Scuttling of the German fleet at Scapa Flow

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Scuttling of the German fleet at Scapa Flow
SMS Bayern sinking.jpg
Bayern sinking by the stern
Date21 June 1919
Location
Coordinates: 58°53.5′N3°11′W / 58.8917°N 3.183°W / 58.8917; -3.183
Result Majority of fleet sunk
Belligerents
Flag of the United Kingdom.svg  United Kingdom Flag of the German Empire.svg  Germany
Commanders and leaders
Naval Ensign of the United Kingdom.svg Sydney Fremantle War Ensign of Germany 1903-1918.svg Ludwig von Reuter
Units involved
First Battle Squadron High Seas Fleet
Casualties and losses
None
  • 9 killed
  • 16 wounded

The scuttling of the German fleet took place at the Royal Navy's base at Scapa Flow, in Scotland, after the First World War. The High Seas Fleet was interned there under the terms of the Armistice whilst negotiations took place over the fate of the ships. Fearing that all of the ships would be seized and divided amongst the allied powers Admiral Ludwig von Reuter decided to scuttle the fleet.

Royal Navy Maritime warfare branch of the United Kingdoms military

The Royal Navy (RN) is the United Kingdom's naval warfare force. Although warships were used by the English kings from the early medieval period, the first major maritime engagements were fought in the Hundred Years War against the Kingdom of France. The modern Royal Navy traces its origins to the early 16th century; the oldest of the UK's armed services, it is known as the Senior Service.

Scapa Flow bay

Scapa Flow is a body of water in the Orkney Islands, Scotland, sheltered by the islands of Mainland, Graemsay, Burray, South Ronaldsay and Hoy. Its sheltered waters have been used by ships since prehistory and it has played an important role in travel, trade and conflict throughout the centuries – especially during both World Wars.

World War I 1914–1918 global war originating in Europe

World War I, also known as the First World War or the Great War, was a global war originating in Europe that lasted from 28 July 1914 to 11 November 1918. Contemporaneously described as "the war to end all wars", it led to the mobilisation of more than 70 million military personnel, including 60 million Europeans, making it one of the largest wars in history. It is also one of the deadliest conflicts in history, with an estimated nine million combatants and seven million civilian deaths as a direct result of the war, while resulting genocides and the 1918 influenza pandemic caused another 50 to 100 million deaths worldwide.

Contents

The scuttling was carried out on 21 June 1919. Intervening British guard ships were able to beach a number of the ships, but 52 of the 74 interned vessels sank. Many of the wrecks were salvaged over the next two decades and were towed away for scrapping. Those that remain are popular diving sites.

Scuttling act of deliberately sinking a ship by allowing water to flow into the hull

Scuttling is the deliberate sinking of a ship by allowing water to flow into the hull. This can be achieved in several ways—seacocks or hatches can be opened to the sea, or holes may be ripped into the hull with brute force or with explosives. Scuttling may be performed to dispose of an abandoned, old, or captured vessel; to prevent the vessel from becoming a navigation hazard; as an act of self-destruction to prevent the ship from being captured by an enemy force ; as a blockship to restrict navigation through a channel or within a harbor; to provide an artificial reef for divers and marine life; or to alter the flow of rivers.

A guard ship is a warship assigned as a stationary guard in a port or harbour, as opposed to a coastal patrol boat which serves its protective role at sea.

Marine salvage is the process of recovering a ship and its cargo after a shipwreck or other maritime casualty. Salvage may encompass towing, re-floating a vessel, or effecting repairs to a ship. Today, protecting the coastal environment from spillage of oil or other contaminants is a high priority. Before the invention of radio, salvage services would be given to a stricken vessel by any ship that happened to be passing by. Nowadays, most salvage is carried out by specialist salvage firms with dedicated crew and equipment.

Background

The signing of the Armistice on 11 November 1918, at Compiègne, France, effectively ended the First World War. The Allied powers agreed that Germany's U-boat fleet should be surrendered without the possibility of return, but were unable to agree upon a course of action regarding the German surface fleet. The Americans suggested that the ships be interned in a neutral port until a final decision was reached, but the two countries that were approached Norway and Spain both refused. [1] Admiral Rosslyn Wemyss suggested that the fleet be interned at Scapa Flow with a skeleton crew of German sailors, and guarded in the interim by the Grand Fleet. [1]

Compiègne Subprefecture and commune in Hauts-de-France, France

Compiègne is a commune in the Oise department in northern France. It is located on the Oise River. Its inhabitants are called Compiégnois.

Allies of World War I group of countries that fought against the Central Powers in World War I

The Allies of World War I or Entente Powers is the term commonly used for the coalition that opposed the Central Powers of Germany, Austria-Hungary, the Ottoman Empire and Bulgaria during the First World War (1914–1918).

U-boat German submarine of the First or Second World War

U-boat is an anglicised version of the German word U-Boot[ˈuːboːt](listen), a shortening of Unterseeboot, literally "underseaboat." While the German term refers to any submarine, the English one refers specifically to military submarines operated by Germany, particularly in the First and Second World Wars. Although at times they were efficient fleet weapons against enemy naval warships, they were most effectively used in an economic warfare role and enforcing a naval blockade against enemy shipping. The primary targets of the U-boat campaigns in both wars were the merchant convoys bringing supplies from Canada and other parts of the British Empire, and from the United States to the United Kingdom and to the Soviet Union and the Allied territories in the Mediterranean. German submarines also destroyed Brazilian merchant ships during World War II, causing Brazil to declare war on the Axis powers in 1944.

The terms were transmitted to Germany on 12 November 1918, instructing them to make the High Seas Fleet ready to sail by 18 November, or the Allies would occupy Heligoland. [1]

High Seas Fleet Naval battle during WWI

The High Seas Fleet (Hochseeflotte) was the battle fleet of the German Imperial Navy and saw action during the First World War. The formation was created in February 1907, when the Home Fleet (Heimatflotte) was renamed as the High Seas Fleet. Admiral Alfred von Tirpitz was the architect of the fleet; he envisioned a force powerful enough to challenge the Royal Navy's predominance. Kaiser Wilhelm II, the German Emperor, championed the fleet as the instrument by which he would seize overseas possessions and make Germany a global power. By concentrating a powerful battle fleet in the North Sea while the Royal Navy was required to disperse its forces around the British Empire, Tirpitz believed Germany could achieve a balance of force that could seriously damage British naval hegemony. This was the heart of Tirpitz's "Risk Theory," which held that Britain would not challenge Germany if the latter's fleet posed such a significant threat to its own.

Heligoland Place in Schleswig-Holstein, Germany

Heligoland is a small archipelago in the North Sea. Today a part of the German state of Schleswig-Holstein, the islands have historically been possessions of Denmark and later the United Kingdom.

John Lavery's painting of the German delegates arriving on HMS Queen Elizabeth The Arrival of the German Delegates on HMS Queen Elizabeth 1918 by John Lavery.jpg
John Lavery's painting of the German delegates arriving on HMS Queen Elizabeth

On the night of 15 November, Rear-Admiral Hugo Meurer, the representative of Admiral Franz von Hipper, met Admiral David Beatty aboard Beatty's flagship, HMS Queen Elizabeth. Beatty presented Meurer with the terms, which were expanded at a second meeting the following day. The U-boats were to surrender to Rear-Admiral Reginald Tyrwhitt at Harwich, under the supervision of the Harwich Force. [1] The surface fleet was to sail to the Firth of Forth and surrender to Beatty. They would then be led to Scapa Flow and interned, pending the outcome of the peace negotiations. Meurer asked for an extension to the deadline, aware that the sailors were still in a mutinous mood (which earlier led to the Wilhelmshaven mutiny), and that the officers might have difficulty in getting them to obey orders. Meurer eventually signed the terms after midnight. [1]

Hugo Meurer German admiral

Hugo Meurer was a vice-admiral of the Kaiserliche Marine. Meurer was the German naval officer who handled the negotiations of the internment of the German fleet in November 1918 at the end of the First World War.

Franz von Hipper German Imperial Navy admiral

Franz Ritter von Hipper was an admiral in the German Imperial Navy. Franz von Hipper joined the German Navy in 1881 as an officer cadet. He commanded several torpedo boat units and served as watch officer aboard several warships, as well as Kaiser Wilhelm II's yacht SMY Hohenzollern. Hipper commanded several cruisers in the reconnaissance forces before being appointed commander of the I Scouting Group in October 1913. He held this position until 1918, when he succeeded Admiral Reinhard Scheer as commander of the High Seas Fleet.

David Beatty, 1st Earl Beatty 19th and 20th-century Royal Navy officer

Admiral of the Fleet David Richard Beatty, 1st Earl Beatty was a Royal Navy officer. After serving in the Mahdist War and then the response to the Boxer Rebellion, he commanded the 1st Battlecruiser Squadron at the Battle of Jutland in 1916, a tactically indecisive engagement after which his aggressive approach was contrasted with the caution of his commander Admiral Sir John Jellicoe. He is remembered for his comment at Jutland that "There seems to be something wrong with our bloody ships today", after two of his ships exploded. Later in the war he succeeded Jellicoe as Commander in Chief of the Grand Fleet, in which capacity he received the surrender of the German High Seas Fleet at the end of the war. He then followed Jellicoe's path a second time, serving as First Sea Lord—a position that Beatty held longer than any other First Sea Lord. While First Sea Lord, he was involved in negotiating the Washington Naval Treaty of 1922 in which it was agreed that the United States, Britain and Japan should set their navies in a ratio of 5:5:3, with France and Italy maintaining smaller ratio fleets of 1.75 each.

Surrender of the fleet

HMS Cardiff leading the fleet into the Firth of Forth HMS Cardiff leading the German high seas fleet.jpg
HMS Cardiff leading the fleet into the Firth of Forth
Emden, Frankfurt and Bremse entering Scapa Flow Entering Scapa Flow.jpg
Emden, Frankfurt and Bremse entering Scapa Flow

The first craft to be surrendered were the U-boats, which began to arrive at Harwich on 20 November 1918; 176 were eventually handed over. Hipper refused to lead his fleet to the surrender, delegating the task to Rear-Admiral Ludwig von Reuter. [1] The German fleet was met by the light cruiser Cardiff on the morning of 21 November, and led to the rendezvous with over 370 ships of the Grand Fleet and other allied navies. There were 70 German ships in total; the battleship König and the light cruiser Dresden had engine trouble and had to be left behind. The destroyer V30 struck a mine while crossing, and sank. [1]

Ludwig von Reuter German admiral

Hans Hermann Ludwig von Reuter was a German admiral who commanded the High Seas Fleet when it was interned at Scapa Flow at the end of World War I. On 21 June 1919 he ordered the scuttling of the German fleet in Scapa Flow to prevent the British from seizing the ships.

A light cruiser is a type of small- or medium-sized warship. The term is a shortening of the phrase "light armored cruiser", describing a small ship that carried armor in the same way as an armored cruiser: a protective belt and deck. Prior to this smaller cruisers had been of the protected cruiser model, possessing armored decks only. While lighter and smaller than other contemporary ships they were still true cruisers, retaining the extended radius of action and self-sufficiency to act independently across the world. Through their history they served in a variety of roles, primarily as convoy escorts and destroyer command ships, but also as scouts and fleet support vessels for battle fleets.

HMS <i>Cardiff</i> (D58)

HMS Cardiff was a C-class light cruiser built for the Royal Navy during World War I. She was one of the five ships of the Ceres sub-class and spent most of her career as a flagship. Assigned to the Grand Fleet during the war, the ship participated in the Second Battle of Heligoland Bight in late 1917. Cardiff was briefly deployed to the Baltic in late 1918 supporting anti-Bolshevik forces during the British campaign in the Baltic during the Russian Civil War.

The German ships were escorted into the Firth of Forth, where they anchored. Beatty signalled them:

The German flag will be hauled down at sunset today and will not be hoisted again without permission. [1] [2]

The fleet was then moved between 25 and 27 November to Scapa Flow; the destroyers to Gutter Sound and the battleships and cruisers to the north and west of the island of Cava. [3] Eventually, a total of 74 ships were interned there, König and Dresden having arrived on 6 December accompanied by the destroyer V129, which replaced the sunken V30. The last ship to arrive was the battleship Baden on 9 January 1919. [4] Initially, the interned ships were guarded by the Battle Cruiser Force (later reduced to the Battle Cruiser Squadron), commanded in succession by Vice-Admiral Pakenham, Rear-Admiral Oliver and Rear-Admiral Keyes. On 1 May 1919, Vice-Admiral Leveson and the Second Battle Squadron of the Atlantic Fleet took over guard duties, and were succeeded on 18 May by Vice-Admiral Sir Sydney Fremantle and the First Battle Squadron. [5]

In captivity

Internment at Scapa Flow on 25 March 1919 Internment at Scapa Flow.svg
Internment at Scapa Flow on 25 March 1919
The fleet at Scapa Flow in November 1918 Fleet in Scapa Flow.jpg
The fleet at Scapa Flow in November 1918

The naval historian Arthur Marder described the state of affairs in the German ships during the internment as "one of complete demoralization". He identified four reasons that exacerbated the situation: lack of discipline, poor food, lack of recreation and slow postal service. The cumulative result of these problems created "indescribable filth in some of the ships". [6] On 29 November the Second-in-Command of the Grand Fleet, Admiral Sir Charles Madden, wrote to his brother-in-law and former superior Lord Jellicoe that, "All proposed orders are considered and counter-signed by the men's committee before they are executed and then they are carried out as convenient". When visiting an interned ship the German officers were reported to have been "dumb with shame". [7] Food was sent from Germany twice a month but was monotonous and not of good quality. Catching fish and seagulls provided a dietary supplement and some recreation. A large amount of brandy was also sent over. Recreation for the men was limited to their ships, as the British refused to allow any of the interned sailors to go ashore or visit any other German ships. British officers and men were only allowed to visit on official business. [8] Outgoing post to Germany was censored from the beginning, and later incoming post also. German seamen were granted 300 cigarettes a month or 75 cigars. There were German doctors in the interned fleet but no dentists, and the British refused to provide dental care. [9] [10]

Command of the interned ships was exercised through Rear-Admiral Reuter, flying his flag in the battleship Friedrich der Grosse. He had a British drifter at his disposal for visiting ships and issuing written orders on urgent business, and his staff was occasionally allowed to visit other ships to arrange repatriation of officers and men. [11] Reuter, whose health was poor, requested that his flag be transferred to the light cruiser Emden on 25 March after he was repeatedly prevented from sleeping by the stomping on his cabin roof by a group of revolutionary sailors called the "Red Guard". [5] [9] Over seven months the number of men in his command was continually reduced from the 20,000 men who had sailed the ships over in November. 4,000 returned to Germany on 3 December, 6,000 on 6 December and 5,000 on 12 December, leaving 4,815, of whom approximately 100 were repatriated a month. [12]

German sailors fishing over the side of a destroyer Germans fishing.jpg
German sailors fishing over the side of a destroyer

Negotiations over the fate of the ships were under way at the Paris Peace Conference. The French and Italians each wanted a quarter of the ships. The British wanted them destroyed, since they knew that any redistribution would be detrimental to the proportional advantage in numbers they had compared to other navies. [9] Under Article XXXI of the Armistice the Germans were not permitted to destroy their ships. Both Admirals Beatty and Madden had approved plans to seize the German ships in case scuttling was attempted; Admirals Keyes and Leveson recommended that the ships be seized anyway and the crews interned ashore at Nigg Island, but their suggestions were not taken up. [13] Their concern was not without justification, for as early as January 1919, Reuter mentioned the possibility of scuttling the fleet to his chief of staff. [14] Having learned of the possible terms of the Treaty of Versailles in May 1919, he began to prepare detailed plans to scuttle his ships. [15] Admiral Erich Raeder later wrote that Reuter was informed that the fleet was to be scuttled at all costs. [16] A further reduction of crews with the departure of two transports to Germany on 18 June 1919 meant that Reuter was left with reliable men to carry out preparations. [17] On that day he sent out orders, paragraph 11 of which stated: "It is my intention to sink the ships only if the enemy should attempt to obtain possession of them without the assent of our government. Should our government agree in the peace to terms to the surrender of the ships, then the ships will be handed over, to the lasting disgrace of those who have placed us in this position." [17] His orders were sent to the interned ships on 18 June. [17]

In the meantime the signing of the Treaty of Versailles was scheduled for noon on 21 June 1919. [18] The First Battle Squadron prepared to board the German ships in force to check for signs that the fleet was preparing to scuttle. On 13 June Admiral Madden requested in person at the Admiralty a daily political appreciation from 17 June onwards so as to be prepared to take action, but as Madden related to Beatty shortly afterwards, "they had no reliable indication of the German attitude towards the peace terms". Admiral Fremantle submitted to Madden on 16 June a scheme for seizing the German ships at midnight of 21/22 June, after the treaty was meant to be signed. Madden approved the plan on 19 June, but only after he was informed that the deadline for signing the treaty was extended to 19:00 on 23 June and he neglected to officially inform Fremantle. [19] News of the extension was seen by Fremantle in a newspaper on the same day and he assumed it to be true. [19] He had been under orders from Madden for some time to exercise his battleships against torpedo attacks, which required good weather in order to recover the torpedoes. The weather on the night of 20 June was favourable so Fremantle ordered the First Battle Squadron to sea at 09:00 the next morning, 21 June. [19] The operation to seize the German ships was postponed until the night of his squadron's return to Scapa Flow on 23 June, after the deadline to sign the treaty had expired. [20] Fremantle later claimed that before he left Scapa he had unofficially informed Reuter that the armistice was still in effect. [21]

The fleet is scuttled

Around 10:00 a.m. on 21 June 1919, Reuter sent a flag signal ordering the fleet to stand by for the signal to scuttle. At about 11:20 the flag signal was sent: "To all Commanding Officers and the Leader of the Torpedo Boats. Paragraph Eleven of to-day's date. Acknowledge. Chief of the Interned Squadron." [22] The signal was repeated by semaphore and searchlights. [23] Scuttling began immediately: seacocks and flood valves were opened and internal water pipes smashed. [24] Portholes had already been loosened, watertight doors and condenser covers left open, and in some ships holes had been bored through bulkheads, all to facilitate the spread of water once scuttling began. [24] One German ship commander recorded that prior to 21 June, seacocks had been set on a hair turning and heavily lubricated, while large hammers had been placed besides valves. [25]

SMS Derfflinger sinking SMS Derfflinger scuttled.jpg
SMS Derfflinger sinking

There was no noticeable effect until noon, when Friedrich der Grosse began to list heavily to starboard and all the ships hoisted the Imperial German Ensign at their mainmasts. The crews then began to abandon ship. [26] The British naval forces left at Scapa Flow comprised three destroyers, one of which was under repair, seven trawlers and a number of drifters. [22] [23] Fremantle started receiving news of the scuttling at 12:20 and cancelled his squadron's exercise at 12:35, steaming at full speed back to Scapa Flow. He and a division of ships arrived at 14:30 in time to see only the large ships still afloat. He had radioed ahead to order all available craft to prevent the German ships sinking or beach them. [27] The last German ship to sink was the battlecruiser Hindenburg at 17:00, [23] by which time fifteen capital ships were sunk, and only Baden survived. Four light cruisers and thirty-two destroyers were sunk. Nine Germans were shot and killed and about sixteen wounded aboard their lifeboats rowing towards land. [28]

During the afternoon, 1,774 Germans were picked up and transported by battleships of the First Battle Squadron to Invergordon. [29] Fremantle had sent out a general order declaring that the Germans were to be treated as prisoners-of-war for having broken the armistice and they were destined for the prisoner-of-war camps at Nigg. Reuter and a number of his officers were brought onto the quarterdeck of HMS Revenge, where Fremantle – through an interpreter – denounced their actions as dishonourable while Reuter and his men looked on "with expressionless faces." [30] Admiral Fremantle subsequently remarked privately, "I could not resist feeling some sympathy for von Reuter, who had preserved his dignity when placed against his will in a highly unpleasant and invidious position." [31]

Reactions

SMS Seydlitz capsized Seydlitz capsized.jpg
SMS Seydlitz capsized
Only the upper works of SMS Hindenburg remained above the water SMS Hindenburg sunk.jpg
Only the upper works of SMS Hindenburg remained above the water

The French were disappointed that the German fleet was gone, having hoped to acquire at least some of the ships. [1] Admiral Wemyss privately remarked:

I look upon the sinking of the German fleet as a real blessing. It disposes, once and for all, the thorny question of the redistribution of these ships. [1]

Admiral Reinhard Scheer declared:

I rejoice. The stain of surrender has been wiped from the escutcheon of the German Fleet. The sinking of these ships has proved that the spirit of the fleet is not dead. This last act is true to the best traditions of the German Navy. [1]

Aftermath

Of the 74 German ships at Scapa Flow, 15 of the 16 capital ships, 5 of the 8 cruisers, and 32 of the 50 destroyers were sunk. [2] The remainder either remained afloat, or were towed to shallower waters and beached. The beached ships were later dispersed to the allied navies, but most of the sunken ships were initially left at the bottom of Scapa Flow, the cost of salvaging them being deemed to be not worth the potential returns, owing to the glut of scrap metal left after the end of the war, with plenty of obsolete warships having been broken up. [32] After complaints from locals that the wrecks were a hazard to navigation, a salvage company was formed in 1923, which raised four of the sunken destroyers.

Salvage work in progress on SMS Baden Salvage at Scapa Flow.jpg
Salvage work in progress on SMS Baden

At about this time, the entrepreneur Ernest Cox became involved. He bought 26 destroyers from the Admiralty for £250, as well as Seydlitz and Hindenburg. [32] He began operations to refloat the destroyers using an old German dry dock he purchased and subsequently modified. He was able to lift 24 of his 26 destroyers over the next year and a half, after which he began work on the larger vessels. He developed a new salvage technique whereby divers patched the holes in the submerged hulls, and then pumped air into them so they would rise to the surface, where they could then be towed to the breakers. [32] Using this technique, he refloated several of the ships. His methods were costly, however, and the final cost of raising Hindenburg ran to some £30,000. Industrial action and a coal strike in 1926 nearly brought operations to a halt, but Cox instead dug out the coal in the submerged Seydlitz, using it to power his machines until the end of the strike. [32] Salvaging Seydlitz also proved difficult, as the ship sank again during the first attempt to raise her, wrecking most of the salvage equipment. Undaunted, Cox tried again, ordering that when she was next raised, news cameras would be there to capture him witnessing the moment. The plan nearly backfired when Seydlitz was accidentally refloated while Cox was holidaying in Switzerland. Cox told the workers to sink her again, then returned to Scotland to be present as Seydlitz was duly refloated a third time. [32] Cox's company eventually raised 26 destroyers, two battlecruisers and five battleships. [32]

Cox sold his remaining interests to the Alloa Shipbreaking Company (later Metal Industries Group) and retired as the "man who bought a navy". [32] The latter company went on to raise a further five cruisers, battlecruisers, and battleships, before the outbreak of the Second World War brought operations to a halt. [33] The remaining wrecks lie in deeper waters, in depths up to 47 metres (154 ft), and there has been no economic incentive to attempt to raise them since. Minor salvage is still carried out to recover small pieces of steel. This low-background steel is used in the manufacture of radiation-sensitive devices, such as Geiger counters, as it is not contaminated with radioisotopes, having been produced prior to any chance of nuclear contamination. [33]

The seven wrecks that remain are scheduled under the Ancient Monuments and Archaeological Areas Act 1979. Divers are allowed to visit them but need a permit to do so. [34]

While the rebuilding of the German Army in the 1930s was based upon the combined myths of "invincibility on the battlefield" and the "stab in the back", the attitude and actions of the High Seas Fleet at Scapa Flow became a symbol of defiance for the new recruits and officers of the Kriegsmarine. [35]

The last living military witness to the scuttling of the fleet was Claude Choules, who died on 5 May 2011 aged 110. Choules was the last known living combat veteran of the First World War. [36]

An eyewitness account of the scuttling and the subsequent angry meeting between Reuter and Fremantle was published in 2015 by the family of Hugh David, who died in 1957. [37]

A tug alongside the scuttled G102 Tug alongside.jpg
A tug alongside the scuttled G102

List of ships

NameTypeSunk/BeachedFate [38]
Baden BattleshipBeachedTransferred to British control, sunk as a target in 1921
Bayern BattleshipSunk 14:30Salvaged September 1933
Friedrich der Grosse BattleshipSunk 12:16Salvaged 1937
Grosser Kurfürst BattleshipSunk 13:30Salvaged April 1938
Kaiser BattleshipSunk 13:15Salvaged March 1929
Kaiserin BattleshipSunk 14:00Salvaged May 1936
König BattleshipSunk 14:00Unsalvaged
König Albert BattleshipSunk 12:54Salvaged July 1935
Kronprinz Wilhelm BattleshipSunk 13:15Unsalvaged
Markgraf BattleshipSunk 16:45Unsalvaged
Prinzregent Luitpold BattleshipSunk 13:15Salvaged March 1929
Derfflinger BattlecruiserSunk 14:45Salvaged August 1939
Hindenburg BattlecruiserSunk 17:00Salvaged July 1930
Moltke BattlecruiserSunk 13:10Salvaged June 1927
Seydlitz BattlecruiserSunk 13:50Salvaged November 1929
Von der Tann BattlecruiserSunk 14:15Salvaged December 1930
Bremse CruiserSunk 14:30Salvaged November 1929
Brummer CruiserSunk 13:05Unsalvaged
Cöln CruiserSunk 13:50Unsalvaged
Dresden CruiserSunk 13:50Unsalvaged
Emden CruiserBeachedTransferred to French control, broken up in 1926
Frankfurt CruiserBeachedTransferred to American control, sunk as a target in 1921
Karlsruhe CruiserSunk 15:50Unsalvaged
Nürnberg CruiserBeachedTransferred to British control, sunk as a target in 1922
S32 DestroyerSunkSalvaged June 1925
S36 DestroyerSunkSalvaged April 1925
G38 DestroyerSunkSalvaged September 1924
G39 DestroyerSunkSalvaged July 1925
G40 DestroyerSunkSalvaged July 1925
V43 DestroyerBeachedTransferred to American control, sunk as a target in 1921
V44 DestroyerBeachedTransferred to British control, broken up in 1922
V45 DestroyerSunkSalvaged 1922
V46 DestroyerBeachedTransferred to French control, broken up in 1924
S49 DestroyerSunkSalvaged December 1924
S50 DestroyerSunkSalvaged October 1924
S51 DestroyerBeachedTransferred to British control, broken up in 1922
S52 DestroyerSunkSalvaged October 1924
S53 DestroyerSunkSalvaged August 1924
S54 DestroyerSunkPartially salvaged
S55 DestroyerSunkSalvaged August 1924
S56 DestroyerSunkSalvaged June 1925
S60 DestroyerBeachedTransferred to Japanese control, broken up in 1922
S65 DestroyerSunkSalvaged May 1922
V70 DestroyerSunkSalvaged August 1924
V73 DestroyerBeachedTransferred to British control, broken up in 1922
V78 DestroyerSunkSalvaged September 1925
V80 DestroyerBeachedTransferred to Japanese control, broken up in 1922
V81 DestroyerBeachedSunk on the way to the breakers
V82 DestroyerBeachedTransferred to British control, broken up in 1922
V83 DestroyerSunkSalvaged 1923
V86 DestroyerSunkSalvaged July 1925
V89 DestroyerSunkSalvaged December 1922
V91 DestroyerSunkSalvaged September 1924
G92 DestroyerBeachedTransferred to British control, broken up in 1922
V100 DestroyerBeachedTransferred to French control, broken up in 1921
G101 DestroyerSunkSalvaged April 1926
G102 DestroyerBeachedTransferred to American control, sunk as a target in 1921
G103 DestroyerSunkSalvaged September 1925
G104 DestroyerSunkSalvaged April 1926
B109 DestroyerSunkSalvaged March 1926
B110 DestroyerSunkSalvaged December 1925
B111 DestroyerSunkSalvaged March 1926
B112 DestroyerSunkSalvaged February 1926
V125 DestroyerBeachedTransferred to British control, broken up in 1922
V126 DestroyerBeachedTransferred to French control, broken up in 1925
V127 DestroyerBeachedTransferred to Japanese control, broken up in 1922
V128 DestroyerBeachedTransferred to British control, broken up in 1922
V129 DestroyerSunkSalvaged August 1925
S131 DestroyerSunkSalvaged August 1924
S132 DestroyerBeachedTransferred to American control, sunk in 1921
S136 DestroyerSunkSalvaged April 1925
S137 DestroyerBeachedTransferred to British control, broken up in 1922
S138 DestroyerSunkSalvaged May 1925
H145 DestroyerSunkSalvaged March 1925

See also

Footnotes

  1. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 Massie. Castles of Steel. pp. 778–788.
  2. 1 2 van der Vat. Standard of Power. p. 135.
  3. Marder. From the Dreadnought to Scapa Flow. V. p. 270.
  4. Massie. Castles of Steel. p. 783.
  5. 1 2 Marder. From the Dreadnought to Scapa Flow. V. p. 273.
  6. Marder. From the Dreadnought to Scapa Flow. V. pp. 271–272.
  7. Quoted in Marder. From the Dreadnought to Scapa Flow. V. p. 271.
  8. Marder. From the Dreadnought to Scapa Flow. V. p. 271.
  9. 1 2 3 Massie. Castles of Steel. p. 785.
  10. van der Vat. The Grand Scuttle. p. 138.
  11. Marder. From the Dreadnought to Scapa Flow. V. p. 272.
  12. Massie. Castles of Steel. p. 784.
  13. Marder. From the Dreadnought to Scapa Flow. V. p. 274.
  14. Reuter. Scapa Flow. p. 79.
  15. Ruge. Scapa Flow 1919. pp. 130–133.
  16. Raeder. My Life. p. 105.
  17. 1 2 3 van der Vat. The Grand Scuttle. p. 167.
  18. van der Vat. The Grand Scuttle. p. 168.
  19. 1 2 3 van der Vat. The Grand Scuttle. p. 163.
  20. van der Vat. The Grand Scuttle. p. 169.
  21. Fremantle. My Naval Career. p. 276.
  22. 1 2 Marder. From the Dreadnought to Scapa Flow. V. p. 280.
  23. 1 2 3 Massie. Castles of Steel. p. 787.
  24. 1 2 van der Vat. The Grand Scuttle. pp. 164–5.
  25. David Howarth, page 163 "The Dreadnoughts" ISBN   0-7054-0628-8
  26. van der Vat. The Grand Scuttle. p. 171.
  27. Marder. From the Dreadnought to Scapa Flow. V. p. 281.
  28. Marder. From the Dreadnought to Scapa Flow. V. p. 282.
  29. Massie. Castles of Steel. p. 788.
  30. Marder. From the Dreadnought to Scapa Flow. V. pp. 281–282.
  31. David Howarth, page 164 "The Dreadnoughts" ISBN   0-7054-0628-8
  32. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 Fine. Lost on the Ocean Floor. pp. 130–138.
  33. 1 2 Butler. Distant Victory. p. 229.
  34. Maritime and Coastguard Agency. "PROTECTED WRECKS IN THE UK: Wrecks designated as Maritime Scheduled Ancient Monuments".
  35. Humble, Richard (1972). Hitler's high seas fleet. Pan Books, p. 23. ISBN   978-0-345-09721-7
  36. Booth, Gary. "500 km by bike to demolish Albany". Navy News. Archived from the original on 2008-02-03. Retrieved 2007-07-06.
  37. Marek Pruszewicz (19 June 2015). "WW1: The letter that reveals a brutal day at Scapa Flow". BBC Magazine. Retrieved 19 June 2015.
  38. World War I Naval Combat. "List of Warships Scuttled at Scapa Flow".

Bibliography

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