City of Srebrenik
Location of Srebrenik within Bosnia and Herzegovina.
|Country||Bosnia and Herzegovina|
|Entity||Federation of Bosnia and Herzegovina|
|• Mayor||Nihad Omerović (NiP)|
|• Total||248 km2 (96 sq mi)|
|Elevation||252 m (827 ft)|
|• Density||159.99/km2 (414.4/sq mi)|
|Time zone||UTC+1 (CET)|
|• Summer (DST)||UTC+2 (CEST)|
|Area code(s)||+387 35|
Srebrenik (Serbian Cyrillic : Сребреник) is a city located in Tuzla Canton of the Federation of Bosnia and Herzegovina. It is located in northeastern Bosnia and Herzegovina, near Tuzla. As of 2013, it has a population of 39,678 inhabitants.
Based on unsystematic archaeological research, there have been found what appears to be remains of a neolithic village near Hrgovi Gornji. Further research is required before any conclusions are made.
The earliest historical record documenting Srebrenik is the edict of Stephen II to Ragusa signed on the 15th of February, 1333.According to documents from the same period, Srebrenik was under the administration of župa Usora. Srebrenik fortress, a medieval fortress dating back to at least 1333, is located on the Majevica mountain, providing an important strategic stronghold in the area.
In September 1363, king Louis I of Hungary sent an army to Bosnia, led by his palatine Nicholas Kont. This army suffered substantial losses of Hungarian soldiers and materials under Srebrenik. Among the lost materials was the royal seal, which was replaced afterwards.
After the death of Louis I, numerous other Hungarian conquests occurred. One was led by Sigismund of Luxembourg, whose army besieged and conquered Srebrenik, holding out for the next four years.It was then granted to a Serbian despot Stefan Lazarević although the Hungarian army maintained its garrison for some time after the grant.
Srebrenik again fell under Bosnian control after it was conquered by grand duke Hrvoje Vukčić Hrvatinić. It is not known exactly when the city was recaptured by the Hungarians and for how long Hrvoje Vukčić held the city by himself.
Earliest accounts of Ottoman raiders near Srebrenik have been found in Ragusan letters directed to Sigismund in August 1426, detailing Ottoman activities as follows:
Almost entire summer an army composed of about four thousand Turks was in Bosnia; neither lord king of Bosnia nor his barons dared to do anything about them. Duke Sandalj and duke Radoslav Pavlović have managed to achieve peace among themselves. Turks raided parts of Croatia and captured many Croats and Vlachs dwelling there. They raided parts of Usora and Srebrenik twice; they were also present in territories of duke Zlatonosović; these Turks have returned to their lands and few remained in Bosnia. Glorious lord despot, with his nephew Đurađ, as it is told, made peace with Venetians in Zeta; a part of the land remained in possession of lord despot and his nephew and the other in possession of Venetians.
By 1462 the entire župa Usora was under Ottoman control, including Srebrenik. Due to failures in logistics and an epidemic, the Ottoman army had to retreat and Matthias Corvinus managed to seize back Srebrenik. In order to further improve defense against future Ottoman attacks, Matthias created banate of Srebrenik in 1464 and granted it to Nicholas of Ilok who later became the titular king of Bosnia.
There are two accounts related to the Ottoman conquest of Srebrenik. According to one, Srebrenik was taken in 1512, together with Teočak. The other version says that Srebrenik was taken together with Sokol and Tešanj in 1521 by the Bosnian sanjak-bey Firuz Bey.
In the 1991 census, the municipality of Srebrenik had 40,882 inhabitants:
The list from 1991: Salihbašići, Babunovići, Behrami, Brda, Brezik, Brnjičani, Cage, Cerik, Crveno Brdo, Čekanići, Ćehaje, Ćojlučko Polje, Ćojluk, Dedići, Donji Moranjci, Donji Podpeć, Donji Srebrenik, Duboki Potok, Falešići, Gornji Hrgovi, Gornji Moranjci, Novo naselje Polje, Gornji Podpeć, Gornji Srebrenik, Huremi, Jasenica, Ježinac, Kiseljak, Kuge, Like, Lipje, Lisovići, Luka, Ljenobud, Maoča, Podorašje, Previle, Rapatnica, Seona, Sladna, Srebrenik, Straža, Šahmeri, Špionica Centar, Špionica Donja, Špionica Gornja, Špionica Srednja, Tinja Donja, Tinja Gornja, Tutnjevac, Uroža and Zahirovići.
The local football club, NK Gradina, plays in the First League of the Federation of Bosnia and Herzegovina.
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Hrvatinić family was a medieval noble family that emerged in Donji Kraji county, located in today's territory of western Bosnia and Herzegovina. Principally they were vassals to Kotromanić dynasty of the Banate of Bosnia and Kingdom of Bosnia, occasionally also to the Kingdom of Hungary, changing loyalties between Hungarian kings Ladislaus of Naples and Sigismund of Luxembourg, and finally the Ottoman Empire (1472–1476). They rose to prominence in the second half of the 14th century, and attained its peak under magnate Hrvoje Vukčić Hrvatinić (1350–1416), who also held large swaths of Dalmatia and obtained title of Grand Duke of Bosnia in 1380.
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Srebrenik Fortress is a fortress located near the city of Srebrenik in Bosnia and Herzegovina. It has been a national monument of Bosnia and Herzegovina since 8 December 2004.
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The Kingdom of Bosnia, or Bosnian Kingdom, was a medieval kingdom that lasted from 1377 to 1463 and evolved out of the Banate of Bosnia (1154–1377).
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The Ottoman conquest of Bosnia and Herzegovina was a process that started roughly in 1386, when the first Ottoman attacks on the Kingdom of Bosnia took place. In 1451, more than 65 years after its initial attacks, the Ottoman Empire officially established the Bosansko Krajište, an interim borderland military administrative unit, an Ottoman frontier, in parts of Bosnia and Herzegovina. In 1463, the Kingdom fell to the Ottomans, and this territory came under its firm control. Herzegovina gradually fell to the Ottomans by 1482. It took another century for the western parts of today's Bosnia to succumb to Ottoman attacks, ending with the capture of Bihać in 1592.
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