STOL

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A Zenair CH 701 STOL light aircraft 20120902 Zenair STOL CH 701 Krakow 8579.jpg
A Zenair CH 701 STOL light aircraft

A short takeoff and landing (STOL) aircraft has short runway requirements for takeoff and landing. Many STOL-designed aircraft also feature various arrangements for use on runways with harsh conditions (such as high altitude or ice). STOL aircraft, including those used in scheduled passenger airline operations, have also been operated from STOLport airfields which feature short runways.

Contents

Design considerations

GAF Nomad of the Philippine Air Force 87 GAF Nomad 22SL Philippine Air Force (7838564596).jpg
GAF Nomad of the Philippine Air Force

Many fixed-wing STOL aircraft are bush planes, though some, like the de Havilland Canada Dash-7, are designed for use on prepared airstrips; likewise, many STOL aircraft are taildraggers, though there are exceptions like the PAC P-750 XSTOL, the Quest Kodiak, the de Havilland Canada DHC-6 Twin Otter and the Peterson 260SE. Autogyros also have STOL capability, needing a short ground roll to get airborne, but capable of a near-zero ground roll when landing.[ citation needed ]

Runway length requirement is a function of the square of the minimum flying speed (stall speed), and most design effort is spent on reducing this number. For takeoff, large power/weight ratios and low drag help the plane to accelerate for flight. The landing run is minimized by strong brakes, low landing speed, thrust reversers or spoilers (less common). Overall STOL performance is set by the length of runway needed to land or take off, whichever is longer.[ citation needed ]

Fieseler Storch with German Luftwaffe markings Fieseler Storch (7582553016).jpg
Fieseler Storch with German Luftwaffe markings

Of equal importance to short ground run is the ability to clear obstacles, such as hills, on both take off and landing. For takeoff, large power/weight ratios and low drag result in a high rate of climb required to clear obstacles. For landing, high drag allows the aeroplane to descend steeply to the runway without building excess speed resulting in a longer ground run. Drag is increased by use of flaps (devices on the wings) and by a forward slip (causing the aeroplane to fly somewhat sideways through the air to increase drag).[ citation needed ]

Normally, a STOL aircraft will have a large wing for its weight. These wings often use aerodynamic devices like flaps, slots, slats, and vortex generators. [1] Typically, designing an aircraft for excellent STOL performance reduces maximum speed, but does not reduce payload lifting ability. The payload is critical, because many small, isolated communities rely on STOL aircraft as their only transportation link to the outside world for passengers or cargo; examples include many communities in the Canadian north and Alaska.[ citation needed ]

Most STOL aircraft can land either on- or off-airport. Typical off-airport landing areas include snow or ice (using skis), fields or gravel riverbanks (often using special fat, low-pressure tundra tires), and water (using floats): these areas are often extremely short and obstructed by tall trees or hills. Wheel skis and amphibious floats combine wheels with skis or floats, allowing the choice of landing on snow/water or a prepared runway.[ citation needed ]

STOL kits

Micro Dynamics vortex generators mounted on the wing of a Cessna 182K VortexGenerators01.JPG
Micro Dynamics vortex generators mounted on the wing of a Cessna 182K

A number of aircraft modification companies offer STOL kits for improving short field performance.

STOLport

A STOLport is an airport designed with STOL operations in mind, normally having a short single runway. [11] [12]

STOLports are not common but can be found, for example, at London City Airport in London, United Kingdom. Some sparsely populated countries have several, e.g. Norway and Greenland. There were also several STOLports in the United States that were used for scheduled passenger airline operations but are now no longer in existence.

CESTOL

Cruise-efficient short takeoff and landing (CESTOL), is an aircraft with both very short runway requirements and high cruise speeds (greater than Mach 0.8). [1] [13] [14]

Definitions

Many different definitions of STOL have been used by different authorities and nations at various times and for a myriad of regulatory and military purposes. [15] Some accepted definitions of STOL include:

short takeoff and landing: (DOD/NATO) The ability of an aircraft to clear a 50-foot (15 meters) obstacle within 1,500 feet (450 meters) of commencing takeoff or in landing, to stop within 1,500 feet (450 meters) after passing over a 50-foot (15 meters) obstacle. Also called STOL.

Department of Defense Dictionary of Military and Associated Terms (JP 1-02) [16]

"STOL (Short Take Off and Landing). STOL performance of an aircraft is the ability of aircraft to take off and clear a 50-foot obstruction in a distance of 1,500 feet from beginning the takeoff run. It must also be able to stop within 1,500 feet after crossing a 50-foot obstacle on landing."

Dictionary of Aeronautical Terms [17]

"An aircraft that, at some weight within its approved operating weight, is capable of operating from a STOL runway in compliance with the applicable STOL characteristics and airworthiness, operations, noise, and pollution standards" and ""aircraft" means any machine capable of deriving support in the atmosphere"

Transport Canada [18] [19] and Arizona Department of Transportation [20]

"A STOL aircraft is an aircraft with a certified performance capability to execute approaches along a glideslope of 6 degrees or steeper and to execute missed approaches at a climb gradient sufficient to clear a 15:1 missed approach surface at sea level... A STOL runway is one which is specifically designated and marked for STOL aircraft operations, and designed and maintained to specified standards."

US Federal Aviation Administration [21]

"Heavier-than-air craft that cannot take off and land vertically, but can operate within areas substantially more confined than those normally required by aircraft of the same size. Derived from short takeoff and landing aircraft."

McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific & Technical Terms [22]

"short takeoff and landing aircraft (STOL), heavier-than-air craft, capable of rising from and descending to the ground with only a short length of runway, but incapable of doing so vertically. The precise definition of an STOL aircraft has not been universally agreed upon. However, it has been tentatively defined as an aircraft that upon taking off needs only 1,000 ft (305 m) of runway to clear a 50-ft (15-m) obstacle at the end of that distance and upon landing can clear the same obstacle and then land within 1,000 ft."

Columbia Encyclopedia [15]

"The STOL mode of flight is one during which an airplane taking off or landing is operated at climb-out and approach speeds lower than the conventionally accepted margins of airspeed above the power-off stalling speed of the airplane."

Lieutenant Colonel Walter P. Maiersperger, USAF (Ret) [23]

Additionally some aircraft manufacturers market their products as STOL, without providing evidence that the aircraft meets any accepted definition. [24]

See also

Related Research Articles

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De Havilland Canada Dash 8 Regional turboprop airliner family by De Havilland Canada, formerly Bombardier

The De Havilland Canada DHC-8, commonly known as the Dash 8, is a series of turboprop-powered regional airliners, introduced by de Havilland Canada (DHC) in 1984. DHC was later bought by Boeing in 1988, then by Bombardier in 1992; then by Longview Aviation Capital in 2019, reviving the de Havilland Canada brand. Powered by two Pratt & Whitney Canada PW100s, it was developed from the Dash 7 with improved cruise performance and lower operational costs, but without STOL performance. Three sizes were offered: initially the 37–40 seat -100 until 2005 and the more powerful -200 from 1995, the stretched 50–56 seats -300 from 1989, both until 2009, and the 68–90 seats -400 from 1999, still in production. The Q Series are post-1997 variants fitted with active noise control systems.

de Havilland Canada DHC-6 Twin Otter Utility transport aircraft family by de Havilland Canada

The de Havilland Canada DHC-6 Twin Otter, currently marketed as the Viking Air DHC-6 Twin Otter, is a Canadian 19-passenger STOL utility aircraft developed by de Havilland Canada and currently produced by Viking Air. The aircraft's fixed tricycle undercarriage, STOL capabilities, twin turboprop engines and high rate of climb have made it a successful commuter passenger airliner as well as a cargo and medical evacuation aircraft. In addition, the Twin Otter has been popular with commercial skydiving operations, and is used by the United States Army Parachute Team and the United States Air Force's 98th Flying Training Squadron.

de Havilland Canada DHC-3 Otter Utility aircraft family

The de Havilland Canada DHC-3 Otter is a single-engined, high-wing, propeller-driven, short take-off and landing (STOL) aircraft developed by de Havilland Canada. It was conceived to be capable of performing the same roles as the earlier and highly successful Beaver, including as a bush plane, but is overall a larger aircraft.

de Havilland Canada DHC-2 Beaver Single engine STOL aircraft

The de Havilland Canada DHC-2 Beaver is a single-engined high-wing propeller-driven short takeoff and landing (STOL) aircraft developed and manufactured by de Havilland Canada. It has been primarily operated as a bush plane and has been used for a wide variety of utility roles, such as cargo and passenger hauling, aerial application, and civil aviation duties.

Flap (aeronautics) aircraft wing device used to increase lift by extending the trailing edge of the wing

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de Havilland Canada Dash 7 airliner family by de Havilland Canada

The de Havilland Canada DHC-7, popularly known as the Dash 7, is a turboprop-powered regional airliner with short take-off and landing (STOL) performance. It first flew in 1975 and remained in production until 1988 when the parent company, de Havilland Canada, was purchased by Boeing and was later sold to Bombardier. Bombardier sold the type certificate for the aircraft design to Victoria-based manufacturer Viking Air in 2006.

Peterson 260SE

The Peterson 260SE is a STOL conversion of a Cessna 182 airframe made by Todd Peterson. The conversion consists of the addition of a high-lift canard and a 260 hp (194 kW) engine.

Leading-edge cuff

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de Havilland Canada DHC-5 Buffalo Short takeoff and landing utility transport turboprop aircraft

The de Havilland Canada DHC-5 Buffalo is a short takeoff and landing (STOL) utility transport turboprop aircraft developed from the earlier piston-powered DHC-4 Caribou. The aircraft has extraordinary STOL performance and is able to take off in distances much shorter than even most light aircraft can manage.

A STOLport or STOLPORT was an airport designed with STOL operations in mind, usually for an aircraft class of certain weight and size. The term STOLport did not appear to be in common usage as of 2008 although was commonly used by pilots flying into Biggin Hill during 1986/87 when the London City airport was opened restricting approaches and ceilings to the north of Biggin. A STOLport normally had a short single runway, in general shorter than 1,500 metres (5,000 ft). STOLports only accepted certain types of aircraft, often only smaller propeller aircraft, and often with limits on the amount of fuel that can be taken. In the United States, short runway facilities are simply known as airports and the term STOLport has not been commonly used since the early 1970s.

Metro Airlines

Metro Airlines, originally Houston Metro Airlines, was a commuter airline that was originally headquartered in Houston, Texas, United States,. Metro subsequently moved its headquarters to north Texas. The airline had an operational base located on the grounds of Dallas-Fort Worth International Airport and also had offices on the airport property and in Grapevine, Texas. Metro evolved into an airline holding company with the acquisition or creation of a number of different airlines, including as the banner carrier operating feeder services for Eastern Airlines as Eastern Metro Express which was based in Atlanta, GA and Metroflight Airlines which operated American Eagle service from the Dallas/Ft. Worth Airport. The company filed for bankruptcy in 1993, and the assets were acquired by AMR Simmons Airlines.

Walt Disney World Airport, also known as Lake Buena Vista Airport and Lake Buena Vista STOLport, is a former small airfield owned by The Walt Disney Company, located within Walt Disney World, just east of the former Walt Disney World Speedway, in Bay Lake in Orange County, Florida, United States. When it was active it accommodated smaller commuter airliners such as the de Havilland Canada DHC-6 Twin Otter turboprop which had STOL capabilities and could operate from airfields with short runways with such airports being known as STOLports. It is no longer registered as an active airport by the FAA, ICAO and IATA and as of December 2017 serves Walt Disney World as a parking and storage lot.

Three-surface aircraft fixed-wing aircraft with a main central wing plus fore and aft surfaces

A three-surface aircraft or sometimes three-lifting-surface aircraft has a foreplane, a central wing and a tailplane. The central wing surface always provides lift and is usually the largest, while the functions of the fore and aft planes may vary between types and may include lift, control and/or stability.

Clear Lake City STOLport was owned by Houston Metro Airlines, a commuter air carrier. It was located adjacent to Clear Lake City on Texas State Highway 3 approximately two miles west of the NASA Johnson Space Center just southeast of Ellington Air Force Base.

References

  1. 1 2 "Powered Lift: Novel GTRI Design Would Let Commercial Jets Use Smaller Airports While Reducing Noise". Georgia Tech Research Institute . Retrieved 2010-10-28.
  2. Crosswinds S.T.O.L. Inc. (2011). "Crosswinds STOL Inc" . Retrieved 2011-02-23.
  3. Horton, Inc. "Description of the Horton STOL Kit" . Retrieved 2009-12-26.
  4. Horton, Inc. "Frequently Asked Questions About the Horton STOL Kit" . Retrieved 2009-12-26.
  5. Horton, Inc. "Horton STOL Kit Pricing" . Retrieved 2009-12-26.
  6. Micro AeroDynamics Inc (2009). "Micro Vortex Generators for Single and Twin Engine Aircraft" . Retrieved 2009-12-26.
  7. Sierra Industries (2007). "Sierra R/STOL High Lift Systems for Piston Engine Aircraft" . Retrieved 2009-12-26.
  8. Sierra Industries (2007). "Sierra R/STOL Performance Comparison Charts" . Retrieved 2009-12-26.
  9. Sierra Industries (2007). "Modifications - Sierra R/STOL High Lift Systems for Piston Engine Aircraft" . Retrieved 2009-12-26.
  10. "DHC-2 Beaver." Stolairus Retrieved: February 2, 2012.
  11. Starting STOL Time Magazine. Aug. 16, 1968.
  12. Stolport Manual Archived 2006-10-13 at the Wayback Machine (Doc 9150) International Civil Aviation Organization (ICAO)
  13. Hange, Craig E (2005-04-25). "Short Field Take-Off and Landing Performance as an Enabling Technology for a Greener, More Efficient Airspace System" (PDF). Ames Research Center, NASA . Retrieved 2010-10-28.
  14. "Novel Design". Aerospace Manufacturing and Design. May 2011. Retrieved 2011-05-08.
  15. 1 2 Columbia Encyclopedia. "short takeoff and landing aircraft" . Retrieved 2009-12-25.
  16. "Department of Defense Dictionary of Military and Associated Terms (JP 1-02)". United States Department of Defense . Archived from the original on 2011-06-05. Retrieved 2009-12-22.
  17. Crane, Dale: Dictionary of Aeronautical Terms, third edition, page 492. Aviation Supplies & Academics, 1997. ISBN   1-56027-287-2
  18. Transport Canada (November 2009). "Glossary for Pilots and Air Traffic Services Personnel (TP 1158E)" . Retrieved 2009-12-15.
  19. Transport Canada (September 2009). "Aeronautics Act - November 2007 Consolidation" . Retrieved 2009-12-25.
  20. Arizona Department of Transportation. "Appendix B" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on March 14, 2009. Retrieved 2009-12-15.
  21. US House of Representatives Committee of Science and Technology (July 1984). "Statement of John Kern, Deputy Director of Flight Operations, FAA" (PDF). Retrieved 2009-12-15.
  22. McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific & Technical Terms (2003). "STOL aircraft" . Retrieved 2009-12-25.
  23. Maiersperger, Walter P., Lieutenant Colonel, USAF (Ret) (March–April 1968). "What is STOL?" . Retrieved 2009-12-25.
  24. Fisher Flying Products. "Horizon 1" . Retrieved 2009-10-27.
External video
Nuvola apps kaboodle.svg STOL Ultralight taking off and landing