|Cantons of the Federation of Bosnia and Herzegovina|
Kantoni Federacije Bosne i Hercegovine
Кантони Федерације Босне и Херцеговине
|Location||Federation of Bosnia and Herzegovina|
|Populations||25,336 (Bosnian-Podrinje Canton Goražde) – 477,278 (Tuzla)|
|Areas||325 km2 (125.5 sq mi) (Posavina) – 4,934 km2 (1,905.1 sq mi) (Canton 10)|
The Federation of Bosnia and Herzegovina, one of the two political entities of Bosnia and Herzegovina, consists of ten units called cantons. The cantons were established by the Law on Federal Units (Cantons) on 12 June 1996.
The cantons of the Federation of Bosnia and Herzegovina were created by the Law on Federal Units (Cantons) of 1996, which was based on the Bosniak-Croat Washington Agreement. The cantons consist of municipalities. A canton has its own government headed by a prime minister. The prime minister has his own cabinet, and is assisted in his duties by various cantonal ministries, agencies, and cantonal services. Five of the cantons (Una-Sana, Tuzla, Zenica-Doboj, Bosnian-Podrinje, and Sarajevo) have a Bosniak majority, three (Posavina, West Herzegovina and Canton 10) have a Bosnian Croat majority, while two of them (Central Bosnia and Herzegovina-Neretva) are 'ethnically mixed', meaning neither ethnic group has a majority and there are special legislative procedures for the protection of their political interests. The most populous canton is Tuzla Canton, while Canton 10 is the largest by area.
The term županija (Croatian for "county") has been declared unconstitutional, but is still widely used by Bosnian Croat officials and in cantonal constitutions. The Croatian-language version of the Constitution of the Federation, however, uses the constitutional term kanton.
|No.||Abbr||English name||Bosnian name||Croatian name||Center||Population |
|Una-Sana Canton||Unsko-sanski kanton||Unsko-sanska županija||Bihać||299,343||90.02%||1.85%||3.09%||4,125.0||69.8||8|
|Posavina Canton||Posavski kanton||Županija Posavska||Orašje||48,089||19.00%||77.32%||1.91%||324.6||124.8||3|
|Tuzla Canton||Tuzlanski kanton||Tuzlanska županija||Tuzla||477,278||88.16%||5.30%||1.58%||2,649.0||187.9||13|
|Zenica-Doboj Canton||Zeničko-dobojski kanton||Zeničko-dobojska županija||Zenica||385,067||82.17%||12.02%||1.52%||3,334.3||119.9||12|
|Bosnian-Podrinje Canton Goražde||Bosansko-podrinjski kanton Goražde||Bosansko-podrinjska županija Goražde||Goražde||25,336||94.01%||0.10%||3.72%||504.6||65.8||3|
|Central Bosnia Canton||Srednjobosanski kanton||Županija Središnja Bosna||Travnik||273,149||57.58%||38.33%||1.19%||3,189||80.2||12|
|Herzegovina-Neretva Canton||Hercegovačko-neretvanski kanton||Hercegovačko-neretvanska županija||Mostar||236,278||41.44%||53.29%||2.90%||4,401||51.5||9|
|West Herzegovina Canton||Zapadnohercegovački kanton||Županija Zapadnohercegovačka||Široki Brijeg||97,893||1.81%||96.82%||0.26%||1,362.2||60.1||4|
|Sarajevo Canton||Kanton Sarajevo||Sarajevska županija||Sarajevo||438,443||83.8%||4.2%||3.2%||1,276.9||329.9||9|
|Canton 10||Kanton 10||Hercegbosanska županija||Livno||90,727||9.55%||76.79%||12.96%||4,934.9||16.5||6|
|FBiH||Federation of Bosnia and Herzegovina||Federacija Bosne i Hercegovine||Federacija Bosne i Hercegovine||Sarajevo||2,371,603||70.4%||22.44%||2.41%||26,110.0||89.1||79|
There are a number of propositions for the reorganization of the Federation, ranging from decreasing the number of cantons, establishing new federal units on the state level, to the exchange of jurisdiction between the cantons and the Federation.However, this question requires a high level of political agreement, especially between the Bosniak and Croat political parties, since it would necessarily include changing the federal constitution. For a constitutional law to pass, it has to obtain the support of the majority of the representatives and delegates in both chambers of the Federal parliament, including the majority of Croat and Bosniak delegates in the House of Peoples.
The Politics of Bosnia and Herzegovina takes place in a framework of a parliamentary representative democracy, whereby executive power is exercised by the Council of Ministers of Bosnia and Herzegovina. Legislative power is vested in both the Council of Ministers and the Parliamentary Assembly of Bosnia and Herzegovina. Members of the Parliamentary Assembly are chosen according to a proportional representation system.
The General Framework Agreement for Peace in Bosnia and Herzegovina, also known as the Dayton Agreement or the Dayton Accords, is the peace agreement reached at Wright-Patterson Air Force Base near Dayton, Ohio, United States, on 21 November 1995, and formally signed in Paris, on 14 December 1995. These accords put an end to the three-and-a-half-year-long Bosnian War, one of the Yugoslav Wars.
The Herzegovina-Neretva Canton is one of 10 cantons of the Federation of Bosnia and Herzegovina in Bosnia and Herzegovina.
The Federation of Bosnia and Herzegovina is one of the two entities that compose the State of Bosnia and Herzegovina, the other being Republika Srpska. The Federation of Bosnia and Herzegovina consists of 10 autonomous cantons with their own governments and legislatures.
Canton 10 is the largest of the cantons of the Federation of Bosnia and Herzegovina by area and eighth by population. It mainly covers an area of the historical and geographical region of Tropolje. The local government seat is in Livno, while the assembly is in Tomislavgrad.
The Sarajevo Canton, officially the Canton of Sarajevo is one of 10 cantons of the Federation of Bosnia and Herzegovina in Bosnia and Herzegovina. Its cantonal seat is the city of Sarajevo, also the capital city of Bosnia and Herzegovina.
The Central Bosnia Canton is one of 10 cantons of the Federation of Bosnia and Herzegovina in Bosnia and Herzegovina.
The West Herzegovina Canton is one of the cantons of the Federation of Bosnia and Herzegovina. The West Herzegovina Canton is in the Herzegovina region in the southwest of Bosnia and Herzegovina. Its seat of government is in Široki Brijeg, while other municipalities within the Canton are Grude, Ljubuški and Posušje. It has 94,898 inhabitants, of whom more than 98% are ethnic Croats.
The Socialist Republic of Bosnia and Herzegovina, commonly referred to as Socialist Bosnia or simply Bosnia, was one of the six constituent federal states forming the Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia. It was a predecessor of the modern-day Bosnia and Herzegovina, existing between 1945 and 1992, under a number of different formal names, including Democratic Bosnia and Herzegovina (1943–1946) and People's Republic of Bosnia and Herzegovina (1946–1963).
The Croatian Republic of Herzeg-Bosnia was an unrecognised geopolitical entity and proto-state in Bosnia and Herzegovina. It was proclaimed on 18 November 1991 under the name Croatian Community of Herzeg-Bosnia as a "political, cultural, economic and territorial whole" in the territory of Bosnia and Herzegovina.
General elections were held in Bosnia and Herzegovina on 1 October 2006. They decided the makeup of Bosnia and Herzegovina's presidency as well as federal, entity, and cantonal governments. Voter turnout was 52.74%.
The Croats of Bosnia and Herzegovina, often referred to as Bosnian Croats or Herzegovinian Croats, are the third most populous ethnic group in the country after Bosniaks and Serbs, and are one of the constitutive nations of Bosnia and Herzegovina. Croats of Bosnia and Herzegovina have made significant contributions to the culture of Bosnia and Herzegovina. Most Croats declare themselves Roman Catholics and speakers of Croatian.
The Constitutional Court of Bosnia and Herzegovina is the interpreter and guardian of the Constitution of Bosnia and Herzegovina, It has the appellate jurisdiction over issues arising out of a judgment of any other court in the country, including the constitutional courts of the two entities and the Court of Bosnia and Herzegovina.
Seada Palavrić is a Bosnian lawyer, politician and judge, member of the Constitutional Court of Bosnia and Herzegovina. She declared ethnic affiliation as Bosniak.
The President of the Federation of Bosnia and Herzegovina represents the Federation and is a head of the federal executive power. Term of the Federal President is 4 years. The post was established in March 1994.
The most widely spread religion in Bosnia and Herzegovina is Islam and a large portion of the Muslims of Bosnia declared themselves as followers of the Sunni branch of Islam. The State Constitution of Bosnia and Herzegovina (BiH) and the entity Constitutions of the Federation of Bosnia and Herzegovina and the Republika Srpska provide for freedom of religion, and the Government generally respects this right in ethnically integrated areas or in areas where government officials are of the majority religion; the state-level Law on Religious Freedom also provides comprehensive rights to religious communities. However, local authorities sometimes restricted the right to worship of adherents of religious groups in areas where such persons are in the minority. 54% of Herzegovinian and Bosnian Muslims consider themselves as "just muslims".
General elections were held in Bosnia and Herzegovina on 3 October 2010 for both the Federal government and the two entities.
Following the election on 3 October 2010, a process of formation of Bosnia and Herzegovina's Council of Ministers had begun. The resulting election has produced a fragmented political landscape without a coalition of a parliamentary majority more than a year after the election. The centralist Social Democratic Party of Bosnia and Herzegovina, the largest party in the Federation of Bosnia and Herzegovina and the Bosnian Serb autonomist Alliance of Independent Social Democrats, the largest party in the Republika Srpska, each have 8 MPs of the total 42 MPs of the House of Representatives. Similarly, a crisis of government is also present at the local levels, as well as the Federal entity.
Croatian National Assembly is a political organisation of Croat political parties in Bosnia and Herzegovina. The organisation serves as a platform to coordinate political and cultural activities of different parties and stakeholders in the Croatian community and to promote the initiative to create a federal unit with Croatian majority in the country.
Croat federal unit in Bosnia and Herzegovina, or Croat entity, also informally known as the "Third entity", is a proposed administrative unit in Bosnia and Herzegovina based on territorial federalism and ethnic self-determination. The proposal has been invoked by several political scientists, politicians and political parties, including the Croat National Assembly. So far it has not been discussed beyond the concept level. Since the country is divided into two entities, the Serb-dominated Republika Srpska and the Bosniak-majority Federation, Croats, as one of the three equal constitutive nations, have proposed creating a symmetrical Croat-majority territorial unit. Political advocates for such proposal argue it would ensure Croat equality and prevent electoral gerrymandering, simplify the political gridlock while dismantle overburdening administration. Opponents argue it would further divide the country on ethnic grounds thus breaching the constitutional principles, put non-Croats in a subordinate position, and lead to separatism.