This article contains lists of quasars. More than a million quasars have been observed,so any list on Wikipedia is necessarily a selection of them.
Proper naming of quasars are by Catalogue Entry, Qxxxx±yy using B1950 coordinates, or QSO Jxxxx±yyyy using J2000 coordinates. They may also use the prefix QSR. There are currently no quasars that are visible to the naked eye.
This is a list of exceptional quasars for characteristics otherwise not separately listed
|Twin Quasar||Associated with a possible planet microlensing event in the gravitational lens galaxy that is doubling the Twin Quasar's image.|
|QSR J1819+3845||Proved interstellar scintillation due to the interstellar medium.|
|CTA-102||In 1965, Soviet astronomer Nikolai S. Kardashev declared that this quasar was sending coded messages from an alien civilization.|
|CID-42||Its supermassive black hole is being ejected and will one day become a displaced quasar.|
|TON 618||TON 618 is a very distant and extremely luminous quasar—technically, a hyperluminous, broad-absorption line, radio-loud quasar—located near the North Galactic Pole in the constellation Canes Venatici.|
This is a list of quasars, with a common name, instead of a designation from a survey, catalogue or list.
|Quasar||Origin of name||Notes|
|Twin Quasar||From the fact that two images of the same gravitationally lensed quasar is produced.|
|Einstein Cross||From the fact that gravitational lensing of the quasar forms a near perfect Einstein cross, a concept in gravitational lensing.|
|Triple Quasar||From the fact that there are three bright images of the same gravitationally lensed quasar.||There are actually four images; the fourth is faint.|
|Cloverleaf||From its appearance having similarity to the leaf of a clover. It has been gravitationally lensed into four images, of roughly similar appearance.|
|Teacup Galaxy||The name comes from the shape of the extended emission, which is shaped like the handle of a teacup. The handle is a bubble shaped by quasar winds or small-scale radio jets.||Low redshift, highly obscured type 2 quasar.|
This is a list of quasars that as a result of gravitational lensing appear as multiple images on Earth.
|Twin Quasar||2||YGKOW G1||First gravitationally lensed object discovered |
|Triple Quasar (PG 1115+080)||4||Originally discovered as 3 lensed images, the fourth image is faint. It was the second gravitationally lensed quasar discovered.|
|Einstein Cross||4||Huchra's Lens||First Einstein Cross discovered|
|RX J1131-1231's quasar||4||RX J1131-1231's elliptical galaxy||RX J1131-1231 is the name of the complex, quasar, host galaxy and lensing galaxy, together. The quasar's host galaxy is also lensed into a Chwolson ring about the lensing galaxy. The four images of the quasar are embedded in the ring image.|
|Cloverleaf||4||Brightest known high-redshift source of CO emission|
|QSO B1359+154||6||CLASS B1359+154 and three more galaxies||First sextuply-imaged galaxy|
|SDSS J1004+4112||5||Galaxy cluster at z = 0.68||First quasar discovered to be multiply image-lensed by a galaxy cluster and currently the third largest quasar lens with the separation between images of 15 ″|
|SDSS J1029+2623||3||Galaxy cluster at z = 0.6||The current largest-separatioon quasar lens with 22.6 ″ separation between furthest images|
|SDSS J2222+2745||6||Galaxy cluster at z = 0.49||First sextuply-lensed galaxy Third quasar discovered to be lensed by a galaxy cluster. Quasar located at z = 2.82|
This is a list of double quasars, triple quasars, and the like, where quasars are close together in line-of-sight, but not physically related.
|z represents redshift, a measure of recessional velocity and inferred distance due to cosmological expansion|
This is a list of binary quasars, trinary quasars, and the like, where quasars are physically close to each other.
|quasars of SDSS J0841+3921 protocluster||4||First quasar quartet discovered.|
|LBQS 1429-008 (QQQ 1432-0106)||3||First quasar triplet discovered. |
It was first discovered as a binary quasar, before the third quasar was found.
|QQ2345+007 (Q2345+007)||2||Originally thought to be a doubly imaged quasar, but actually a quasar couplet.|
Large quasar groups (LQGs) are bound to a filament of mass, and not directly bound to each other.
| Webster LQG |
|5||First LQG discovered. At the time of its discovery, it was the largest structure known.|
| Huge-LQG |
|73||The largest structure known in the observable universe, as of 2013.|
This is a list of quasars with jets that appear to be superluminal due to relativistic effects and line-of-sight orientation. Such quasars are sometimes referred to as superluminal quasars.
|3C 279||4c||First quasar discovered with superluminal jets|
|3C 179||7.6c||Fifth discovered, first with double lobes|
|3C 273||This is also the first quasar ever identified|
| 4C 69.21 |
(Q1642+690, QSO B1642+690)
| 8C 1928+738 |
(Q1928+738, QSO J1927+73, Quasar J192748.6+735802)
Quasars that have a recessional velocity greater than the speed of light (c) are very common. Any quasar with z > 1 is receding faster than c, while z exactly equal to 1 indicates recession at the speed of light. Early attempts to explain superluminal quasars resulted in convoluted explanations with a limit of z = 2.326, or in the extreme z < 2.4. The majority of quasars lie between z = 2 and z = 5.
|First quasar discovered||3C 48||1960||first radio source for which optical identification was found, that was a star-like looking object|
|First "star" discovered later found to be a quasar|
|First radio source discovered later found to be a quasar|
|First quasar identified||3C 273||1962||first radio-"star" found to be at a high redshift with a non-stellar spectrum.|
|First radio-quiet quasar||QSO B1246+377 (BSO 1)||1965||The first radio-quiet quasi-stellar objects (QSO) were called Blue Stellar Objects or BSO, because they appeared like stars and were blue in color. They also had spectra and redshifts like radio-loud quasi-stellar radio-sources (QSR), so became quasars.|
|First host galaxy of a quasar discovered||3C 48||1982|
|First quasar found to seemingly not have a host galaxy||HE0450-2958 (Naked Quasar)||2005||Some disputed observations suggest a host galaxy, others do not.|
|First multi-core quasar||PG 1302-102||2014||Binary supermassive black holes within the quasar|
|First quasar containing a recoiling supermassive black hole||SDSS J0927+2943||2008||Two optical emission line systems separated by 2650 km/s|
|First gravitationally lensed quasar identified||Twin Quasar||1979||Lensed into 2 images||The lens is a galaxy known as YGKOW G1|
|First quasar found with a jet with apparent superluminal motion||3C 279||1971|
|First quasar found with the classic double radio-lobe structure||3C 47||1964|
|First quasar found to be an X-ray source||3C 273||1967|
|First "dustless" quasar found||QSO J0303-0019 and QSO J0005-0006||2010|
|First Large Quasar Group discovered|| Webster LQG |
|Brightest||3C 273||Apparent magnitude of ~12.9||Absolute magnitude: −26.7|
|Seemingly optically brightest||APM 08279+5255||Seeming absolute magnitude of −32.2||This quasar is gravitationally lensed; its actual absolute magnitude is estimated to be −30.5|
|Most luminous||SMSS J215728.21-360215.1||Absolute magnitude of −32.36||Highest absolute magnitude discovered thus far.|
|Most powerful quasar radio source||3C 273||Also the most powerful radio source in the sky|
|Most powerful||SMSS J215728.21-360215.1|
|Most variable quasar radio source||QSO J1819+3845 (Q1817+387)||Also the most variable extrasolar radio source|
|Least variable quasar radio source|
|Most variable quasar optical source|
|Least variable quasar optical source|
|Most distant||J0313-1806||z = 7.64|
|Most distant radio-quiet quasar|
|Most distant radio-loud quasar||QSO J1427+3312||z = 6.12||Found June 2008|
|Most distant blazar quasar||PSO J0309+27||z > 6|
|Least distant||Markarian 231||600 Mly||inactive: IC 2497|
|Largest Large Quasar Group|| Huge-LQG |
|Rank||Quasar||Date of discovery||Notes|
These are the first quasars which were found and had their redshifts determined.
In 1964 a quasar became the most distant object in the universe for the first time. Quasars would remain the most distant objects in the universe until 1997, when a pair of non-quasar galaxies would take the title (galaxies CL 1358+62 G1 & CL 1358+62 G2 lensed by galaxy cluster CL 1358+62).
In cosmic scales distance is usually indicated by redshift (denoted by z) which is a measure of recessional velocity and inferred distance due to cosmological expansion.
|J0313-1806||z = 7.64||Currently the most distant known quasar.|
|ULAS J1342+0928||z = 7.54||Former most distant quasar.|
|J1007+2115 (Pōniuāʻena)||z = 7.52|
| ULAS J1120+0641 |
|z = 7.085||Former most distant quasar. First quasar with z > 7.|
| CHFQS J2348-3054 |
|z = 6.90|
|PSO J172.3556+18.7734||z = 6.82||Currently the most distant radio-loud known quasar|
| CFHQS J2329-0301 |
|z = 6.43||Former most distant quasar.|
| SDSS J114816.64+525150.3 |
|z = 6.419||Former most distant quasar.|
| SDSS J1030+0524 |
|z = 6.28||Former most distant quasar. First quasar with z > 6.|
| SDSS J104845.05+463718.3 |
|z = 6.23|
| SDSS J162331.81+311200.5 |
|z = 6.22|
| CFHQS J0033-0125 |
|z = 6.13|
| SDSS J125051.93+313021.9 |
|z = 6.13|
| CFHQS J1509-1749 |
|z = 6.12|
|QSO B1425+3326 / QSO J1427+3312||z = 6.12||Most distant radio-quasar.|
| SDSS J160253.98+422824.9 |
|z = 6.07|
| SDSS J163033.90+401209.6 |
|z = 6.05|
| CFHQS J1641+3755 |
|z = 6.04|
| SDSS J113717.73+354956.9 |
|z = 6.01|
| SDSS J081827.40+172251.8 |
|z = 6.00|
| SDSSp J130608.26+035626.3 |
|z = 5.99|
|Most distant||J0313-1806||2021||z = 7.64|
|Most distant radio loud quasar||QSO B1425+3326 / QSO J1427+3312||2008||z = 6.12|
|Most distant radio quiet quasar|
|Most distant OVV quasar|
|J0313-1806||2021–present||z = 7.64||Current record holder.|
|ULAS J1342+0928||2017–2021||z = 7.54|
|ULAS J1120+0641||2011–2017||z = 7.085||Not the most distant object when discovered. First quasar with z > 7.|
| CFHQS J2329-0301 |
|2007–2011||z = 6.43||Not the most distant object when discovered. It did not exceed IOK-1 (z = 6.96), which was discovered in 2006.|
| SDSS J114816.64+525150.3 |
|2003–2007||z = 6.419||Not the most distant object when discovered. It did not exceed HCM 6A galaxy lensed by Abell 370 at z = 6.56, discovered in 2002. Also discovered around the time of discovery was a new most distant galaxy, SDF J132418.3+271455 at z = 6.58.|
| SDSS J1030+0524 |
|2001–2003||z = 6.28||Most distant object when discovered. First object with z > 6.|
| SDSS 1044-0125 |
|2000–2001||z = 5.82||Most distant object when discovered. It exceeded galaxy SSA22-HCM1 (z = 5.74; discovered in 1999) as the most distant object.|
| RD300 |
|2000||z = 5.50||Not the most distant object when discovered. It did not surpass galaxy SSA22-HCM1 (z = 5.74; discovered in 1999).|
| SDSSp J120441.73−002149.6 |
|2000||z = 5.03||Not the most distant object when discovered. It did not surpass galaxy SSA22-HCM1 (z = 5.74; discovered in 1999).|
| SDSSp J033829.31+002156.3 |
|1998–2000||z = 5.00||First quasar discovered with z > 5. Not the most distant object when discovered. It did not surpass galaxy BR1202-0725 LAE (z = 5.64; discovered earlier in 1998).|
|PC 1247+3406||1991–1998||z = 4.897||Most distant object when discovered.|
|PC 1158+4635||1989–1991||z = 4.73||Most distant object when discovered.|
|Q0051-279||1987–1989||z = 4.43||Most distant object when discovered.|
| Q0000-26 |
|1987||z = 4.11||Most distant object when discovered.|
| PC 0910+5625 |
|1987||z = 4.04||Most distant object when discovered; second quasar with z > 4.|
| Q0046–293 |
|1987||z = 4.01||Most distant object when discovered; first quasar with z > 4.|
| Q1208+1011 |
|1986–1987||z = 3.80||Most distant object when discovered and a gravitationally-lensed double-image quasar. From the time of discovery to 1991, had the least angular separation between images, 0.45″.|
| PKS 2000-330 |
(QSO J2003-3251, Q2000-330)
|1982–1986||z = 3.78||Most distant object when discovered.|
| OQ172 |
|1974–1982||z = 3.53||Most distant object when discovered.|
| OH471 |
|1973–1974||z = 3.408||Most distant object when discovered; first quasar with z > 3. Nicknamed "the blaze marking the edge of the universe".|
|4C 05.34||1970–1973||z = 2.877||Most distant object when discovered. The redshift was so much greater than the previous record that it was believed to be erroneous, or spurious.|
| 5C 02.56 |
|1968–1970||z = 2.399||Most distant object when discovered.|
| 4C 25.05 |
|1968||z = 2.358||Most distant object when discovered.|
| PKS 0237-23 |
|1967–1968||z = 2.225||Most distant object when discovered.|
| 4C 12.39 |
(Q1116+12, PKS 1116+12)
|1966–1967||z = 2.1291||Most distant object when discovered.|
| 4C 01.02 |
(Q0106+01, PKS 0106+1)
|1965–1966||z = 2.0990||Most distant object when discovered.|
|3C 9||1965||z = 2.018||Most distant object when discovered; first quasar with z > 2.|
|3C 147||1964–1965||z = 0.545||First quasar to become the most distant object in the universe, beating radio galaxy 3C 295.|
|3C 48||1963–1964||z = 0.367||Second quasar redshift measured. Redshift was discovered after publication of 3C273's results prompted researchers to re-examine spectroscopic data. Not the most distant object when discovered. The radio galaxy 3C 295 was found in 1960 with z = 0.461.|
|3C 273||1963||z = 0.158||First quasar redshift measured. Not the most distant object when discovered. The radio galaxy 3C 295 was found in 1960 with z = 0.461.|
|1||SMSS J215728.21-360215.1||It has an intrinsic bolometric luminosity of ~ 6.9 × 1014 Suns or ~ 2.6 × 1041 watts|
|2||HS 1946+7658||It has an intrinsic bolometric luminosity in excess of 1014 Suns or 1041 watts|
|3||SDSS J155152.46+191104.0||Has over 1041 watts luminosity|
|4||HS 1700+6416||Has a luminosity of over 1041 watts|
|5||SDSS J010013.02+280225.8||Has a luminosity of around 1.62 × 1041 watts|
|6||SBS 1425+606||Has a luminosity of over 1041 watts – optically brightest for z>3|
|7||SDSS J160455.39+381201.6||z = 2.51, M(i) = 15.84|
A quasar is an extremely luminous active galactic nucleus (AGN), powered by a supermassive black hole, with mass ranging from millions to tens of billions times the mass of the Sun, surrounded by a gaseous accretion disc. Gas in the disc falling towards the black hole heats up because of friction and releases energy in the form of electromagnetic radiation. The radiant energy of quasars is enormous; the most powerful quasars have luminosities thousands of times greater than a galaxy such as the Milky Way. Usually, quasars are categorized as a subclass of the more general category of AGN. The redshifts of quasars are of cosmological origin.
A supercluster is a large group of smaller galaxy clusters or galaxy groups; they are among the largest known structures of the universe. The Milky Way is part of the Local Group galaxy group, which in turn is part of the Virgo Supercluster, which is part of the Laniakea Supercluster. The large size and low density of superclusters means that they, unlike clusters, expand with the Hubble expansion. The number of superclusters in the observable universe is estimated to be 10 million.
An active galactic nucleus (AGN) is a compact region at the center of a galaxy that has a much-higher-than-normal luminosity over at least some portion of the electromagnetic spectrum with characteristics indicating that the luminosity is not produced by stars. Such excess non-stellar emission has been observed in the radio, microwave, infrared, optical, ultra-violet, X-ray and gamma ray wavebands. A galaxy hosting an AGN is called an "active galaxy". The non-stellar radiation from an AGN is theorized to result from the accretion of matter by a supermassive black hole at the center of its host galaxy.
In the fields of Big Bang theory and cosmology, reionization is the process that caused matter in the universe to reionize after the lapse of the "dark ages".
In astronomical spectroscopy, the Lyman-alpha forest is a series of absorption lines in the spectra of distant galaxies and quasars arising from the Lyman-alpha electron transition of the neutral hydrogen atom. As the light travels through multiple gas clouds with different redshifts, multiple absorption lines are formed.
Halton Christian "Chip" Arp was an American astronomer. He was known for his 1966 Atlas of Peculiar Galaxies, which catalogues many examples of interacting and merging galaxies, though Arp disputed the idea, claiming apparent associations were prime examples of ejections. Arp was also known as a critic of the Big Bang theory and for advocating a non-standard cosmology incorporating intrinsic redshift.
The Twin Quasar, was discovered in 1979 and was the first identified gravitationally lensed object. It is a quasar that appears as two images, a result from gravitational lensing caused by the galaxy YGKOW G1 that is located directly between Earth and the quasar.
Redshift quantization, also referred to as redshift periodicity, redshift discretization, preferred redshifts and redshift-magnitude bands, is the hypothesis that the redshifts of cosmologically distant objects tend to cluster around multiples of some particular value. In standard inflationary cosmological models, the redshift of cosmological bodies is ascribed to the expansion of the universe, with greater redshift indicating greater cosmic distance from the Earth. This is referred to as cosmological redshift. Ruling out errors in measurement or analysis, quantized redshift of cosmological objects would either indicate that they are physically arranged in a quantized pattern around the Earth, or that there is an unknown mechanism for redshift unrelated to cosmic expansion, referred to as "intrinsic redshift" or "non-cosmological redshift".
APM 08279+5255 is a very distant, broad absorption line quasar located in the constellation Lynx. It is magnified and split into multiple images by the gravitational lensing effect of a foreground galaxy through which its light passes. It appears to be a giant elliptical galaxy with a supermassive black hole and associated accretion disk. It possesses large regions of hot dust and molecular gas, as well as regions with starburst activity.
NGC 7319 is a highly distorted barred spiral galaxy that is a member of the compact Stephan's Quintet group located in the constellation Pegasus, some 311 megalight-years distant from the Milky Way. The galaxy's arms, dust and gas have been highly disturbed as a result of the interaction with the other members of the Quintet. Nearly all of the neutral hydrogen has been stripped from this galaxy, most likely as a result of a collision with NGC 7320c some 100 million years ago. A pair of long, parallel tidal tails extend southward from NGC 7319 in the direction of NGC 7320c, and is undergoing star formation.
CLASS B1359+154 is a quasar, or quasi-stellar object, that has a redshift of 3.235. A group of three foreground galaxies at a redshift of about 1 are behaving as gravitational lenses. The result is a rare example of a sixfold multiply imaged quasar.
In cosmology, galaxy filaments are the largest known structures in the universe, consisting of walls of gravitationally bound galaxy superclusters. These massive, thread-like formations can reach 80 megaparsecs h−1 and form the boundaries between large voids.
The Cloverleaf quasar is a bright, gravitationally lensed quasar.
György Paál was a Hungarian astronomer and cosmologist.
The Lynx Supercluster was discovered in 1999 as ClG J0848+4453, a name now used to describe the western cluster, with ClG J0849+4452 being the eastern one. It contains at least two clusters, designated RXJ 0848.9+4452 and RXJ 0848.6+4453. At the time of discovery, it was the most distant known supercluster with a comoving distance of 12.9 billion light years. Additionally, seven smaller groups of galaxies are associated with the supercluster. Through electromagnetic radiation and how it reacts with matter, we have been able to find three groupings of stars and two x-ray clusters within the Lynx.