Reader's Digest

Last updated

Reader's Digest
Reader's Digest logo 2014.png
Editor-in-chief Jason Buhrmester
FormatDigest
Total circulation
(2020)
3,029,039 [1]
Founder
First issueFebruary 5, 1922;100 years ago (1922-02-05)
Company Trusted Media Brands, Inc.
Country United States
Based in Manhattan, New York City, New York, U.S.
Website rd.com
ISSN 0034-0375

Reader's Digest is an American general-interest family magazine, published 10 times a year. Formerly based in Chappaqua, New York, it is now headquartered in midtown Manhattan. The magazine was founded in 1922 by DeWitt Wallace and his wife Lila Bell Wallace. For many years, Reader's Digest was the best-selling consumer magazine in the United States; it lost the distinction in 2009 to Better Homes and Gardens . According to Mediamark Research (2006), Reader's Digest reached more readers with household incomes of $100,000+ than Fortune , The Wall Street Journal , Business Week , and Inc. combined. [2]

Contents

Global editions of Reader's Digest reach an additional 40 million people in more than 70 countries, via 49 editions in 21 languages. The periodical has a global circulation of 10.5 million, making it the largest paid-circulation magazine in the world.[ citation needed ][ when? ]

It is also published in Braille, digital, audio, and a large type called "Reader's Digest Large Print." The magazine is compact, with its pages roughly half the size of most American magazines. Hence, in the summer of 2005, the U.S. edition adopted the slogan "America in your pocket." In January 2008, it was changed to "Life well shared."

History

First issue of the Reader's Digest, February 1922 First issue of the Reader's Digest, February 1922.png
First issue of the Reader's Digest, February 1922

Inception and growth

In 1922, DeWitt Wallace started the magazine while he was recovering from shrapnel wounds received in World War I. [3] [ self-published source? ] Wallace had the idea to gather a sampling of favorite articles on many subjects from various monthly magazines, sometimes condensing and rewriting them, and to combine them into one magazine. [4]

Since its inception Reader's Digest has maintained a conservative [5] and anti-Communist perspective on political and social issues. [6] The Wallaces initially hoped the journal could provide $5,000 of net income. Wallace's assessment of what the potential mass-market audience wanted to read led to rapid growth. By 1929, the magazine had 290,000 subscribers and had a gross income of $900,000 a year. The first international edition was published in the United Kingdom in 1938. By the 40th anniversary of Reader's Digest, it had 40 international editions, in 13 languages and Braille, and at one point, it was the largest-circulating journal in China, Mexico, Spain, Sweden, Peru, and other countries, with a total international circulation of 23 million. [4]

The magazine's format for several decades consisted of 30 articles per issue (one per day), along with an "Increase your Word Power" vocabulary quiz, a page of "Amusing Anecdotes" and "Personal Glimpses", two features of funny stories entitled "Humor in Uniform" and "Life in these United States", and a lengthier article at the end, usually condensed from a published book. [7] Other regular features were "My Most Unforgettable Character" (since discontinued), the "Drama in Real Life" survival stories. and more recently "That's Outrageous". These were all listed in the table of contents on the front cover. Each article was prefaced by a small, simple line drawing. In more recent times, the format evolved into flashy, colorful, eye-catching graphics throughout, and many short bits of data interspersed with full articles. The table of contents is now contained inside. From 2003 to 2007, the back cover featured "Our America", paintings of Rockwell-style whimsical situations by artist C. F. Payne.[ citation needed ] Another monthly consumer advice feature is "What [people in various professions] won't tell you," with a different profession featured each time.

The first "Word Power" column of the magazine was published in the January 1945 edition, written by Wilfred J. Funk. [8] [9] In December 1952, the magazine published "Cancer by the Carton", a series of articles that linked smoking with lung cancer [10] and this topic was later repeated in other articles.

From 2002 through 2006, Reader's Digest conducted a vocabulary competition in schools throughout the US called Reader's Digest National Word Power Challenge. In 2007, the magazine said it will not have the competition for the 2007–08 school year: "...but rather to use the time to evaluate the program in every respect, including scope, mission, and model for implementation." [11]

In 2006, the magazine published three more local-language editions in Slovenia, Croatia, and Romania. In October 2007, the Digest expanded into Serbia. The magazine's licensee in Italy stopped publishing in December 2007. The magazine launched in the People's Republic of China in 2008.[ citation needed ]

For 2010, the US edition of the magazine reduced its publishing schedule to 10 times a year rather than 12, and to increase digital offerings. It also cut its circulation guarantee for advertisers to 5.5 million copies from 8 million. In announcing that decision, in June 2009, the company said that it planned to reduce its number of celebrity profiles and how-to features, and increase the number of inspiring spiritual stories and stories about the military. [12]

Beginning in January 2013, the US edition was increased to 12 times a year. [13]

Former Reader's Digest building in Chappaqua, New York Reader's Digest building in Pleasantville.jpg
Former Reader's Digest building in Chappaqua, New York

Business organization and ownership

In 1990, the magazine's parent company, The Reader's Digest Association, Inc. (RDA), became a publicly traded corporation. From 2005 through 2010, RDA reported a net loss each year. [14]

In March 2007, Ripplewood Holdings LLC led a consortium of private-equity investors who bought the company through a leveraged buyout for US$2.8 billion, financed primarily by the issuance of US$2.2 billion of debt. [4] [12] Ripplewood invested $275 million of its own money, and had partners including Rothschild Bank of Zürich and GoldenTree Asset Management of New York. The private-equity deal tripled the association's interest payments, to $148 million a year. [4]

On August 24, 2009, RDA announced it had filed with the US Bankruptcy court an arranged Chapter 11 bankruptcy to continue operations, and to restructure the US$2.2 billion debt undertaken by the leveraged buyout transaction. [4] [15] [16] The company emerged from bankruptcy with the lenders exchanging debt for equity, and Ripplewood's entire equity investment was extinguished. [4]

In April 2010, the UK arm was sold to its management. It has a licensing deal with the US company to continue publishing the UK edition. [17]

On February 17, 2013, RDA Holding filed for bankruptcy a second time. [18] [19] The company was purchased for £1 by Mike Luckwell, a venture capitalist and once the biggest shareholder in WPP plc. [20]

Direct marketing

RDA offers many mail-order products included with "sweepstakes" or contests. US Reader's Digest and the company's other US magazines do not use sweepstakes in their direct-mail promotions. A notable shift to electronic direct marketing has been undertaken by the company to adapt to shifting media landscape. [21] In the mid-20th century, phonograph record albums of popular classical and easy-listening music, bearing the magazine's name, were sold by mail. Reader's Digest also partnered with RCA to offer a mail-order music club which offered discount pricing on vinyl records. [22] [23]

Sweepstakes agreement

In 2001, 32 states' attorneys general reached agreements with the company and other sweepstakes operators to settle allegations that they tricked the elderly into buying products because they were a "guaranteed winner" of a lottery. The settlement required the companies to expand the type size of notices in the packaging that no purchase is necessary to play the sweepstakes, and to:

  1. Establish a "Do Not Contact List" and refrain from soliciting any future "high-activity" customers unless and until Reader's Digest actually makes contact with that customer and determines that the customer is not buying because they believe that the purchase will improve their chances of winning.
  2. Send letters to individuals who spend more than $1,000 in a six-month period telling them that they are not required to make purchases to win the sweepstakes, that making a purchase will not improve their chances of winning, and that all entries have the same chance to win whether or not the entry is accompanied by a purchase. [24] [25] [26]

The agreement appeared to adversely affect Reader's Digest circulation in the U.S.[ clarification needed ] Its 1970s peak circulation was 17 million U.S. subscribers. [4]

The UK edition of Reader's Digest has also been criticized by the Trading Standards Institute for preying on the elderly and vulnerable with misleading bulk mailings that claim the recipient is guaranteed a large cash prize and advising them not to discuss this with anyone else. Following their complaint, the Advertising Standards Authority said they would be launching an investigation. [27] The ASA investigation upheld the complaint in 2008, ruling that the Reader's Digest mailing was irresponsible and misleading (particularly for the elderly) and had breached three clauses of the Committee of Advertising Practice code. [28] Reader's Digest was told not to use this mailing again.

International editions

International editions have made Reader's Digest the best-selling monthly journal in the world. Its worldwide circulation including all editions has reached 17 million copies and 70 million readers. Reader's Digest is currently[ when? ] published in 49 editions and 21 languages and is available in over 70 countries, including Slovenia, Croatia, and Romania in 2008.[ citation needed ]

Its international editions account for about 50% of the magazine's trade volume. In each market, local editors commission or purchase articles for their own markets and share content with U.S. and other editions. The selected articles are then translated by local translators and the translations edited by the local editors to make them match the "well-educated informal" style of the American edition.[ citation needed ]

Over the 90 years, the company has published editions in various languages in different countries, or for different regions. Often, these editions started out as translations of the U.S. version of the magazine, but over time they became unique editions, providing material more germane to local readers. Local editions that still publish the bulk of the American Reader's Digest are usually titled with a qualifier, such as the Portuguese edition, Seleções do Reader's Digest (Selections from Reader's Digest), or the Swedish edition, Reader's Digest Det Bästa (The Best of Reader's Digest).[ citation needed ]

The list is sorted by year of first publication. [29] Some countries had editions but no longer do; for example, the Danish version of Reader's Digest (Det Bedste) ceased publication in 2005 and was replaced by the Swedish version; as a result, the Swedish edition covers stories about both countries (but written solely in Swedish).[ citation needed ]

Arabic editions

The first Reader's Digest publication in the Arab World was printed in Egypt in September 1943. [31] The license was eventually terminated.

The second effort and the first Reader's Digest franchise agreement was negotiated through the efforts of Frederick Pittera, in 1976, an American entrepreneur, who sold the idea to Lebanon's former foreign minister, Lucien Dahdah, then son-in-law of Suleiman Frangieh, President of Lebanon. Dahdah partnered with Ghassan Tueni (former Lebanon ambassador to the United Nations, and publisher of Al Nahar newspaper, Beirut) in publishing Reader's Digest in the Arabic language. It was printed in Cairo for distribution throughout the Arab world under title Al-Mukhtar. In format, Al-Mukhtar was the same as the U.S. edition with 75% of the editorial content. Philip Hitti, Chairman of Princeton University's Department of Oriental Languages and a team of Arabic advisers counseled on what would be of interest to Arabic readers. The publication of Al-Mukhtar was terminated by Reader's Digest in April 1993.

Canadian edition

The Canadian edition first appeared in July 1947 in French and in February 1948 in English, and today the vast majority of it is Canadian content. Nearly all major and minor articles are locally produced or selected from Canadian publications that match the Digest style. Usually, there is one American article in each issue.

"Life's Like That" is the Canadian name of "Life in These United States." Most of the other rubrics are taken from the American publication.

The current editor-in-chief is Mark Pupo.

Indian edition

The Indian edition was first published in 1954. Its circulation then was 40,000 copies. It was published for many years by the Tata Group of companies. Today, the magazine is published in India by Living Media India Ltd, [32] and sold over 600,000 copies monthly in 2008 under the then editor Mohan Sivanand, who retired in 2015. It prints Indian and international articles. [32] According to the Indian Readership Survey Round II of 2009, the readership for Reader's Digest was 3.94 million, second only to India Today at 5.62 million. [32] That has since declined. In the 2017 Survey, the India edition had fallen to ninth position with a readership of 1.354 million, and in the latest Survey (Quarter 1 of 2019), it is not seen in the Top 10 list of English-language magazines published in India. The incumbent India editor is Sanghamitra Chakraborty. [33]

Australian edition

Reader's Digest Australia has an any issue readership of 1.5 million (according to Nielsen) and a circulation of over 200,000. The magazine has a guaranteed audience with a 90% subscription rate. The group editor is Louise Waterson.[ citation needed ]

Books

Reader's Digest publishes bi-monthly a series of softcover anthologies called Reader's Digest Select Editions (previously known as Reader's Digest Condensed Books ). During the 1970s, there was also a Reader's Digest Press, which published full-length, original works of non-fiction.

In Germany, Reader's Digest runs an own book-publishing house called Verlag Das Beste which not only publishes the German edition of the Reader's Digest magazine. Since 1955, it has published Reader's Digest Auswahlbücher (a German edition of Reader's Digest Condensed Books). Besides publishing the magazine, the publisher is especially well-known in Germany for the science fiction anthology Unterwegs in die Welt von Morgen ("The Road to Tomorrow"), consisting of 50 hardcover volumes of classic science fiction novels (such as Robert A. Heinlein's Stranger in a Strange Land , Arthur C. Clarke's 2001 , or Ray Bradbury's Fahrenheit 451 , usually two novels per volume) published between 1986 and 1995. [34] More recent book series by the publisher include Im Spiegel der Zeit ("Reflections of the Times", a series of recent newspaper or magazine reports) and Klassiker der Weltliteratur ("World Literature Classics").

As well, Readers Digest re-printed classic literature in long-wearing colored board cover hardcovers. Rebecca by Daphne Du Maurier, Roughing It by Mark Twain, and My Antonia by Willa Cather were among this run of books.

Editors-in-chief

  1. Lila Bell Wallace and DeWitt Wallace (1922–1964)
  2. Hobart D. Lewis (1964–1976)
  3. Edward T. Thompson (1976–1984)
  4. Kenneth O. Gilmore (1984–1990)
  5. Kenneth Tomlinson (1990–1996)
  6. Christopher Willcox (1996–2000)
  7. Eric Schrier (2000–2001)
  8. Jacqueline Leo (2001–2007)
  9. Peggy Northrop (2007–2011)
  10. Liz Vaccariello (2011–2016)
  11. Bruce Kelley (2016–2021)
  12. Jason Buhrmester (2021-present)

See also

Related Research Articles

Harrowsmith Country Life was a magazine that explored and showcased country living. Originally called Harrowsmith, the magazine was heralded as a back-to-the-land and environmental issues platform. In 1976, founder James M. Lawrence cut and pasted the first issues together on a kitchen table in the tiny village of Camden East in Ontario, Canada. Within two years, the magazine had over 100,000 subscribers and eventually became Canada's 8th largest magazine. Camden House Publishing Inc. was created in 1977 as the parent company for the Harrowsmith and Equinox magazines and later for many books.

<i>The Saturday Evening Post</i> Leading 19th- and 20th-century American mainstream weekly magazine

The Saturday Evening Post is an American magazine, currently published six times a year. It was issued weekly under this title from 1897 until 1963, then every two weeks until 1969. From the 1920s to the 1960s, it was one of the most widely circulated and influential magazines within the American middle class, with fiction, non-fiction, cartoons and features that reached two million homes every week. The magazine declined in readership through the 1960s, and in 1969 The Saturday Evening Post folded for two years before being revived as a quarterly publication with an emphasis on medical articles in 1971. As of the late 2000s, The Saturday Evening Post is published six times a year by the Saturday Evening Post Society, which purchased the magazine in 1982. The magazine was redesigned in 2013.

PC Gamer is a magazine and website founded in the United Kingdom in 1993 devoted to PC gaming and published monthly by Future plc. The magazine has several regional editions, with the UK and US editions becoming the best selling PC games magazines in their respective countries. The magazine features news on developments in the video game industry, previews of new games, and reviews of the latest popular PC games, along with other features relating to hardware, mods, "classic" games and various other topics.

<i>Soap Opera Digest</i> Weekly magazine covering American daytime soap operas

Soap Opera Digest is a weekly magazine covering American daytime soap operas. It features onscreen and offscreen news about the series, interviews with and articles about performers, storyline summaries and analysis, and related promotional information. Founded in 1975, the magazine has historically included certain prime time soap operas in its coverage as well.

<i>The Strand Magazine</i> British monthly magazine published 1891 to 1950

The Strand Magazine was a monthly British magazine founded by George Newnes, composed of short fiction and general interest articles. It was published in the United Kingdom from January 1891 to March 1950, running to 711 issues, though the first issue was on sale well before Christmas 1890. Its immediate popularity is evidenced by an initial sale of nearly 300,000. Sales increased in the early months, before settling down to a circulation of almost 500,000 copies a month, which lasted well into the 1930s.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Sweepstake</span> Type of contest where a prize or prizes may be awarded to a winner or winners

A sweepstake is a type of contest where a prize or prizes may be awarded to a winner or winners. Sweepstakes began as a form of lottery that were tied to products sold. In response, the FCC and FTC refined U.S. broadcasting laws. Under these laws sweepstakes became strictly "No purchase necessary to enter or win" and "A purchase will not increase your chances of winning", especially since many sweepstakes companies skirted the law by stating only "no purchase necessary to enter", removing the consideration to stop abuse of sweepstakes. Today, sweepstakes in the United States are used as marketing promotions to reward existing consumers and to draw attention to a product. By definition, the winner is determined by pure random chance rather than skill.

William Roy DeWitt Wallace; November 12, 1889 – March 30, 1981), publishing as DeWitt Wallace, was an American magazine publisher.

Weekly Reader was a weekly educational classroom magazine designed for children. It began in 1928 as My Weekly Reader. Editions covered curriculum themes in the younger grade levels and news-based, current events and curriculum themed-issues in older grade levels. The publishing company also created workbooks, literacy centers, and picture books for younger grades.

<i>Jet</i> (magazine) African-American weekly magazine formerly based in Chicago

Jet is an American weekly digital magazine focusing on news, culture, and entertainment related to the African-American community. Founded in November 1951 by John H. Johnson of the Johnson Publishing Company in Chicago, Illinois, the magazine was billed as "The Weekly Negro News Magazine". Jet chronicled the civil rights movement from its earliest years, including the murder of Emmett Till, the Montgomery bus boycott, and the activities of civil rights leader Martin Luther King Jr.

Publishers Clearing House (PCH) is a direct marketing company that markets merchandise and magazine subscriptions with sweepstakes and prize-based games.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Johnson Publishing Company</span> American publishing company based in Chicago, Illinois (1942–2019)

Johnson Publishing Company, Inc. (JPC) was an American publishing company founded in November 1942 by African-American businessman John H. Johnson. It was headquartered in Chicago, Illinois. JPC was privately held and run by Johnson until his death in 2005. His publications "forever changed the popular representation of African Americans." The writing portrayed African Americans as they saw themselves and its photojournalism made history. Led by its flagship publication, Ebony, Johnson Publishing was at one time the largest African-American-owned publishing firm in the United States. JPC also published Jet, a weekly news magazine, from November 1951 until June 2014, when it became digital only. In the 1980s, the company branched into film and television.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Trusted Media Brands</span> Multi-platform media and publishing company

Trusted Media Brands, Inc. (TMBI), formerly known as the Reader's Digest Association, Inc. (RDA), is an American multi-platform media and publishing company that is co-headquartered in New York City and White Plains, New York. The company was founded by husband and wife DeWitt Wallace and Lila Bell Wallace in New York City in 1922 with the first publication of the magazine Reader's Digest.

Ripplewood is an American private equity firm based in New York City that focuses on leveraged buyouts, late stage venture, growth capital, management buyouts, leveraged recapitalizations and other illiquid investments.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Time Life</span> Publishing company

Time Life, with sister subsidiaries StarVista Live and Lifestyle Products Group, a holding of Direct Holdings Global LLC, is an American production company and direct marketer conglomerate, that is known for selling books, music, video/DVD, and multimedia products. The current focus of the group is music, video, and entertainment experiences as the Time Life book division closed in 2001. Its products have been sold throughout North America, Europe, Australia, and Asia through television, print, retail, the Internet, telemarketing, and direct sales. Current operations are focused in the US and Canada with limited retail distribution overseas.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">LNP Media Group</span> Media group in Lancaster, Pennsylvania, United States

LNP Media Group owns and publishes LNP, a daily newspaper based in Lancaster County, Pennsylvania, and LancasterOnline, its online affiliate with monthly readership of over one million. LNP traces its roots to The Lancaster Journal, first published in 1794.

Reader's Digest Condensed Books was a series of hardcover anthology collections, published by the American general interest monthly family magazine Reader's Digest and distributed by direct mail. Most volumes contained five current best-selling novels and nonfiction books which were abridged specifically for Reader's Digest. The series was published from 1950 until 1997, when it was renamed Reader's Digest Select Editions.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Jacqueline Leo</span>

Jacqueline McCord Leo is an American magazine editor and media producer.

<i>AARP: The Magazine</i> Magazine

AARP: The Magazine is an American bi-monthly magazine, published by AARP, which focuses on aging-related issues.

A Sunday magazine is a publication inserted into a Sunday newspaper. It also has been known as a Sunday supplement, Sunday newspaper magazine or Sunday magazine section. Traditionally, the articles in these magazines cover a wide range of subjects, and the content is not as current and timely as the rest of the newspaper.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Thomas O. Ryder</span> American Businessman

Thomas O. Ryder is an American businessman, investor and corporate board member who has had a long career in the publishing and financial services industries and is an accomplished contributor to the food and wine industries. He currently serves on the board of directors of Amazon.

References

  1. "Consumer Magazines". Alliance for Audited Media . Retrieved November 14, 2020.
  2. Doran, James (November 17, 2006). "Reader's Digest Sold to Private Equity Firm for $2.4bn". The Times . London. Retrieved October 24, 2008.
  3. Daniel Niemeyer (2013). 1950s American Style: A Reference Guide. Lulu.com. p. 248. ISBN   978-1-304-20165-2 . Retrieved September 27, 2016.
  4. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 David Segal (December 20, 2009). "A Reader's Digest That Grandma Never Dreamed Of". The New York Times. Retrieved December 20, 2009.
  5. McGuire, Patrick A. (August 25, 1993). "Doing the Right Thing Reader's Digest's Lasting Appeal: Condensed and Conservative". The Baltimore Sun. Archived from the original on 2012-01-11. Retrieved 2011-01-09. Still, says Mr. Heidenry, the Digest has a blind side. 'It persists in a right wing ideology,' he says, 'and they don't print two sides to a question.'{{cite news}}: CS1 maint: bot: original URL status unknown (link)
  6. Sharp, Joanne P. (2000). Condensing the Cold War: Reader's Digest and American Identity. University of Minnesota Press.
  7. "Reader's Digest | American magazine". Encyclopedia Britannica. Retrieved June 1, 2017.
  8. "Word Power". Reader's Digest: 29, 103. January 1945.
  9. Don R. Vaughan, Ph.D., vocabulary columnist.[ full citation needed ]
  10. "Tobacco History". CNN. Retrieved June 22, 2009.
  11. "Reader's Digest National Word Power Challenge Program Announcement". Reader's Digest. Retrieved June 19, 2009.
  12. 1 2 Clifford, Stephanie (June 18, 2009). "Reader's Digest Searches for a Contemporary Niche". The New York Times.
  13. Liz Vaccariello (December 2012). "Editor's Note". Reader's Digest.
  14. "Filings for Readers Digest Association, Inc". EDGAR System. Securities and Exchange Commission. Retrieved February 21, 2013.
  15. Reader's Digest Association – News & Releases
  16. "Reader's Digest Plans Chapter 11 Filing". The New York Times. August 17, 2009. Retrieved May 22, 2010.
  17. Kevin Reed (April 12, 2010). "Moore Stephens Sells Reader's Digest to Jon Moulton Business". Accountancy Age.
  18. Michael J. De La Merced (February 18, 2013). "Reader's Digest Files for Bankruptcy, Again". The New York Times.
  19. Joanne Sharp, Special to (February 20, 2013). "Rise and fall of Reader's Digest - CNN.com". CNN. Retrieved June 1, 2017.
  20. "Yours for a pound: The firms sold on the cheap". BBC News. May 25, 2018. Retrieved May 25, 2018.
  21. Milidragovic, Visnja (April 13, 2012). "From direct marketing tool to digital niche product: a Reader’s Digest Sweepstakes case study" SFU.
  22. "21 Jan 1962, 36 - The Altus Times-Democrat at Newspapers.com" . Newspapers.com. Retrieved September 10, 2022.
  23. Ketzer, Alex (August 25, 2022). "Completed by Perception". VAN Magazine. Retrieved September 10, 2022.
  24. Morris, Genene (March 8, 2001). "Reader's Digest Enters Into Multi-State Sweepstakes Agreement Agrees to Pay $6 Million in Consumer Restitution" (Press release). New Jersey Department of Law and Public Safety Division of Consumer Affairs. Archived from the original on August 21, 2009. Retrieved June 22, 2009.
  25. Attorney General's Press Office (March 8, 2001). "Attorney General Lockyer Announces Settlement With the Reader's Digest Association to Provide Improved Sweepstakes Disclosures" (Press release). State of California Department of Justice Office of the Attorney General. Retrieved June 22, 2009.
  26. Schultz, Ray (March 8, 2001). "Reader's Digest Agrees to Sweeps Restrictions". Direct Mag. Retrieved June 22, 2009.
  27. "Reader's Digest Mailshot Probed". BBC News. June 7, 2008. Retrieved September 14, 2010.
  28. "ASA Adjudication on The Readers Digest Association Ltd". Advertising Standards Authority. June 7, 2008. Archived from the original on December 24, 2012. Retrieved September 14, 2010.
  29. "Reader's Digest Timeline". Phx.corporate-ir.net. March 3, 2007. Archived from the original on October 21, 2007. Retrieved June 22, 2009.
  30. "SanomaWSOY Corporation". Reference for Business. Retrieved April 23, 2015.
  31. "مجلة " المختار " تعاود الصدور من الرياض - منتدى نغم". Archived from the original on June 26, 2010.
  32. 1 2 3 Indian version of Reader's Digest.
  33. Staff details, Indian version.
  34. Unterwegs in die Welt von Morgen on the Internet Speculative Fiction Database

Bibliography