme, Fleury-devant-Douaumont, Haumont-près-Samogneux and Louvemont-Côte-du-Poivre. [1]

Municipal elections in France

Municipal elections in France allow the people to elect members of the City Council in each commune. These are called conseillers municipaux. They elect the mayor, who chairs the city council, as well as Deputies to the Mayor. The term of office of councilors, the mayor and his deputies is, in principle, six years.

Battle of Verdun battle on the Western Front during the First World War

The Battle of Verdun, fought from 21 February to 18 December 1916, the longest battle of the First World War was fought on the Western Front between the German and French armies. The battle took place on the hills north of Verdun-sur-Meuse in north-eastern France. The German 5th Army attacked the defences of the Fortified Region of Verdun and those of the French Second Army on the right bank of the Meuse. Inspired by the experience of the Second Battle of Champagne in 1915, the Germans planned to capture the Meuse Heights, an excellent defensive position with good observation for artillery-fire on Verdun. The Germans hoped that the French would commit their strategic reserve to recapture the position and suffer catastrophic losses in a battle of annihilation, at little cost to the Germans, dug in on tactically advantageous positions on the heights.

Bezonvaux Commune in Grand Est, France

Bezonvaux is a commune in the Meuse department in the Grand Est region in northeastern France.

Current status

The mayor is the chairman of the municipal council. He is elected by secret ballot of municipal councilors during the first meeting of the Municipal Council that must be held between Friday and Sunday following the municipal elections. [2] [3]

Secret ballot voting style that makes each vote anonymous

The secret ballot, also known as Australian ballot, is a voting method in which a voter's choices in an election or a referendum are anonymous, forestalling attempts to influence the voter by intimidation, blackmailing, and potential vote buying. The system is one means of achieving the goal of political privacy.

If no candidate obtains an absolute majority after two rounds of voting the election proceeds to a third round which requires only a simple majority. In case of a tie, the oldest candidate wins. [4]

As for other councilors, the mayor must be at least 18 years of age when he is elected to office. [3] The mayor must be a French national. [5] Councilors (except for mayors and deputies) can be citizens of a member country of the European Union.

Conflicts of interest and concurrent appointments

Mayoral duties are considered a conflict of interest with those of a president of a regional council, President of a general council (the name of which is being changed to conseil départemental (departmental councilor) after the local elections of 2015), as well as a European Commissioner, a member of the Executive Board of the European Central Bank or a member of the board of monetary Policy the Banque de France. [3]

There are even some positions in the Directorate of Public Finances which are in conflict: notably those in charge of collecting or controlling taxation, [6] the holder of which office can not be elected mayor or deputy mayor. Volunteer firefighters can not be elected mayor of a commune of 3,500 inhabitants or more, nor deputy mayor of a commune of over 5,000 inhabitants. [7]

The law on dual mandates allows a mayor to hold a single elective office (Deputy of the National Assembly, Senator, Regional Councilor, General Councilor) in addition to his municipal office. The office of municipal councilor is not considered as an elective office for this purpose.

Currently a member of the government can serve as Mayor. However, in 1997 and 2007, since various prime ministers had demanded ministers and state secretaries resign their mayoral offices, most of them then became first deputy mayors.

Deputy mayor

The Municipal Council also elects the deputy mayor (in French, adjoint au maire or maires-adjoints) having determined, by resolution, the number of deputy mayors. As for mayors they must be of French nationality and not be financial administration officials involved in the conflicts mentioned above, nor volunteer firefighters in municipalities with more than 5,000 inhabitants. In addition: "'paid employees of the mayor can not be selected if the employment is directly related to the exercise of the office of mayor [8]

The number of deputy mayors is, at most, 30% of the city council. [9] Thus, for municipalities with less than 100 inhabitants, where the city council is composed of, as in the French municipal elections, 2014, 7 city councilors, [10] the mayor may have a maximum of 2 deputies.

For municipalities with more than 80,000 inhabitants, in addition to the deputy-mayors, other council members may be appointed to be "mainly responsible for one or more quartiers (districts)" with the number appointed not exceeding 10% of the city council workforce. [11] These appointees are elected by the municipal council according to the same rules as those applicable to the election of the mayor.

Since the 2008 municipal elections, deputy mayors of municipalities with more than 3,500 inhabitants are elected by a party list with an absolute majority and without panachage [Note 1] nor instant run-offs in accordance with the principle of parity. [12] Commencing from the municipal elections in 2014 these regulations apply to communes with more than 1,000 inhabitants in order to promote equality between men and women. [13]

Special delegation

In case of dissolution of a Municipal Council, the resignation of all its members in office, the final cancellation of the election of its members, or if the Municipal Council can not be constituted, a special delegation, appointed by the prefecture within eight days, performs the functions of the municipal council. [14]

This special delegation elects its president and, if applicable, its vice-president. The President or, failing that, the vice president acts in the office of mayor. Its powers cease upon installation of the new municipal council. [15]

Duration of mandate

The duration of the mandate for a mayor is equal to that of the municipal council - i.e. six years. [16] [17] The mayor can be reelected at the end of his term.

The mayor has his own mandate: he may resign freely and, in case of death or removal from office by court order or decision of the Council of Ministers, be replaced without causing new municipal elections. [18]

Functions

The mayor is both agent of the state and of the commune as a local government entity.

The powers and duties of the mayor are particularly defined by the general code of local government namely:

As agent of the State

Under the authority of Prefect, the mayor performs administrative functions, including:

See also

Notes

  1. Without being able to select candidates off of more than one party list.
  2. In practice, the mayor can not compete with notaries and acts in this capacity only when the town is affected by the act.

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References

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  4. "Code général des collectivités territoriales - Article L2122-7" [General Code for Local Governments - Article L2122-7] (in French). LegiFrance. 16 March 2008. Retrieved 8 November 2014.
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  6. "Code général des collectivités territoriales - Article L2122-5" [General Code for Local Governments - Article L2122-5] (in French). Legifrance. 1 May 2010. Retrieved 8 November 2014.
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  9. "Code général des collectivités territoriales - Article L2122-2" [General Code for Local Governments - Article L2122-2] (in French). LegiFrance. 27 February 1996. Retrieved 8 November 2014.
  10. "Code général des collectivités territoriales - Article L2121-2" [General Code for Local Governments - Article L2121-2] (in French). Legifrance. 23 March 2014. Retrieved 8 November 2014.
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  13. Article 29 of Law No. 2013-403. May 17, 2013, to amend the wording of Article L. 2122-7-2 of the General Code for Local Governments
  14. Articles L2121-35 and L2121-36 of General Code for Local Governments
  15. "Code général des collectivités territoriales - Article L2121-36" [General Code for Local Government - Article L. 2121-36] (in French). LegiFrance. 24 February 1996. Retrieved 8 November 2014.
  16. Electoral Code, art L 227
  17. Nevertheless the mandate of municipal councils and mayors in 2001 which was to be complete in 2007 was extended by one year by Act No. 2005-1563 of 15 December 2005. The 2008 municipal elections were held in March 2008.
  18. Saint-Privat Mayor removed by Council of Ministers (in French)
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  24. Article 41 of the Criminal procedure code
  25. Article 81-6 of the Criminal Procedure Code
  26. Bordier, Dominique (6 February 2012). "Le maire officier de police judiciaire: "To be or not to be"" [The Mayor as police officer: "To be or not to be"]. Actualité juridique droit administratif (in French): 189–194.
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