Servomechanism

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In control engineering a servomechanism, sometimes shortened to servo, is an automatic device that uses error-sensing negative feedback to correct the action of a mechanism. [1] On displacement-controlled applications, it usually includes a built-in encoder or other position feedback mechanism to ensure the output is achieving the desired effect. [2]

Contents

The term correctly applies only to systems where the feedback or error-correction signals help control mechanical position, speed, attitude or any other measurable variables. [3] For example, an automotive power window control is not a servomechanism, as there is no automatic feedback that controls position—the operator does this by observation. By contrast a car's cruise control uses closed-loop feedback, which classifies it as a servomechanism.

Applications

Position control

Globe control valve with pneumatic actuator and "positioner". This is a servo which ensures the valve opens to the desired position regardless of friction Pl control valve.jpg
Globe control valve with pneumatic actuator and "positioner". This is a servo which ensures the valve opens to the desired position regardless of friction

A common type of servo provides position control. Commonly, servos are electric, hydraulic, or pneumatic. They operate on the principle of negative feedback, where the control input is compared to the actual position of the mechanical system as measured by some type of transducer at the output. Any difference between the actual and wanted values (an "error signal") is amplified (and converted) and used to drive the system in the direction necessary to reduce or eliminate the error. This procedure is one widely used application of control theory. Typical servos can give a rotary (angular) or linear output.

Speed control

Speed control via a governor is another type of servomechanism. The steam engine uses mechanical governors; another early application was to govern the speed of water wheels. Prior to World War II the constant speed propeller was developed to control engine speed for maneuvering aircraft. Fuel controls for gas turbine engines employ either hydromechanical or electronic governing.

Others

Positioning servomechanisms were first used in military fire-control and marine navigation equipment. Today servomechanisms are used in automatic machine tools, satellite-tracking antennas, remote control airplanes, automatic navigation systems on boats and planes, and antiaircraft-gun control systems. Other examples are fly-by-wire systems in aircraft which use servos to actuate the aircraft's control surfaces, and radio-controlled models which use RC servos for the same purpose. Many autofocus cameras also use a servomechanism to accurately move the lens. A hard disk drive has a magnetic servo system with sub-micrometer positioning accuracy. In industrial machines, servos are used to perform complex motion, in many applications.

Servomotor

Industrial servomotor
The grey/green cylinder is the brush-type DC motor. The black section at the bottom contains the planetary reduction gear, and the black object on top of the motor is the optical rotary encoder for position feedback. Servomotor.jpg
Industrial servomotor
The grey/green cylinder is the brush-type DC motor. The black section at the bottom contains the planetary reduction gear, and the black object on top of the motor is the optical rotary encoder for position feedback.
Small R/C servo mechanism.
1. electric motor
2. position feedback potentiometer
3. reduction gear
4. actuator arm Servo.jpg
Small R/C servo mechanism.
1. electric motor
2. position feedback potentiometer
3. reduction gear
4. actuator arm

A servomotor is a specific type of motor that is combined with a rotary encoder or a potentiometer to form a servomechanism. This assembly may in turn form part of another servomechanism. A potentiometer provides a simple analog signal to indicate position, while an encoder provides position and usually speed feedback, which by the use of a PID controller allow more precise control of position and thus faster achievement of a stable position (for a given motor power). Potentiometers are subject to drift when the temperature changes whereas encoders are more stable and accurate.

Servomotors are used for both high-end and low-end applications. On the high end are precision industrial components that use a rotary encoder. On the low end are inexpensive radio control servos (RC servos) used in radio-controlled models which use a free-running motor and a simple potentiometer position sensor with an embedded controller. The term servomotor generally refers to a high-end industrial component while the term servo is most often used to describe the inexpensive devices that employ a potentiometer. Stepper motors are not considered to be servomotors, although they too are used to construct larger servomechanisms. Stepper motors have inherent angular positioning, owing to their construction, and this is generally used in an open-loop manner without feedback. They are generally used for medium-precision applications.

RC servos are used to provide actuation for various mechanical systems such as the steering of a car, the control surfaces on a plane, or the rudder of a boat. Due to their affordability, reliability, and simplicity of control by microprocessors, they are often used in small-scale robotics applications. A standard RC receiver (or a microcontroller) sends pulse-width modulation (PWM) signals to the servo. The electronics inside the servo translate the width of the pulse into a position. When the servo is commanded to rotate, the motor is powered until the potentiometer reaches the value corresponding to the commanded position.

History

Power-assisted ship steering systems were early users of servomechanisms to ensure the rudder moved to the desired position. Scross helmsman.jpg
Power-assisted ship steering systems were early users of servomechanisms to ensure the rudder moved to the desired position.

James Watt's steam engine governor is generally considered the first powered feedback system. The windmill fantail is an earlier example of automatic control, but since it does not have an amplifier or gain, it is not usually considered a servomechanism.

The first feedback position control device was the ship steering engine, used to position the rudder of large ships based on the position of the ship's wheel. John McFarlane Gray was a pioneer. His patented design was used on the SS Great Eastern in 1866. Joseph Farcot may deserve equal credit for the feedback concept, with several patents between 1862 and 1868. [4]

The telemotor was invented around 1872 by Andrew Betts Brown, allowing elaborate mechanisms between the control room and the engine to be greatly simplified. [5] Steam steering engines had the characteristics of a modern servomechanism: an input, an output, an error signal, and a means for amplifying the error signal used for negative feedback to drive the error towards zero. The Ragonnet power reverse mechanism was a general purpose air or steam-powered servo amplifier for linear motion patented in 1909. [6]

Electrical servomechanisms were used as early as 1888 in Elisha Gray's Telautograph.

Electrical servomechanisms require a power amplifier. World War II saw the development of electrical fire-control servomechanisms, using an amplidyne as the power amplifier. Vacuum tube amplifiers were used in the UNISERVO tape drive for the UNIVAC I computer. The Royal Navy began experimenting with Remote Power Control (RPC) on HMS Champion in 1928 and began using RPC to control searchlights in the early 1930s. During WW2 RPC was used to control gun mounts and gun directors.

Modern servomechanisms use solid state power amplifiers, usually built from MOSFET or thyristor devices. Small servos may use power transistors.

The origin of the word is believed to come from the French "Le Servomoteur" or the slavemotor, first used by J. J. L. Farcot in 1868 to describe hydraulic and steam engines for use in ship steering. [7]

The simplest kind of servos use bang–bang control. More complex control systems use proportional control, PID control, and state space control, which are studied in modern control theory.

Types of performances

Servos can be classified by means of their feedback control systems: [8]

The servo bandwidth indicates the capability of the servo to follow rapid changes in the commanded input.

See also

Further reading

Related Research Articles

Amplifier electronic device/component that increases the strength of a signal

An amplifier, electronic amplifier or (informally) amp is an electronic device that can increase the power of a signal. It is a two-port electronic circuit that uses electric power from a power supply to increase the amplitude of a signal applied to its input terminals, producing a proportionally greater amplitude signal at its output. The amount of amplification provided by an amplifier is measured by its gain: the ratio of output voltage, current, or power to input. An amplifier is a circuit that has a power gain greater than one.

Feedback Process where information about current status is used to influence future status

Feedback occurs when outputs of a system are routed back as inputs as part of a chain of cause-and-effect that forms a circuit or loop. The system can then be said to feed back into itself. The notion of cause-and-effect has to be handled carefully when applied to feedback systems:

Simple causal reasoning about a feedback system is difficult because the first system influences the second and second system influences the first, leading to a circular argument. This makes reasoning based upon cause and effect tricky, and it is necessary to analyze the system as a whole.

Potentiometer Type of resistor, usually with three terminals

A potentiometer is a three-terminal resistor with a sliding or rotating contact that forms an adjustable voltage divider. If only two terminals are used, one end and the wiper, it acts as a variable resistor or rheostat.

Pulse-width modulation

Pulse-width modulation (PWM), or pulse-duration modulation (PDM), is a method of reducing the average power delivered by an electrical signal, by effectively chopping it up into discrete parts. The average value of voltage fed to the load is controlled by turning the switch between supply and load on and off at a fast rate. The longer the switch is on compared to the off periods, the higher the total power supplied to the load. Along with maximum power point tracking (MPPT), it is one of the primary methods of reducing the output of solar panels to that which can be utilized by a battery. PWM is particularly suited for running inertial loads such as motors, which are not as easily affected by this discrete switching, because their inertia causes them to react slowly. The PWM switching frequency has to be high enough not to affect the load, which is to say that the resultant waveform perceived by the load must be as smooth as possible.

Radio-controlled model

A radio-controlled model is a model that is steerable with the use of radio control. All types of model vehicles have had RC systems installed in them, including cars, boats, planes, and even helicopters and scale railway locomotives.

Servo may refer to:

In an open-loop controller, also called a non-feedback controller, the control action from the controller is independent of the "process output", which is the process variable that is being controlled. It does not use feedback to determine if its output has achieved the desired goal of the input command or process "set point".

Brushless DC electric motor Synchronous electric motor powered by an inverter

A brushless DC electric motor, also known as an electronically commutated motor or synchronous DC motor, is a synchronous motor using a direct current (DC) electric power supply. It uses an electronic closed loop controller to switch DC currents to the motor windings producing magnetic fields which effectively rotate in space and which the permanent magnet rotor follows. The controller adjusts the phase and amplitude of the DC current pulses to control the speed and torque of the motor. This control system is an alternative to the mechanical commutator (brushes) used in many conventional electric motors.

Synchro

A synchro is, in effect, a transformer whose primary-to-secondary coupling may be varied by physically changing the relative orientation of the two windings. Synchros are often used for measuring the angle of a rotating machine such as an antenna platform. In its general physical construction, it is much like an electric motor. The primary winding of the transformer, fixed to the rotor, is excited by an alternating current, which by electromagnetic induction, causes voltages to appear between the Y-connected secondary windings fixed at 120 degrees to each other on the stator. The voltages are measured and used to determine the angle of the rotor relative to the stator.

Chart recorder

A chart recorder is an electromechanical device that records an electrical or mechanical input trend onto a piece of paper. Chart recorders may record several inputs using different color pens and may record onto strip charts or circular charts. Chart recorders may be entirely mechanical with clockwork mechanisms, electro-mechanical with an electrical clockwork mechanism for driving the chart, or entirely electronic with no mechanical components at all.

Servomotor

A servomotor is a rotary actuator or linear actuator that allows for precise control of angular or linear position, velocity and acceleration. It consists of a suitable motor coupled to a sensor for position feedback. It also requires a relatively sophisticated controller, often a dedicated module designed specifically for use with servomotors.

Servo drive Electronic amplifier used to power electric servomechanisms

A servo drive is an electronic amplifier used to power electric servomechanisms.

Amplidyne

An amplidyne is an electromechanical amplifier invented prior to World War II by Ernst Alexanderson. It consists of an electric motor driving a DC generator. The signal to be amplified is applied to the generator's field winding, and its output voltage is an amplified copy of the field current. The amplidyne was used in industry in high power servo and control systems, to amplify low power control signals to control powerful electric motors, for example. It is now mostly obsolete.

An electrohydraulic servo valve (EHSV) is an electrically-operated valve that controls how hydraulic fluid is sent to an actuator. Servo valves are often used to control powerful hydraulic cylinders with a very small electrical signal. Servo valves can provide precise control of position, velocity, pressure, and force with good post-movement damping characteristics.

Mitchell Electronics Incorporated, founded in 1979, is a manufacturer of equipment to test and run servomotors, encoders and resolvers as well as various third-party electronic devices. Corporate headquarters are located in Athens, Ohio, which is also where manufacturing takes place. The company is an associate member of the Electrical Apparatus Service Association (EASA), an international electromechanical trade organization.

Servo control

Servo control is a method of controlling many types of RC/hobbyist servos by sending the servo a PWM signal, a series of repeating pulses of variable width where either the width of the pulse or the duty cycle of a pulse train determines the position to be achieved by the servo. The PWM signal might come from a radio control receiver to the servo or from common microcontrollers such as the Arduino.

Rotary actuator

A rotary actuator is an actuator that produces a rotary motion or torque.

Minor loop feedback is a classical method used to design stable robust linear feedback control systems using feedback loops around sub-systems within the overall feedback loop. The method is sometimes called minor loop synthesis in college textbooks, some government documents.

Servo (radio control)

Servos are small, cheap, mass-produced servomotors or other actuators used for radio control and small-scale robotics.

A torque amplifier is a mechanical device that amplifies the torque of a rotating shaft without affecting its rotational speed. It is mechanically related to the capstan seen on ships. Its most widely known use is in the power steering on automobiles. Another use is on the differential analyzer, where it was used to increase the output torque of the otherwise limited ball-and-disk integrator. The term is also applied to some gearboxes used on tractors, although this is unrelated. It differs from a torque converter, in which the rotational speed of the output shaft decreases as the torque increases.

References

  1. Baldor Electric Company – Servo Control Facts. Accessed 25 September 2013
  2. Anaheim Automation: Servo Motor Guide. Accessed 25 September 2013
  3. BusinessDictionary.com definition. Accessed 25 September 2013
  4. Bennett, Stuart (1986-01-01). A History of Control Engineering, 1800–1930. IET. pp. 98–100. ISBN   978-0-86341-047-5.
  5. Andrew Betts Brown
  6. Eugine L. Ragonnet, Controlling Mechanism for Locomotives, U.S. Patent 930,225, Aug. 9, 1909.
  7. IEEE Industry Applications Magazine March/April 1996, pg 74
  8. G. W. Younkin, Industrial Servo Control Systems – Fundamentals and Applications – Second Edition, Taylor and Francis, 2007.