Thomas Stewart (bishop of St Andrews)

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Thomas Stewart was an illegitimate son of King Robert II of Scotland. In 1380, Avignon Pope Clement VII provided Thomas with the Archdeaconry of the Bishopric of St. Andrews, as well as the canonry (and prebend) of Stobo in the Bishopric of Glasgow. In 1389, the king petitioned and obtained for Thomas from the Pope the right to hold the deanery of the Bishopric of Dunkeld along with his other offices, and in 1393, the Pope provided a canonry in the Bishopric of Brechin. In this period, Archdeacon Thomas obtained a Bachelor of Canon Law at the University of Paris.

Robert II of Scotland King of Scots from 1371 to 1390

Robert II reigned as King of Scots from 1371 to his death as the first monarch of the House of Stewart. He was the son of Walter Stewart, 6th High Steward of Scotland and of Marjorie Bruce, daughter of the Scottish king Robert the Bruce by his first wife Isabella of Mar.

The Bishop of Dunkeld is the ecclesiastical head of the Diocese of Dunkeld, one of the largest and more important of Scotland's 13 medieval bishoprics, whose first recorded bishop is an early 12th-century cleric named Cormac. However, the first known abbot dates to the 10th century, and it is often assumed that in Scotland in the period before the 12th century, the roles of both bishop and abbot were one and the same. The Bishopric of Dunkeld ceased to exist as a Catholic institution after the Scottish Reformation but continued as a royal institution into the 17th century. The diocese was restored by Pope Leo XIII on 4 March 1878; it is now based in the city of Dundee.

On 1 July 1401, following the death of Walter Trail, Bishop of St. Andrews, Thomas was elected to fill the see's vacancy. However, because of the problems experienced by Avignon Pope Benedict XIII, who was being besieged by the King of France, Thomas had problems obtaining Papal confirmation. In this context, Thomas' election fell victim to the political struggles of the time. Thomas was supported by his nephew, David Stewart, Duke of Rothesay, who actively campaigned in the region of St. Andrews during the year 1401. However, this aligned him against his half-brother, Robert Stewart, 1st Duke of Albany. In order to obtain control of Dumbarton Castle, the Duke of Albany offered its keeper, Walter de Danyelston, the semi-vacant see of St. Andrews. After a meeting between Albany and the Bishop elect at Abernethy in the summer of 1402, Thomas renounced his rights as Bishop and allowed a new "election" to take place.

Walter Trail was a late 14th century Bishop of St. Andrews. He appears as an official in the Bishopric of Glasgow in 1378, as a Magister Artium and a Licentiate in Canon and civil law. In 1380, he has a Doctorate in Canon and Civil Law, as well as a Papal chaplain and auditor. In this year, Pope Clement VII granted him the deanery of the Bishopric of Dunkeld. He became treasurer of the Bishopric of Glasgow in either 1381 or 1382. On 29 November 1385, the Pope provided him to the vacant Bishopric of St. Andrews, vacant because of the capture and death of the previous bishop-elect, Stephen de Pa.

David Stewart was prince and heir to the throne of Scotland from 1390 and the first Duke of Rothesay from 1398. He was named after his great-great-uncle, David II of Scotland, and also held the titles of Earl of Atholl (1398–1402) and Earl of Carrick (1390–1402). He shares with his uncle and arch-rival, Robert Stewart, first Duke of Albany, the distinction of being first dukes to be created in the Scottish Peerage. David never became king. His marriage to Mary Douglas, daughter of Archibald the Grim, the third Earl of Douglas, was without issue.

Dumbarton Castle

Dumbarton Castle has the longest recorded history of any stronghold in Scotland. It overlooks the Scottish town of Dumbarton, and sits on a plug of volcanic basalt known as Dumbarton Rock which is 240 feet (73 m) high.

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Walter de Danielston [Danyelston] was an early 15th-century Bishop-elect of St. Andrews. Walter first appears on record in 1392 as a licentiate canon of the Bishopric of Aberdeen, studying civil law at Avignon. By 1394, Donnchadh, Earl of Lennox had presented him with control of the hospice of the poor at a place called "Poknade". By the beginning of the 15th century Walter's involvement in Lennox facilitated his role as the castellan of Dumbarton. In either 1397 or 1398, Walter seized the castle after the death of his brother Robert. It was the latter position that opened up the bishopric for him. He was postulated as Bishop of St. Andrews in 1402 at the insistence of Robert Stewart, 1st Duke of Albany, who had promised him the position in return for handing over the castle. After a meeting between Albany and Thomas Stewart, the contemporary Bishop-elect in the summer of 1402, Thomas renounced his rights as Bishop and allowed a new "election" to take place. Walter was thereby elected as Bishop. However, the election came to nothing, as Walter died without confirmation that very same Christmas.

Gilbert de Greenlaw Scottish bishop

Gilbert de Greenlaw (1354–1421) was a medieval Bishop of Aberdeen and Bishop-elect of St. Andrews. He was a Licentiate in the Arts, and had been a canon of Bishopric of Moray by the late 1370s, before being provided by Avignon Pope Clement VII the church of Liston in the Bishopric of St. Andrews in 1379. By the later 1380s, he was in the diocese of Aberdeen. In 1389, he was elected to hold the bishopric of Aberdeen, a position to which he was consecrated in 1390. Gilbert subsequently went on to hold the position of Chancellor of Scotland for many years, albeit in an interrupted manner. Gilbert was subsequently postulated to the more prestigious bishopric of St. Andrews after the death of Walter de Danyelston, its previous Bishop-elect. However, Avignon Pope Benedict XIII quashed the postulation, and chose Henry Wardlaw in his stead. Gilbert, then, remained Bishop of Aberdeen, and died in 1421.

Walter Capellanus was an important cleric and politician in the Kingdom of Scotland during the reigns of kings William the Lion and Alexander II.

Walter Wardlaw was a 14th-century bishop of Glasgow in Scotland.

Robert Blackadder was a medieval Scottish cleric, diplomat and politician, who was abbot of Melrose, bishop-elect of Aberdeen and bishop of Glasgow; when the last was elevated to archiepiscopal status in 1492, he became the first ever archbishop of Glasgow. Archbishop Robert Blackadder died on 28 July 1508, while en route to Jerusalem on pilgrimage.

John de Peebles [Peblys] was a 14th-century bishop of Dunkeld and chancellor of Scotland. He was a graduate of the University of Paris by 1351, where he became both a determinant and licentiate. He chose to remain there and soon became procurator of the "English nation" before obtaining a doctorate in Canon law. From 1360 he was an official in the bishopric of Glasgow and was master of the hospital of Peebles. By 1365 he was treasurer of Glasgow. Eventually he held canonries and prebends in that diocese and in the diocese of Aberdeen and controlled the church of Douglas. By 1374 he was archdeacon of St Andrews and the papal collector for the Kingdom of Scotland. He was provided to the bishopric of Dunkeld by Pope Gregory XI either in late 1377 or early 1378.

Andrew Stewart (bishop of Caithness, died 1541) Bishop of Caithness

Andrew Stewart was a 16th-century Scottish noble and cleric. He was the legitimate son of John Stewart, 1st Earl of Atholl and Eleanor Sinclair, daughter of William Sinclair, Earl of Orkney. His paternal grandmother was Joan Beaufort, former queen-consort of Scotland. Andrew chose an ecclesiastical career, held a canonry in Dunkeld Cathedral and was rector of Blair parish church, a church under the control of the earls of Atholl.

Andrew Stewart (bishop of Moray) Bishop of Moray

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William Stephen, sometimes William Stephani, was a medieval prelate based in Scotland, who became Bishop of Orkney and then Bishop of Dunblane. A reader in divinity at the University of St Andrews at its first establishment, he was provided by Avignon Pope Benedict XIII as Bishop of Orkney 15 November 1415. He was a canon of Moray at this date. The consecration took place at the Papal court.

William Bell was a 14th-century Bishop of St Andrews. His origins are not clear, but he was holding a canonry in the diocese of Glasgow by 20 January 1312. He was a commissary of Bishop William de Lamberton in a case between Dunfermline Abbey and one of the abbey's vicars in early 1312. He was part of William de Lamberton's close group of associates, his familia. In 1328, he was involved playing an administrative role in drawing up a treating at Holyrood Abbey between King Robert I of Scotland and the English crown.

Alexander Bur Scottish bishop

Alexander Bur was a 14th-century Scottish cleric. It is highly possible that Bur came from somewhere in or around Aberdeenshire, although that is not certain and is only based on the knowledge that Aberdeenshire is where other people bearing his surname come from in this period. He entered the service of King David II of Scotland sometime after 1343, perhaps as a member of David's exiled court at Château Gaillard. Although Alexander by this point in time already held prebends in both the bishopric of Aberdeen and the bishopric of Dunkeld, on that date King David petitioned Pope Clement VI for another canonry in the bishopric of Moray. Alexander had become a royal clerk and had obtained a Licentiate in Canon Law by 1350. By the latter date, upon the death of Adam Penny, Archdeacon of Moray, Alexander himself became Archdeacon.

Thomas de Rossy O. F. M. was a late 14th century Scottish Franciscan friar, papal penitentiary, bishop and theologian. Of unknown, or at least unclear origin, he embarked on a religious career in his early years, entering the Franciscan Order, studying in England and at the University of Paris.

Thomas de Buittle [Butil, Butill, Butyll, Butyl, Bucyl] was a Scottish prelate, clerk and papal auditor active in the late 14th and early 15th centuries. Probably originating in Galloway, Scotland, Thomas took a university career in canon law in England and France, before taking up service at the court of Avignon Pope Benedict XIII. He obtained a number of benefices in the meantime, including the position of Archdeacon of Galloway, and is the earliest known and probably first provost of the collegiate church of Maybole. The height of his career came however when the Pope provided him to the bishopric of Galloway, a position he held from 1415 until his death sometime between 1420 and 1422.

John Bullock O.S.A. was an Augustinian canon and prelate active in the 15th century Kingdom of Scotland. While earning a university degree between 1409 and 1417, Bullock gained several benefices in Scotland, and claimed the headship of St Andrews Cathedral Priory before becoming Bishop of Ross in 1418. He held the latter position until his death, which occurred in either 1439 or 1440.

Thomas Lyell [or Lyel] was a Scottish clergyman associated with the diocese of Ross in the late 14th century and early 15th century. After William de Tarbat, Subdean of Ross, was elected Dean of Ross, on 1 May 1395, Thomas was provided as William's successor. Thomas however does not seem to have secured the position, losing out to John de Kylwos, a relative of the Bishop of Ross, Alexander de Kylwos.

Alexander de Kylwos – written alternatively as Frylquhous, Kylquos, and a variety of other forms – was a Scottish churchman and prelate active in the second half of the 14th century. He is known to have held senior positions in three bishoprics, and senior offices in two, before being elected and appointed Bishop of Ross in 1371. Though his episcopate is relatively obscure, he seems to have spent almost all of it inside or around his province, was closely associated with William III and Euphemia I, successive rulers of Ross, and was an associate of the famous Alexander Bur, Bishop of Moray, during the latter's struggle with Alexander Stewart, the son of the King later known by the nickname "Wolf of Badenoch".

Fionnlagh MacCailein or Finlay Colini was a medieval Scottish bishop. Both his early life and the details of his career as Bishop of Dunblane are not well known, however it is known that he held the latter bishopric between 1403 and his death in 1419. He was part of the circle of Robert Stewart, Duke of Albany, and was one of the many clerics from west and central Gaelic-speaking Scotland who benefited from the latter's patronage. He is said to have authorised the construction of the first bridge over the river Allan at Dunblane.

Dúghall of Lorne [or de Ergadia] was a late 14th century and early 15th century prelate in the Kingdom of Scotland. Probably a MacDúghaill (MacDougall) from the province of Lorne in Argyll, he appears to have studied at the University of Oxford before returning to Scotland for an ecclesiastical and administrative career. He obtained benefices in the diocese of Argyll, Dunkeld, Dunblane and St Andrews, and acted as the secretary and chaplain of Robert Stewart, Earl of Fife, before becoming Bishop of Dunblane. He held the bishopric of Dunblane until his death in 1403.

Walter Stewart was a 15th-century churchman in the Kingdom of Scotland. He was a cousin of King James II of Scotland, being like King James a grandson to King Robert III of Scotland.


Stephen I. Boardman, FRHistS, is a Scottish medieval historian. A graduate of the University of St Andrews, he held the Glenfiddich Research Fellowship and a Post-Doctoral Fellowship of the British Academy at St Andrews before being appointed Mackie Lecturer in History at the University of Aberdeen in 1995. He subsequently moved to the University of Edinburgh, where he is now Professor of Medieval Scottish History. Boardman's work focuses on kingship and the nobility in the later Middle Ages, and he has completed work on Kings Robert II and Robert III of Scotland, as well as Clan Campbell. The former is the only work to deal specifically with those monarchs.

John Dowden Bishop of Edinburgh; Irish Anglican/Episcopalian bishop

John Dowden DD LLD was an Irish-born bishop and ecclesiastical historian. He served in the Scottish Episcopal Church as the Bishop of Edinburgh.

Religious titles
Preceded by
Walter Trail
Bishop of St. Andrews
(Cill Rìmhinn)

elect only
Succeeded by
Walter de Danyelston
and Gilbert Greenlaw (unconsecrated)
Henry Wardlaw (consecrated)