Polar-ring galaxy

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NGC 660 showing Polar-Galaxy Structure NGC 660 Polar Galaxy Gemini Observatory.jpg
NGC 660 showing Polar-Galaxy Structure

A polar-ring galaxy is a type of galaxy in which an outer ring of gas and stars rotates over the poles of the galaxy. [1] These polar rings are thought to form when two galaxies gravitationally interact with each other. One possibility is that a material is tidally stripped from a passing galaxy to produce the polar ring seen in the polar-ring galaxy. The other possibility is that a smaller galaxy collides orthogonally with the plane of rotation of the larger galaxy, with the smaller galaxy effectively forming the polar-ring structure. [2]

Contents

The best-known polar-ring galaxies are S0s (lenticular galaxies), but from the physical point of view they are part of a wider category of galaxies, including several ellipticals.

The first four S0 galaxies that were identified as polar-ring galaxies were NGC 2685, [3] NGC 4650A, [4] [5] A 0136 -0801, [2] and ESO 415 -G26. [5] While these galaxies have been extensively studied, many other polar-ring galaxies have since been identified. [6] Polar-ring S0 galaxies may be found around 0.5% of all nearby lenticular galaxies, and it is possible that 5% of lenticular galaxies may have had polar rings at some point during their lifetimes. [6]

The first polar-ring elliptical galaxies were identified in 1978. They were NGC 5128, NGC 5363, NGC 1947 and Cygnus A, [7] while the polar-ring S0 galaxies NGC 2685 and NGC 4650A were at that time indicated as resulting from similar formation processes. [7] Only some years later, when the first observations of the stellar and gas motion of polar-ring elliptical and S0 galaxies were possible with a better spectroscopic technology, the external origin of the gaseous rings was clarified. [2] [5] [8] [9] In addition to the best-known example, NGC 5128 (Cen A), a very regular polar ring elliptical, is NGC 5266 [9]

SPRC (Old Version)

The SPRC is the Sloan Polar-Ring Catalogue, an atlas of 157 polar-ring galaxies. It was put together with images from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey.There are four sections (A,B,C, and D). There are 6 galaxies in section A which are kinematically confirmed galaxies. There are 27 in section B, which are good candidates. In section C, there are 73 galaxies, which are possible candidates. And there are 51 galaxies in section D, which are related objects.

SPRC (New Version)

There is a revised version of the SPRC, with 275 candidates. There are 70 of the best candidates, 115 good candidates, 53 related objects, and 37 face-on rings.

See also

Related Research Articles

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A lenticular galaxy is a type of galaxy intermediate between an elliptical and a spiral galaxy in galaxy morphological classification schemes. It contains a large-scale disc but does not have large-scale spiral arms. Lenticular galaxies are disc galaxies that have used up or lost most of their interstellar matter and therefore have very little ongoing star formation. They may, however, retain significant dust in their disks. As a result, they consist mainly of aging stars. Despite the morphological differences, lenticular and elliptical galaxies share common properties like spectral features and scaling relations. Both can be considered early-type galaxies that are passively evolving, at least in the local part of the Universe. Connecting the E galaxies with the S0 galaxies are the ES galaxies with intermediate-scale discs.

Centaurus A Radio galaxy in the Constellation Centaurus

Centaurus A is a galaxy in the constellation of Centaurus. It was discovered in 1826 by Scottish astronomer James Dunlop from his home in Parramatta, in New South Wales, Australia. There is considerable debate in the literature regarding the galaxy's fundamental properties such as its Hubble type and distance. NGC 5128 is one of the closest radio galaxies to Earth, so its active galactic nucleus has been extensively studied by professional astronomers. The galaxy is also the fifth-brightest in the sky, making it an ideal amateur astronomy target. It is only visible from the southern hemisphere and low northern latitudes.

NGC 5866 Lenticular galaxy in the constellation Draco

NGC 5866 is a relatively bright lenticular galaxy in the constellation Draco. NGC 5866 was most likely discovered by Pierre Méchain or Charles Messier in 1781, and independently found by William Herschel in 1788. Measured orbital velocities of its globular cluster system imply that dark matter makes up only 34±45% of the mass within 5 effective radii; a notable paucity.

Messier 32 Elliptical galaxy in the constellation Andromeda

Messier 32 is a dwarf "early-type" galaxy about 2,650,000 light-years (810,000 pc) from our star system, appearing in the constellation Andromeda. M32 is a satellite galaxy of the Andromeda Galaxy (M31) and was discovered by Guillaume Le Gentil in 1749. Its true size is about 34 of the radius of the Sun from the local galactic centre, 6,300–6,700 light-years (1,900–2,100 pc) at its quite unpronounced widest.

Messier 59 Elliptical galaxy in the constellation Virgo

Messier 59 or M59, also known as NGC 4621, is an elliptical galaxy in the equatorial constellation of Virgo. It is a member of the Virgo Cluster, with the nearest fellow member 8′ away and around 5 magnitudes fainter. The nearest cluster member of comparable brightness is the lenticular galaxy NGC 4638, which is around 17′ away. It and the angularly nearby elliptical galaxy Messier 60 were both discovered by Johann Gottfried Koehler in April 1779 when observing comet seeming close by. Charles Messier listed both in the Messier Catalogue about three days after Koehler's discovery.

Messier 85 Elliptical galaxy in the constellation Coma Berenices

Messier 85 is a lenticular galaxy, or elliptical galaxy for other authors, in the Coma Berenices constellation. It is 60 million light-years away, and it is estimated to be 125,000 light-years across.

Messier 105 Elliptical galaxy in the constellation Leo

Messier 105 or M105, also known as NGC 3379, is an elliptical galaxy 36.6 million light-years away in the equatorial constellation of Leo. It was discovered by Pierre Méchain in 1781, just a few days after he discovered the nearby galaxies Messier 95 and Messier 96. This galaxy is one of a few not object-verified by Messier so omitted in the editions of his Catalogue of his era. It was appended when Helen S. Hogg found a letter by Méchain locating and describing this object which matched those aspects under its first-published name, NGC 3379.

NGC 7331 Unbarred spiral galaxy in the constellation Pegasus

NGC 7331, also known as Caldwell 30, is an unbarred spiral galaxy about 40 million light-years (12 Mpc) away in the constellation Pegasus. It was discovered by William Herschel in 1784. NGC 7331 is the brightest galaxy in the field of a visual grouping known as the NGC 7331 Group of galaxies. The other members of the group are the lenticular or unbarred spirals NGC 7335 and 7336, the barred spiral galaxy NGC 7337 and the elliptical galaxy NGC 7340. These galaxies lie far in the background at distances of approximately 332, 365, 348 and 294 million light years, respectively.

NGC 2787 Barred lenticular galaxy in the constellation Ursa Major

NGC 2787 is a barred lenticular galaxy approximately 24 million light-years away in the northern circumpolar constellation of Ursa Major. It was discovered on December 3, 1788 by German-born astronomer William Herschel. J. L. E. Dreyer described it as, "bright, pretty large, a little extended 90°, much brighter middle, mottled but not resolved, very small (faint) star involved to the southeast". The visible galaxy has an angular size of 2′.5 × 1′.5 and an apparent visual magnitude of 11.8.

Eyes Galaxies Pair of galaxies in the constellation Virgo

The Eyes Galaxies are a pair of galaxies about 52 million light-years away in the constellation Virgo. The pair are members of the string of galaxies known as Markarian's Chain.

NGC 4650A Polar-ring galaxy in the constellation Centaurus

NGC 4650A is a polar-ring lenticular galaxy located in the constellation Centaurus. It should not be confused with the spiral galaxy NGC 4650, which shares almost the same radial distance as NGC 4650A. The real distance between both galaxies is only about 6 times the optical radius of NGC 4650.

NGC 3593 Lenticular galaxy in the constellation Leo

NGC 3593 is a lenticular galaxy located in the constellation Leo. It has a morphological classification of SA(s)0/a, which indicates it is a lenticular galaxy of the pure spiral type. This is a starburst galaxy, which means it is forming new stars at a high rate. This is occurring in a band of gas surrounding the central nucleus. There is a single arm, which spirals outward from this ring. It is frequently but not consistently identified as a member of the Leo Triplet group.

NGC 6166 Elliptical galaxy in the constellation Hercules

NGC 6166 is an elliptical galaxy in the Abell 2199 cluster. It lies 490 million light years away in the constellation Hercules. The primary galaxy in the cluster, it is one of the most luminous galaxies known in terms of X-ray emissions.

NGC 4262 Lenticular galaxy in the constellation Coma Berenices

NGC 4262 is a lenticular galaxy located in the constellation of Coma Berenices.

NGC 4698 Barred spiral galaxy in the constellation Virgo

NGC 4698 is a barred spiral galaxy located around 55 million light years away from Earth in the constellation of Virgo. It belongs to the Virgo Cluster of galaxies and is positioned near the northeastern edge of this assemblage. The morphological classification of NGC 4698 in the De Vaucouleurs system is SA(s)ab, which indicates a purely spiral structure with moderate to tightly wound arms. It is inclined to the line of sight from the Earth by an angle of 53° along a position angle of 170°.

NGC 3862 Elliptical galaxy in the constellation Leo

NGC 3862 is an elliptical galaxy located 300 million light-years away in the constellation Leo. Discovered by astronomer William Herschel on April 27, 1785, NGC 3862 is an outlying member of the Leo Cluster.

NGC 3081 Ring galaxy in the constellation Hydra

NGC 3081 is a barred lenticular ring galaxy in the constellation of Hydra. NGC 3081 is located about 85 million light-years away from Earth, which means, given its apparent dimensions, that NGC 3081 is approximately 60,000 light years across. It is a type II Seyfert galaxy, characterised by its bright nucleus. It was discovered by William Herschel on 21 December 1786.

NGC 708 Elliptical galaxy in the constellation Andromeda

NGC 708 is an elliptical galaxy located 240 million light-years away in the constellation Andromeda and was discovered by astronomer William Herschel on September 21, 1786. It is classified as a cD galaxy and is the brightest member of Abell 262. NGC 708 is a weak FR I radio galaxy and is also classified as a type 2 seyfert galaxy.

NGC 541 Lenticular galaxy in the constellation Cetus

NGC 541 is a lenticular galaxy located in the constellation Cetus. It is located at a distance of circa 230 million light years from Earth, which, given its apparent dimensions, means that NGC 541 is about 130,000 light years across. It was discovered by Heinrich d'Arrest on October 30, 1864. It is a member of the Abell 194 galaxy cluster and is included in the Atlas of Peculiar Galaxies in the category galaxies with nearby fragments. NGC 541 is a radio galaxy of Fanaroff-Riley class I, also known as 3C 40A.

References

  1. James Binney; Michael Merrifield (1998). Galactic Astronomy. Princeton, New Jersey: Princeton University Press. ISBN   0-691-00402-1.
  2. 1 2 3 F. Schweizer; B. C. Whitmore; V. C. Rubin (1983). "Colliding and merging galaxies. II - S0 galaxies with polar rings". Astronomical Journal. 88: 909–925. Bibcode:1983AJ.....88..909S. doi:10.1086/113377.
  3. P. L. Schecter; J. E. Gunn (1978). "NGC 2685 - Spindle or pancake". Astronomical Journal. 83: 1360–1362. Bibcode:1978AJ.....83.1360S. doi:10.1086/112324.
  4. J. L. Sérsic (1967). "Southern Peculiar Galaxies III". Zeitschrift für Astrophysik. 67: 306–311. Bibcode:1967ZA.....67..306S.
  5. 1 2 3 B. C. Whitmore; D. B. McElroy; F. Schweizer (1987). "The shape of the dark halo in polar-ring galaxies". Astrophysical Journal. 314: 439–456. Bibcode:1987ApJ...314..439W. doi:10.1086/165077.
  6. 1 2 B. C. Whitmore; R. A. Lucas; D. B. McElroy; T. Y. Steiman-Cameron; P. D. Sackett; R. P. Olling (1990). "New observations and a photographic atlas of polar-ring galaxies". Astronomical Journal. 100: 1489–1522, 1721–1755. Bibcode:1990AJ....100.1489W. doi:10.1086/115614.
  7. 1 2 Bertola, F. & Galletta, G. (1978). "A new type of galaxy with prolate structure". Astrophysical Journal. 226: L115–L118. Bibcode:1978ApJ...226L.115B. doi:10.1086/182844.,
  8. Bertola, F.; Galletta, G.; Zeilinger, W.~W. (1985). "Warped dust lanes in elliptical galaxies - Transient or stationary phenomena?". Astrophysical Journal. 292: L51–L55. Bibcode:1985ApJ...292L..51B. doi:10.1086/184471.
  9. 1 2 Varnas, S.R. Bertola; F., Galletta; G., Freeman; K.C., Carter, D. (1987). "NGC 5266 - an elliptical galaxy with a dust ring". Astrophysical Journal. 313: 69–88. Bibcode:1987ApJ...313...69V. doi:10.1086/164949.CS1 maint: multiple names: authors list (link)