Street sweeper

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A compact street sweeper tackles litter in Mexico City Streetsweeper CN100 Sinder.jpg
A compact street sweeper tackles litter in Mexico City
Street sweeper in Paseo de la Reforma in Mexico City Barrido Manual Sinder.jpg
Street sweeper in Paseo de la Reforma in Mexico City

A street sweeper or street cleaner may refer to a person's occupation, or a machine that cleans streets. A street sweeper cleans the streets, usually in an urban area.

Street A public thoroughfare in a built environment

A street is a public thoroughfare in a built environment. It is a public parcel of land adjoining buildings in an urban context, on which people may freely assemble, interact, and move about. A street can be as simple as a level patch of dirt, but is more often paved with a hard, durable surface such as tarmac, concrete, cobblestone or brick. Portions may also be smoothed with asphalt, embedded with rails, or otherwise prepared to accommodate non-pedestrian traffic.

Urban area Human settlement with high population density and infrastructure of built environment

An urban area or urban agglomeration, is a human settlement with high population density and infrastructure of built environment. Urban areas are created through urbanization and are categorized by urban morphology as cities, towns, conurbations or suburbs. In urbanism, the term contrasts to rural areas such as villages and hamlets and in urban sociology or urban anthropology it contrasts with natural environment. The creation of early predecessors of urban areas during the urban revolution led to the creation of human civilization with modern urban planning, which along with other human activities such as exploitation of natural resources leads to human impact on the environment.

Contents

Street sweepers have been employed in cities since sanitation and waste removal became a priority. A street-sweeping person would use a broom and shovel to clean off litter, animal waste and filth that accumulated on streets. Later, water hoses were used to wash the streets.

Sanitation public health conditions related to clean drinking water and adequate disposal of human excreta and sewage

Sanitation refers to public health conditions related to clean drinking water and adequate treatment and disposal of human wastes and sewage. Preventing human contact with feces is part of sanitation, as is hand washing with soap. Sanitation systems aim to protect human health by providing a clean environment that will stop the transmission of disease, especially through the fecal–oral route. For example, diarrhea, a main cause of malnutrition and stunted growth in children, can be reduced through sanitation. There are many other diseases which are easily transmitted in communities that have low levels of sanitation, such as ascariasis, cholera, hepatitis, polio, schistosomiasis, trachoma, to name just a few.

Waste management activities and actions required to manage waste from its inception to its final disposal

Waste management are the activities and actions required to manage waste from its inception to its final disposal. This includes the collection, transport, treatment and disposal of waste, together with monitoring and regulation of the waste management process.

Litter Waste products that have been disposed improperly, without consent, at an inappropriate location

Litter consists of waste products that have been disposed of improperly, without consent, at an undesirable location. Litter can also be used as a verb. To litter means to drop and leave objects, often man-made, such as aluminum cans, cardboard boxes or plastic bottles on the ground and leave them there indefinitely or for others to dispose of as opposed to disposing of them properly.

Machines were created in the 19th century to do the job more efficiently. Today, modern street sweepers are mounted on truck bodies and can vacuum debris that accumulates in streets.

Truck freight motor vehicle

A truck or lorry is a motor vehicle designed to transport cargo. Trucks vary greatly in size, power, and configuration; smaller varieties may be mechanically similar to some automobiles. Commercial trucks can be very large and powerful and may be configured to be mounted with specialized equipment, such as in the case of refuse trucks, fire trucks, concrete mixers, and suction excavators. Strictly speaking, a commercial vehicle without a tractor or other articulation is a "straight truck" while one designed specifically to pull a trailer is not a truck but a "tractor".

Vacuum cleaner Device that sucks up dust and dirt from floors

A vacuum cleaner, also known as a sweeper or hoover, is a device that uses an air pump, to create a partial vacuum to suck up dust and dirt from floors and from other surfaces such as upholstery and draperies.

History

Manual sweeping

The need for rubbish to be removed from roads in built-up areas has existed for centuries.

Sometimes a local law in a town or city ordered the owner of occupier of each address to clean the length of that road that passed his address.

Sometimes when much traffic was horse-drawn vehicles or ridden horses, there were street cleaners who selectively removed horse droppings because of their value as fertilizer on nearby rural areas.

Manure Organic matter, mostly derived from animal feces, which can be used as fertilizer

Manure is organic matter, mostly derived from animal feces except in the case of green manure, which can be used as organic fertilizer in agriculture. Manures contribute to the fertility of the soil by adding organic matter and nutrients, such as nitrogen, that are utilised by bacteria, fungi and other organisms in the soil. Higher organisms then feed on the fungi and bacteria in a chain of life that comprises the soil food web.

Fertilizer Substance added to soils to supply plant nutrients for a better growth

A fertilizer or fertiliser is any material of natural or synthetic origin that is applied to soils or to plant tissues to supply one or more plant nutrients essential to the growth of plants. Many sources of fertilizer exist, both natural and industrially produced.

Mechanical sweepers in the United Kingdom

Mechanical street sweeper by Joseph Whitworth Illustrirte Zeitung (1843) 06 006 1 Whitworth's Strassenreinigungsmaschine.PNG
Mechanical street sweeper by Joseph Whitworth
Monument of street sweeper in St. Petersburg, in Russia Dvornik.JPG
Monument of street sweeper in St. Petersburg, in Russia

By the 1840s, Manchester, England, had become known as the first industrial city. Manchester had one of the largest textile industries of that time. As a result, the robust metropolis was said to be England’s unhealthiest place to live. [1] In response to this unsanitary environment, Joseph Whitworth invented the mechanical street sweeper. The street sweeper was designed with the primary objective to remove rubbish from streets in order to maintain aesthetic goals and safety. [2] [3]

Manchester City and metropolitan borough in England

Manchester is a major city and metropolitan borough in Greater Manchester, England. The Greater Manchester Built-up Area is the United Kingdom's second-most populous, with a population of 2.55 million. The city's metropolitan area is the second largest in the United Kingdom, after London, with a population of over 3.2 million. It is fringed by the Cheshire Plain to the south, the Pennines to the north and east, and an arc of towns with which it forms a continuous conurbation. The local authority is Manchester City Council. Manchester is a major international centre of tourism, commerce and industrial heritage. Manchester is frequently referred to as the United Kingdom's second city.

Joseph Whitworth English engineer, entrepreneur

Sir Joseph Whitworth, 1st Baronet was an English engineer, entrepreneur, inventor and philanthropist. In 1841, he devised the British Standard Whitworth system, which created an accepted standard for screw threads. Whitworth also created the Whitworth rifle, often called the "sharpshooter" because of its accuracy and considered one of the earliest examples of a sniper rifle.

Mechanical sweepers in the United States

The very first street sweeping machine was patented in 1849 by its inventor, C.S. Bishop. For a long time, street sweepers were just rotating disks covered with wire bristles. These rotating disks served as mechanical brooms that swept the dirt on the streets. [4]

A common misconception is that Charles Brooks invented the street sweeper in America in 1896. Brooks' design, far from being the "first street sweeper," was just a variation of what already existed, and the patent for it was among the more than 300 street sweeper patents issued in the United States before 1900. Most 19th-century sweepers, including the one in Brooks' patent, were horsecarts with no engine on board. The wheels on the cart turned gears or chains which drove the brush and belt. The first self-propelled sweeper vehicle patented in the USA, driven by steam engine and intended for cleaning railroad tracks was patented in 1868, patent #79606. Eureka C. Bowne was the first known woman to get a patent for a street sweeper in 1879, patent #222447. "Her success was great," wrote Matilda Joslyn Gage in The North American Review, Volume 136, Issue 318, May 1883. [5]

John M. Murphy called at the offices of American Tower and Tank Company in Elgin, Illinois, in the fall of 1911. He had a plan of a motor driven pickup street sweeper. The American Tower and Tank Company had been formed in 1903 by Charles A. Whiting and James Todd. They called in a recently acquired silent partner, Daniel M. Todd, and it was decided to hire Mr. Murphy and begin the development of his idea. That started what has become the Elgin Sweeper Company. [6]

After two years of trial, development, experimentation, and research, a sweeper was achieved which Murphy was satisfied performed all of the sweeping functions in the manner he had envisioned – one which partners James and Daniel M. Todd and Charles A. Whiting were willing to risk a reputation gained from 30 years manufacturing experience. [6]

In the fall of 1913, the City of Boise, Idaho, purchased the first Elgin Sweeper, following a demonstration. Boise Street Commissioner, Thomas Finegan, made a comparison showing a savings of $2,716.77 from the Elgin motorized sweeper when used rather than a horse-drawn sweeper. [6]

Following its introduction and initial sales, John M. Murphy continued the perfection of his sweeper. In 1917, US patents were filed and issues for J. M. Murphy, Street Sweeping machine #1,239,293. [6]

Technological advancement

The goal of simple debris removal did not change until the 1970s, when policymakers begun to reflect concern for water quality. In the United States, The lag time in which street sweepers responded can be pinpointed to the Runoff Report of 1998. [7] As older street sweepers were only effective in removing large particles of road debris, small particles of debris remained behind in large quantities. [8] The remaining debris was not seen as an aesthetic issue because rain would wash them away. Today, small particles are known to carry a substantial portion of the stormwater pollutant load.

Street sweeping can be an effective measure in reducing pollutants in stormwater runoff. [9] The Environmental Protection Agency considers street sweeping best practice in protecting water quality.

Modern sweepers

Newer mechanical street sweeper in Ohio HudsonScwarzeM6000crop.jpg
Newer mechanical street sweeper in Ohio
Walk behind street sweeper is used to clean a sidewalk alongside pedestrians

Newer street sweepers are capable of collecting small particles of debris. [2] Many street sweepers produced today are PM10 and PM2.5 certified, [3] meaning that they are capable of collecting and holding particulate matter sized less than 10μm and even down to 2.5μm. [10] Despite advancements in street sweeping technology, the mechanical broom type street sweeper accounts for approximately 90 percent of all street sweepers used in the United States today. [11]

Many modern street sweepers are equipped with water tanks and sprayers used to loosen particles and reduce dust. The brooms gather debris into a main collection area from which it is vacuumed and pumped into a collection bin or hopper. Others need no water but for example high-vacuum only to suppress dust.

A regenerative air street sweeper uses forced air to create a swirling effect inside a contained sweeping head and then uses the negative pressure on the suction side to place the road debris inside a hopper. Debris is removed from the air by centrifugal separation, keeping particulate matter inside the hopper. [12] Many regenerative air sweepers are AQMD certified by their manufacturers and can pick up particles as small as 10 micrometres or less (PM10), a leading cause of stormwater pollution.

However a modern regenerative air street sweeper faces the challenge of noise level due to the fact that regenerative air street sweeper requires an extra engine to power the vacuum pump required to create the negative pressure for placing debris into a hopper.

Modern machines can cost $US300,000 each and a large city can remove upwards of 18,000 tons of materials annually via its fleet of sweepers. If poorly maintained, modern sweepers can have very poor cleaning performance. [13]

Modern sweepers in Asia

Green Star Mech Sweeper Taipei Port 2012 Taipei Port Commerce 689-BS 20130808.jpg
Green Star Mech Sweeper Taipei Port 2012

Sweeper manufacturers in Asia have also developed less sophisticated mechanical and regenerative air sweepers which differ in design to the American and European sweepers. China and Taiwan have both adapted the mechanical sweeper design of using two main brooms mounted vertically at the back of the hopper to carry debris into hopper. This design is less complicated and more cost effective than the mechanical belt and broom setup.

Taiwan

People in Taiwan have promoted street cleaning practices while commuting between home and office. Those who like to promote environmental protection concepts may also video tape their street cleaning processes and upload the footage to video sharing platforms (such as YouTube) for the purpose of educating the public to not litter on streets. According to the people doing street cleaning in Taiwan, the most frequent street debris in Taipei city are cigarette butts, plastic bags and plastic bottles.[ citation needed ]

United Kingdom

Young Muslims, who are volunteers of Ahmadiyya Muslim Youth Association (AMYA), are gathered in London, Manchester, Leicester and Cardiff downtown cities across UK when people are celebrating New Year's Day, which not only clean up the rubbish on streets but also show kindness and services of people in UK. [14]

Uzbekistan

While patients are waiting in line, technical staff, doctors and nurses in eastern Uzbekistan are sweeping the streets and collect garbage, but some people participating the street cleaning are forced labor that pick up the rubbish out of compulsory duty to clean up the streets. [15]

See also

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The Hoover Company an American vacuum cleaner company

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Air purifier

An air purifier or air cleaner is a device which removes contaminants from the air in a room to improve indoor air quality. These devices are commonly marketed as being beneficial to allergy sufferers and asthmatics, and at reducing or eliminating second-hand tobacco smoke. The commercially graded air purifiers are manufactured as either small stand-alone units or larger units that can be affixed to an air handler unit (AHU) or to an HVAC unit found in the medical, industrial, and commercial industries. Air purifiers may also be used in industry to remove impurities such as CO2 from air before processing. Pressure swing adsorbers or other adsorption techniques are typically used for this.

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Automated pool cleaner

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Sand cleaning machine

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References

  1. "A Brief History of Manchester".
  2. 1 2 Pitt R, Bannerman R, Sutherland R, 2004. The role of street cleaning in stormwater management, Environmental and Water Resources Institute of the American Society of Civil Engineers. 1-8
  3. 1 2 Chang Y, Chou C, Su K, Tseng C, 2004. Effectiveness of street sweeping and washing for controlling ambient TSP, Atmospheric Environment, 39: 1891–1902
  4. "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 2011-12-30. Retrieved 2011-07-17.CS1 maint: Archived copy as title (link)
  5. http://www.worldsweeper.com/History/ElevatorSweeperHistory.html
  6. 1 2 3 4 (Source of Historic Information, The Sweep of Time by William A. Richman, 1962) (Information taken from published book) [ full citation needed ]
  7. "Results of the Nationwide Urban Runoff Program" (PDF). Environmental Protection Agency. Retrieved 2013-12-16.
  8. German, J.; Svensson, G. (2002). "Metal content and particle size distribution of street sediments and street sweeping waste". Water Science and Technology. 46 (6–7): 191–198. Archived from the original on 2013-12-17.
  9. EPA - Stormwater Menu of BMPs Archived 2012-02-22 at the Wayback Machine
  10. PM-10 Efficient Street Sweepers
  11. Wildlife and Habitat | Ecosystems | Environmental Review Toolkit | FHWA
  12. "How The Regenerative Air System Works". Tymco. Retrieved 11 March 2016.
  13. Donovan, Kevin (8 October 2014). "Poorly maintained Toronto street sweepers can't do dirty work". Toronto Star . TorStar . Retrieved 8 October 2014.
  14. Lucy Pasha-Robinson (2018-01-03). "Muslim youth group spends New Year's Day cleaning streets across UK". The Independent.
  15. Khurmat Babajan, Farangis Najibullah (2018-07-09). "The Doctor Will See You -- As Soon As He's Done Street-Cleaning". RadioFreeEurope RadioLiberty.