Srebrenik

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Srebrenik

Сребреник
Grad Srebrenik
City of Srebrenik
Srebrenik Municipality Location.png
Location of Srebrenik within Bosnia and Herzegovina.
Bosnia and Herzegovina location map.svg
Red pog.svg
Srebrenik
Location of Srebrenik
Coordinates: 44°42′N18°29′E / 44.700°N 18.483°E / 44.700; 18.483
Country Flag of Bosnia and Herzegovina.svg  Bosnia and Herzegovina
Entity Federation of Bosnia and Herzegovina
Canton Flag of Tuzla Canton.svg  Tuzla Canton
Government
  MayorNihad Omerović (NiP)
Area
  Total248 km2 (96 sq mi)
Elevation
252 m (827 ft)
Population
 (2013 census)
  Total39,678
  Density159.99/km2 (414.4/sq mi)
Time zone UTC+1 (CET)
  Summer (DST) UTC+2 (CEST)
Area code(s) +387 35
Website www.srebrenik.ba

Srebrenik (Serbian Cyrillic : Сребреник) is a city located in Tuzla Canton of the Federation of Bosnia and Herzegovina. It is located in northeastern Bosnia and Herzegovina, near Tuzla. As of 2013, it has a population of 39,678 inhabitants.

Contents

History

Prehistory

Based on unsystematic archaeological research, there have been found what appears to be remains of a neolithic village near Hrgovi Gornji. Further research is required before any conclusions are made. [1]

Medieval

The earliest historical record documenting Srebrenik is the edict of Stephen II to Ragusa signed on the 15th of February, 1333. [2] According to documents from the same period, Srebrenik was under the administration of župa Usora. [3] Srebrenik fortress, a medieval fortress dating back to at least 1333, is located on the Majevica mountain, providing an important strategic stronghold in the area.

In September 1363, king Louis I of Hungary sent an army to Bosnia, led by his palatine Nicholas Kont. This army suffered substantial losses of Hungarian soldiers and materials under Srebrenik. Among the lost materials was the royal seal, which was replaced afterwards. [4]

After the death of Louis I, numerous other Hungarian conquests occurred. One was led by Sigismund of Luxembourg, whose army besieged and conquered Srebrenik, holding out for the next four years. [5] It was then granted to a Serbian despot Stefan Lazarević although the Hungarian army maintained its garrison for some time after the grant. [6]

Srebrenik again fell under Bosnian control after it was conquered by grand duke Hrvoje Vukčić Hrvatinić. It is not known exactly when the city was recaptured by the Hungarians and for how long Hrvoje Vukčić held the city by himself.

Earliest accounts of Ottoman raiders near Srebrenik have been found in Ragusan letters directed to Sigismund in August 1426, detailing Ottoman activities as follows: [7] [8]

Almost entire summer an army composed of about four thousand Turks was in Bosnia; neither lord king of Bosnia nor his barons dared to do anything about them. Duke Sandalj and duke Radoslav Pavlović have managed to achieve peace among themselves. Turks raided parts of Croatia and captured many Croats and Vlachs dwelling there. They raided parts of Usora and Srebrenik twice; they were also present in territories of duke Zlatonosović; these Turks have returned to their lands and few remained in Bosnia. Glorious lord despot, with his nephew Đurađ, as it is told, made peace with Venetians in Zeta; a part of the land remained in possession of lord despot and his nephew and the other in possession of Venetians.

By 1462 the entire župa Usora was under Ottoman control, including Srebrenik. Due to failures in logistics and an epidemic, the Ottoman army had to retreat and Matthias Corvinus managed to seize back Srebrenik. In order to further improve defense against future Ottoman attacks, Matthias created banate of Srebrenik in 1464 and granted it to Nicholas of Ilok who later became the titular king of Bosnia. [8] [9]

There are two accounts related to the Ottoman conquest of Srebrenik. According to one, Srebrenik was taken in 1512, together with Teočak. The other version says that Srebrenik was taken together with Sokol and Tešanj in 1521 by the Bosnian sanjak-bey Firuz Bey.

Demographics

1971

33,620 total

1991

In the 1991 census, the municipality of Srebrenik had 40,882 inhabitants:

2013 Census

MunicipalityNationality
Total
Bosniaks
%
Croats
%
Serbs
%
Srebrenik35,95190.601,9684.95394 0.9939,678

Page text. [10]

List of residential places in Srebrenik municipality

The list from 1991: Salihbašići, Babunovići, Behrami, Brda, Brezik, Brnjičani, Cage, Cerik, Crveno Brdo, Čekanići, Ćehaje, Ćojlučko Polje, Ćojluk, Dedići, Donji Moranjci, Donji Podpeć, Donji Srebrenik, Duboki Potok, Falešići, Gornji Hrgovi, Gornji Moranjci, Novo naselje Polje, Gornji Podpeć, Gornji Srebrenik, Huremi, Jasenica, Ježinac, Kiseljak, Kuge, Like, Lipje, Lisovići, Luka, Ljenobud, Maoča, Podorašje, Previle, Rapatnica, Seona, Sladna, Srebrenik, Straža, Šahmeri, Špionica Centar, Špionica Donja, Špionica Gornja, Špionica Srednja, Tinja Donja, Tinja Gornja, Tutnjevac, Uroža and Zahirovići.

Sport

The local football club, NK Gradina, plays in the First League of the Federation of Bosnia and Herzegovina.

See also

Related Research Articles

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Hrvatinić

Hrvatinić family was a medieval noble family that emerged in Donji Kraji county, located in today's territory of western Bosnia and Herzegovina. Principally they were vassals to Kotromanić dynasty of the Banate of Bosnia and Kingdom of Bosnia, occasionally also to the Kingdom of Hungary, changing loyalties between Hungarian kings Ladislaus of Naples and Sigismund of Luxembourg, and finally the Ottoman Empire (1472–1476). They rose to prominence in the second half of the 14th century, and attained its peak under magnate Hrvoje Vukčić Hrvatinić (1350–1416), who also held large swaths of Dalmatia and obtained title of Grand Duke of Bosnia in 1380.

Fortress of Doboj

Doboj Fortress or Gradina (Градина) is located in the city of Doboj, Bosnia and Herzegovina. Throughout its turbulent history, this magnificent object has been burned and ransacked at least 18 times as per official records. Of note is that Doboj fortress was considered to be a royal Kotromanić property, unlike Great Bosnian Duke Hrvoje's Zvecaj fortress or Sandalj Hranić's Blagaj fortress, which were centers of their respective dukedoms.

Usora (county)

Usora was a zemlja of the medieval Bosnian state, although it also had some periods outside its authority, when it was connected with neighbouring Banates of Slavonia or Mačva. The administrative seat of this duchy was Srebrenik, which also served as residence of its rulers for entire period of existence of the medieval Bosnian state. It took its name from the river Usora.

Prozor Fortress

Prozor Fortress is a medieval fortress situated in the continental part of Split-Dalmatia County, in inland Dalmatia, just above the town of Vrlika in Croatia. From its origin as a small stronghold built by the ancient Illyrian tribe Dalmatae, it developed into a fortress in the 15th century, during the reign of Bosnian feudal lord Hrvoje Vukčić Hrvatinić.

Srebrenik Fortress

Srebrenik Fortress is a fortress located near the city of Srebrenik in Bosnia and Herzegovina. It has been a national monument of Bosnia and Herzegovina since 8 December 2004.

Banate of Bosnia

The Banate of Bosnia, or Bosnian Banate, was a medieval state based in what is today Bosnia and Herzegovina. Although Hungarian kings viewed Bosnia as part of Hungarian Crown Lands, the Banate of Bosnia was a de facto independent state, for most of its existence. It was founded in the mid-12th century and existed until 1377 with interruptions under Šubić family between 1299 and 1324. In 1377 it was elevated to kingdom. The greater part of its history was marked by a religiopolitical controversy revolving around the native Christian Bosnian Church condemned as heretical by the dominant Nicene Christian churches, namely the Roman Catholic and Eastern Orthodox, with the Catholic church being particularly antagonistic and persecuting its members through the Hungarians.

Kingdom of Bosnia

The Kingdom of Bosnia, or Bosnian Kingdom, was a medieval kingdom that lasted from 1377 to 1463 and evolved out of the Banate of Bosnia (1154–1377).

Smoluća Gornja is a village in the municipality of Lukavac, Bosnia and Herzegovina.

The Ottoman conquest of Bosnia and Herzegovina was a process that started roughly in 1386, when the first Ottoman attacks on the Kingdom of Bosnia took place. In 1451, more than 65 years after its initial attacks, the Ottoman Empire officially established the Bosansko Krajište, an interim borderland military administrative unit, an Ottoman frontier, in parts of Bosnia and Herzegovina. In 1463, the Kingdom fell to the Ottomans, and this territory came under its firm control. Herzegovina gradually fell to the Ottomans by 1482. It took another century for the western parts of today's Bosnia to succumb to Ottoman attacks, ending with the capture of Bihać in 1592.

Donji Kraji Historical region in the Balkans

Donji Kraji or Donji Krajevi, was a small medieval county (zemlja) in today's northwestern Bosnia and Herzegovina, mostly expanding within the territory of today's Bosanska Krajina.

Ostrovica Castle Medieval castle in Ostrovica, Bosnia

The Ostrovica Castle is a large medieval structure situated above the small village of Ostrovica near Kulen Vakuf, Bihać municipality, Bosnia and Herzegovina. Having been built on a heavily wooded ridge of a steep hill overlooking left bank of the shallow Una river, the castle was located on a strategic site connecting the northern and southern parts of the long Una valley.

References

  1. Dinić, Mihailo (1934). Srebrnik kod Srebrenice. Belgrade.
  2. Radonić, Jovan (1934). Acta et diplomata Ragusina. SKA Beograd.
  3. Miklošič, Frano (1858). Monumenta Serbica. Vienna.
  4. Kristó, Gyula. (1988). Az Anjou-kor háborúi. Budapest: Zrínyi Katonai Kiadó. ISBN   963-326-905-9. OCLC   20810135.
  5. Handžić, Adem (1975). Tuzla i njena okolina u XVI vijeku. Tuzla.
  6. Jireček, Josip (1951). Trgovački drumovi i rudnici Srbije i Bosne u srednjem vijeku. Sarajevo. p. 146.
  7. Oršolić, Tado (1999). 'Putanja klatna. Ugarsko-Hrvatsko Kraljevstvo i Bosna u XIV. stoljeću'. Croatian Academy of Sciences and Arts. OCLC   854843981.
  8. 1 2 Nilević, Boris (1996). "Sjeveroistočna Bosna u tokovima evropske srednjovjekovne povijesti. Prilog historiji Srebreničke banovine". Bosna Franciscana: 116–122.
  9. Engel, Pál, 1938-2001. (2001). The realm of St. Stephen : a history of medieval Hungary, 895-1526. London: I.B. Tauris. ISBN   1-86064-061-3. OCLC   46570146.CS1 maint: multiple names: authors list (link)
  10. Link text, additional text.

Coordinates: 44°42′N18°29′E / 44.700°N 18.483°E / 44.700; 18.483