Axillary artery and its branches - anterior view of right upper limb and thorax.
| Anatomical terminology |
The thoracodorsal artery is a branch of the subscapular artery. It travels inferiorly with the thoracodorsal nerve and supplies the latissimus dorsi.
The subscapular artery, the largest branch of the axillary artery, arises from the third part of the axillary artery at the lower border of the subscapularis muscle, which it follows to the inferior angle of the scapula, where it anastomoses with the lateral thoracic and intercostal arteries, and with the descending branch of the dorsal scapular artery, and ends in the neighboring muscles.
The thoracodorsal nerve is a nerve present in humans and other animals, also known as the middle subscapular nerve or the long subscapular nerve. It supplies the latissimus dorsi muscle.
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The pectoralis minor is a thin, triangular muscle, situated at the upper part of the chest, beneath the pectoralis major in the human body.
The internal pudendal artery is one of the three pudendal arteries that branches off the internal iliac artery, providing blood to the external genitalia.
The celiac artery, also known as the celiac trunk, or truncus coeliacus, is the first major branch of the abdominal aorta. It is 1.25 cm in length. Branching from the aorta at thoracic vertebra 12 (T12) in humans, it is one of three anterior/ midline branches of the abdominal aorta.
In human anatomy, the superior mesenteric artery (SMA) arises from the anterior surface of the abdominal aorta, just inferior to the origin of the celiac trunk, and supplies the intestine from the lower part of the duodenum through two-thirds of the transverse colon, as well as the pancreas.
In human anatomy, the axillary artery is a large blood vessel that conveys oxygenated blood to the lateral aspect of the thorax, the axilla (armpit) and the upper limb. Its origin is at the lateral margin of the first rib, before which it is called the subclavian artery.
In human anatomy, the inferior mesenteric artery, often abbreviated as IMA, is the third main branch of the abdominal aorta and arises at the level of L3, supplying the large intestine from the left colic flexure to the upper part of the rectum, which includes the descending colon, the sigmoid colon, and part of the rectum. Proximally, its territory of distribution overlaps with the middle colic artery, and therefore the superior mesenteric artery. The SMA and IMA anastomose via the marginal artery of the colon and via Riolan's arcade. The territory of distribution of the IMA is more or less equivalent to the embryonic hindgut.
The external iliac arteries are two major arteries which bifurcate off the common iliac arteries anterior to the sacroiliac joint of the pelvis. They proceed anterior and inferior along the medial border of the psoas major muscles. They exit the pelvic girdle posterior and inferior to the inguinal ligament about one third laterally from the insertion point of the inguinal ligament on the pubic tubercle at which point they are referred to as the femoral arteries. The external iliac artery is usually the artery used to attach the renal artery to the recipient of a kidney transplant.
The thoracoacromial artery is a short trunk that arises from the second part of the axillary artery, its origin being generally overlapped by the upper edge of the pectoralis minor.
The medial pectoral nerve arises from the medial cord of the brachial plexus and through it from the eighth cervical and first thoracic roots.
The iliolumbar artery is the first branch of the posterior trunk of the internal iliac artery.
The inferior rectal artery is an artery that supplies blood to the lower half of the anal canal.
The circumflex scapular artery is a branch of the subscapular artery and part of the scapular anastomoses.
The left gastroepiploic artery, the largest branch of the splenic artery, runs from left to right about a finger’s breadth or more from the greater curvature of the stomach, between the layers of the greater omentum, and anastomoses with the right gastroepiploic.
The sigmoid arteries, two or three in number, run obliquely downward and to the left behind the peritoneum and in front of the psoas major, ureter, and internal spermatic vessels.
The right colic artery arises from about the middle of the concavity of the superior mesenteric artery, or from a stem common to it and the ileocolic.
The middle colic artery is a branch of the superior mesenteric artery that mostly supplies the transverse colon. It arises just below the pancreas. It passes inferiorly and anteriorly between the layers of the transverse mesocolon, and divides into left and right branches. The right branch anastomoses with the right colic artery, and the left anastomoses with the left colic artery, a branch of the inferior mesenteric artery. This sequence of anastomses are frequently referred to as the marginal artery of the colon.
The left colic artery is a branch of the inferior mesenteric artery that runs to the left behind the peritoneum and in front of the psoas major muscle, and after a short, but variable, course divides into an ascending and a descending branch; the stem of the artery or its branches cross the left ureter and left internal spermatic vessels.
The clavipectoral fascia is a strong fascia situated under cover of the clavicular portion of the pectoralis major.
The superior rectal artery is an artery that descends into the pelvis to supply blood to the rectum.