Interacting galaxy

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NGC 3169 (left) and NGC 3166 (right) display some curious features, demonstrating that each member of the duo is close enough to feel the distorting gravitational influence of the other. Image from the Wide Field Imager on the MPG/ESO 2.2-metre telescope at the La Silla Observatory. NGC 3169 NGC 3166.jpg
NGC 3169 (left) and NGC 3166 (right) display some curious features, demonstrating that each member of the duo is close enough to feel the distorting gravitational influence of the other. Image from the Wide Field Imager on the MPG/ESO 2.2-metre telescope at the La Silla Observatory.

Interacting galaxies (colliding galaxies) are galaxies whose gravitational fields result in a disturbance of one another. An example of a minor interaction is a satellite galaxy disturbing the primary galaxy's spiral arms. An example of a major interaction is a galactic collision, which may lead to a galaxy merger.

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Satellite interaction

A giant galaxy interacting with its satellites is common. A satellite's gravity could attract one of the primary's spiral arms, or the secondary satellite's path could coincide with the position of the primary satellite's and so would dive into the primary galaxy (the Sagittarius Dwarf Elliptical Galaxy into the Milky Way being an example of the latter). That can possibly trigger a small amount of star formation. Such orphaned clusters of stars were sometimes referred to as "blue blobs" before they were recognized as stars. [1]

Animation of Galaxy Collision

Galaxy collision

Merging galaxies in the distant Universe through a gravitational magnifying glass. Merging galaxies in the distant Universe through a gravitational magnifying glass.jpg
Merging galaxies in the distant Universe through a gravitational magnifying glass.

Colliding galaxies are common during galaxy evolution. [3] The extremely tenuous distribution of matter in galaxies means these are not collisions in the traditional sense of the word, but rather gravitational interactions.

Colliding may lead to merging if two galaxies collide and do not have enough momentum to continue traveling after the collision. In that case, they fall back into each other and eventually merge into one galaxy after many passes through each other. If one of the colliding galaxies is much larger than the other, it will remain largely intact after the merger. The larger galaxy will look much the same, while the smaller galaxy will be stripped apart and become part of the larger galaxy. When galaxies pass through each other, unlike during mergers, they largely retain their material and shape after the pass.

Galactic collisions are now frequently simulated on computers, which use realistic physics principles, including the simulation of gravitational forces, gas dissipation phenomena, star formation, and feedback. Dynamical friction slows the relative motion galaxy pairs, which may possibly merge at some point, according to the initial relative energy of the orbits. A library of simulated galaxy collisions can be found at the Paris Observatory website: GALMER [4]

Galactic cannibalism

2MASX J16270254+4328340 galaxy has merged with another galaxy leaving a fine mist, made of millions of stars, spewing from it in long trails. The last waltz.jpg
2MASX J16270254+4328340 galaxy has merged with another galaxy leaving a fine mist, made of millions of stars, spewing from it in long trails.

Galactic cannibalism refers to the process in which a large galaxy, through tidal gravitational interactions with a companion, merges with that companion; that results in a larger, often irregular galaxy.

The most common result of the gravitational merger between two or more galaxies is an irregular galaxy, but elliptical galaxies may also result.

It has been suggested that galactic cannibalism is currently occurring between the Milky Way and the Large and Small Magellanic Clouds. Streams of gravitationally-attracted hydrogen arcing from these dwarf galaxies to the Milky Way is taken as evidence for the theory.

Galaxy harassment

Galaxy harassment is a type of interaction between a low-luminosity galaxy and a brighter one that takes place within rich galaxy clusters, such as Virgo and Coma, where galaxies are moving at high relative speeds and suffering frequent encounters with other systems of the cluster by the high galactic density of the latter. According to computer simulations, the interactions convert the affected galaxy disks into disturbed barred spiral galaxies and produces starbursts followed by, if more encounters occur, loss of angular momentum and heating of their gas.

The result would be the conversion of (late type) low-luminosity spiral galaxies into dwarf spheroidals and dwarf ellipticals. [13]

Evidence for the hypothesis had been claimed by studying early-type dwarf galaxies in the Virgo Cluster and finding structures, such as disks and spiral arms, which suggest they are former disk systems transformed by the above-mentioned interactions. [14] However, the existence of similar structures in isolated early-type dwarf galaxies, such as LEDA 2108986, has undermined this hypothesis [15] [16]

Notable interacting galaxies

Montage of some well known interacting galaxies Galaxies Gone Wild!.jpg
Montage of some well known interacting galaxies
Name Type Distance
(million ly)
Magnitude Notes
Milky Way Galaxy, LMC and SMC SBc/SB(s)m/SB(s)m pec0Satellites interacting with their primary
Whirlpool Galaxy (M51)SAc (SB0-a)37+8.4Satellite interacting with its primary
NGC 1097 SB(s)bc (E6)45+9.5Satellite interacting with its primary
NGC 2207 and IC 2163 SAc/SAbc114+11galaxies going through the first phase in galactic collision
Mice Galaxies (NGC 4676A and NGC 4676B)S0/SB(s)ab300+13.5galaxies going through the second phase in galactic collision
Antennae Galaxies (NGC 4038/9)SAc/SBm45+10.3galaxies going through the third phase in galactic collision
NGC 520 Sc100+11.3galaxies going through the third phase in galactic collision
NGC 6052 S399.05 ± 110.83+13.4galaxies going through the third phase in galactic collision
NGC 2936 Irr+12.9?

Future collision of the Milky Way with Andromeda

Astronomers have estimated the Milky Way Galaxy will collide with the Andromeda Galaxy in about 4.5 billion years. It is thought that the two spiral galaxies will eventually merge to become an elliptical galaxy [17] [18] or perhaps a large disk galaxy. [19]

See also

Related Research Articles

Galaxy formation and evolution from a homogeneous beginning, the formation of the first galaxies, the way galaxies change over time

The study of galaxy formation and evolution is concerned with the processes that formed a heterogeneous universe from a homogeneous beginning, the formation of the first galaxies, the way galaxies change over time, and the processes that have generated the variety of structures observed in nearby galaxies. Galaxy formation is hypothesized to occur from structure formation theories, as a result of tiny quantum fluctuations in the aftermath of the Big Bang. The simplest model in general agreement with observed phenomena is the Lambda-CDM model—that is, that clustering and merging allows galaxies to accumulate mass, determining both their shape and structure.

Galaxy Gravitationally bound astronomical structure

A galaxy is a gravitationally bound system of stars, stellar remnants, interstellar gas, dust, and dark matter. The word is derived from the Greek galaxias (γαλαξίας), literally "milky", a reference to the Milky Way. Galaxies range in size from dwarfs with just a few hundred million stars to giants with one hundred trillion stars, each orbiting its galaxy's center of mass.

Elliptical galaxy Galaxy having an approximately ellipsoidal shape and a smooth, nearly featureless brightness profile

An elliptical galaxy is a type of galaxy with an approximately ellipsoidal shape and a smooth, nearly featureless image. They are one of the four main classes of galaxy described by Edwin Hubble in his Hubble sequence and 1936 work The Realm of the Nebulae, along with spiral and lenticular galaxies. Elliptical (E) galaxies are, together with lenticular galaxies (S0) with their large-scale disks, and ES galaxies with their intermediate scale disks, a subset of the "early-type" galaxy population.

Spiral galaxy Class of galaxy having a number of arms of younger stars

Spiral galaxies form a class of galaxy originally described by Edwin Hubble in his 1936 work The Realm of the Nebulae and, as such, form part of the Hubble sequence. Most spiral galaxies consist of a flat, rotating disk containing stars, gas and dust, and a central concentration of stars known as the bulge. These are often surrounded by a much fainter halo of stars, many of which reside in globular clusters.

Dwarf elliptical galaxies, or dEs, are elliptical galaxies that are smaller than ordinary elliptical galaxies. They are quite common in galaxy groups and clusters, and are usually companions to other galaxies.

Galactic bulge Tightly packed group of stars within a larger formation

In astronomy, a galactic bulge is a tightly packed group of stars within a larger star formation. The term almost exclusively refers to the central group of stars found in most spiral galaxies. Bulges were historically thought to be elliptical galaxies that happened to have a disk of stars around them, but high-resolution images using the Hubble Space Telescope have revealed that many bulges lie at the heart of a spiral galaxy. It is now thought that there are at least two types of bulges: bulges that are like ellipticals and bulges that are like spiral galaxies.

Starburst galaxy Galaxy undergoing an exceptionally high rate of star formation

A starburst galaxy is a galaxy undergoing an exceptionally high rate of star formation, as compared to the long-term average rate of star formation in the galaxy or the star formation rate observed in most other galaxies. For example, the star formation rate of the Milky Way galaxy is approximately 3 M/yr; however, starburst galaxies can experience star formation rates that are more than a factor of 33 times greater. In a starburst galaxy, the rate of star formation is so large that the galaxy will consume all of its gas reservoir, from which the stars are forming, on a timescale much shorter than the age of the galaxy. As such, the starburst nature of a galaxy is a phase, and one that typically occupies a brief period of a galaxy's evolution. The majority of starburst galaxies are in the midst of a merger or close encounter with another galaxy. Starburst galaxies include M82, NGC 4038/NGC 4039, and IC 10.

Dwarf galaxy Small galaxy composed of up to several billion stars

A dwarf galaxy is a small galaxy composed of about 1000 up to several billion stars, as compared to the Milky Way's 200–400 billion stars. The Large Magellanic Cloud, which closely orbits the Milky Way and contains over 30 billion stars, is sometimes classified as a dwarf galaxy; others consider it a full-fledged galaxy. Dwarf galaxies' formation and activity are thought to be heavily influenced by interactions with larger galaxies. Astronomers identify numerous types of dwarf galaxies, based on their shape and composition.

Antennae Galaxies Interacting galaxy in the constellation Corvus

The Antennae Galaxies are a pair of interacting galaxies in the constellation Corvus. They are currently going through a starburst phase, in which the collision of clouds of gas and dust, with entangled magnetic fields, causes rapid star formation. They were discovered by William Herschel in 1785.

Satellite galaxy Galaxy that orbits a larger galaxy due to gravitational attraction

A satellite galaxy is a smaller companion galaxy that travels on bound orbits within the gravitational potential of a more massive and luminous host galaxy. Satellite galaxies and their constituents are bound to their host galaxy, in the same way that planets within our own solar system are gravitationally bound to the Sun. While most satellite galaxies are dwarf galaxies, satellite galaxies of large galaxy clusters can be much more massive. The Milky Way is orbited by about fifty satellite galaxies, the largest of which is the Large Magellanic Cloud.

NGC 2207 and IC 2163 Pair of colliding spiral galaxies in the constellation Canis Major

NGC 2207 and IC 2163 are a pair of colliding spiral galaxies about 80 million light-years away in the constellation Canis Major. Both galaxies were discovered by John Herschel in 1835.

Eyes Galaxies Pair of galaxies in the constellation Virgo

The Eyes Galaxies are a pair of galaxies about 52 million light-years away in the constellation Virgo. The pair are members of the string of galaxies known as Markarian's Chain.

NGC 5033 Spiral galaxy in the constellation Canes Venatici

NGC 5033 is an inclined spiral galaxy located in the constellation Canes Venatici. Distance estimates vary from between 38 and 60 million light years from the Milky Way. The galaxy has a very bright nucleus and a relatively faint disk. Significant warping is visible in the southern half of the disk. The galaxy's relatively large angular size and relatively high surface brightness make it an object that can be viewed and imaged by amateur astronomers. The galaxy's location relatively near Earth and its active galactic nucleus make it a commonly studied object for professional astronomers.

Andromeda–Milky Way collision Predicted galactic collision

The Andromeda–Milky Way collision is a galactic collision predicted to occur in about 6 billion years between the two largest galaxies in the Local Group—the Milky Way and the Andromeda Galaxy. The stars involved are sufficiently far apart that it is improbable that any of them will individually collide. Some stars will be ejected from the resulting galaxy, often nicknamed Milkomeda or Milkdromeda, a portmanteau of the respective galaxies.

Galaxy merger Merger whereby at least two galaxies collide

Galaxy mergers can occur when two galaxies collide. They are the most violent type of galaxy interaction. The gravitational interactions between galaxies and the friction between the gas and dust have major effects on the galaxies involved. The exact effects of such mergers depend on a wide variety of parameters such as collision angles, speeds, and relative size/composition, and are currently an extremely active area of research. Galaxy mergers are important because the merger rate is a fundamental measurement of galaxy evolution. The merger rate also provides astronomers with clues about how galaxies bulked up over time.

NGC 7252 Peculiar galaxy in the constellation Aquarius

NGC 7252 is a peculiar galaxy resulting from an interaction between two galaxies that started a billion years ago. It is located 220 million light years away in the constellation Aquarius. It is also called Atoms for Peace Galaxy, a nickname which comes from its loop-like structure, made of stars, that resembles a diagram of an electron orbiting an atomic nucleus.

NGC 2623 Interacting galaxy in the constellation Cancer

NGC 2623/Arp 243 is an interacting galaxy located in the constellation Cancer. NGC 2623 is the result of two spiral galaxies that have merged. Scientists believe that this situation is similar to what will occur to the Milky Way, which contains our solar system, and the neighboring galaxy, the Andromeda Galaxy in four billion years. Studying this galaxy and its properties have provided scientists with a better idea of the coming collision of the Milky Way and the Andromeda. Due to NGC 2623 being in the late stage of merging, the compression of the gas within the galaxy has led to a large amount of star formation, and to its unique structure of a bright core with two extending tidal tails.

NGC 2936 Interacting spiral galaxy in the constellation Hydra

NGC 2936 is an interacting spiral galaxy located at a distance of 326 million light years, in the constellation Hydra. NGC 2936 is interacting with elliptical galaxy NGC 2937, located just beneath it. They were both discovered by Albert Marth on Mar 3, 1864. To some astronomers, the galaxy looks like a penguin or a porpoise. NGC 2936, NGC 2937, and PGC 1237172 are included in the Atlas of Peculiar Galaxies as Arp 142 in the category "Galaxy triplet".

NGC 3597 Galaxy in the constellation Crater

NGC 3597 is a galaxy located approximately 150 million light-years away in the constellation of Crater. It was discovered by John Herschel on March 21, 1835.

IC 4710 Irregular galaxy in the constellation Pavo

IC 4710 is a galaxy in southern constellation of Pavo, roughly 34 million light-years away.

References

  1. "HubbleSite: News - Hubble Finds that "Blue Blobs" in Space Are Orphaned Clusters of Stars". hubblesite.org. Retrieved 2017-05-24.
  2. "Best View Yet of Merging Galaxies in Distant Universe". ESO Press Release. Retrieved 26 August 2014.
  3. space.com 2015-04-21 How the Hubble Space Telescope Changed Our View of the Cosmos-Galactic Collisions Photographs
  4. GALMER 27 March 2010
  5. "Galactic Creatures at Play". www.spacetelescope.org. Retrieved 10 August 2019.
  6. "Close encounter". www.spacetelescope.org. Retrieved 8 May 2017.
  7. "A close galactic pair". www.spacetelescope.org. Retrieved 21 April 2017.
  8. "Two become one" . Retrieved 28 December 2015.
  9. "Galactic soup". ESA/Hubble Picture of the Week. Retrieved 18 August 2014.
  10. "The messy result of a galactic collision". ESA/Hubble Picture of the Week. Retrieved 29 May 2013.
  11. "Defying cosmic convention". www.spacetelescope.org. Retrieved 20 March 2017.
  12. "The last waltz" . Retrieved 14 December 2015.
  13. Galaxy Harassment
  14. More evidence for hidden spiral and bar features in bright early-type dwarf galaxies
  15. Graham, A.W. et al. (2017), Implications for the Origin of Early-type Dwarf Galaxies: A Detailed Look at the Isolated Rotating Early-type Dwarf Galaxy LEDA 2108986 (CG 611), Ramifications for the Fundamental Plane’s SK2 Kinematic Scaling, and the Spin-Ellipticity Diagram
  16. Janz, J. et al. (2017), Implications for the origin of early-type dwarf galaxies - the discovery of rotation in isolated, low-mass early-type galaxies
  17. whose gravitational interactions will fling various celestial bodies outward, evicting them from the resulting elliptical galaxy.Hazel Muir (2007-05-14). "Galactic merger to 'evict' Sun and Earth". New Scientist. Archived from the original on 20 April 2014. Retrieved 2014-10-07.
  18. Astronomy, June 2008, page 28, by Abraham Loeb and T.J.Cox
  19. Junko Ueda; et al. (2014). "Cold molecular gas in merger remnants. I. Formation of molecular gas disks". The Astrophysical Journal Supplement Series. 214 (1): 1. arXiv: 1407.6873 . Bibcode:2014ApJS..214....1U. doi:10.1088/0067-0049/214/1/1. S2CID   716993.