|Thorntonbank Wind Farm|
Wind turbines D4 (nearest) to D1 on the Thornton Bank
|Location||28 km north off the Belgian coast|
|Construction began||February 2008|
|Commission date||18 September 2013|
|Construction cost||€ 1.3 billion|
|Max. water depth||27 m|
|Distance from shore||30 km|
|Rotor diameter||126 m|
|Make and model||Senvion: 6 × 5MW, 48 × 6.15MW|
|Nameplate capacity||325 MW|
|Commons||Related media on Commons|
The Thorntonbank Wind Farm is an offshore wind farm, 30 km (19 mi) off the Belgian coast, in water ranging from 12 to 27 metres (39 to 89 ft) deep.
Electricity production started in early 2009, with a capacity of 30 MW. The capacity was increased to a total of 214 MW in 2012 and 325 MW in 2013.
The project is made of three phases.
The first phase was built by C-Power and consists of six REpower offshore wind turbines of 5 MW capacity on the Thornton sandbank, at a cost of €153 million. It was commissioned in June 2009. A 37 km 150 kV undersea cable connects the Thorntonbank Wind Farm to the shore.
The first phase of what will ultimately be a 325 MW wind farm was completed in September 2008. The six REpower 5 MW turbines, which were installed on concrete gravity foundations, were linked to the Belgian power grid, giving a total rated capacity of 30 MW for the first stage. The full story of the design, engineering, construction and installation of the Thorntonbank Wind Farm (first phase) is told in an illustrated book that was published in November 2010.
In these phases, a total of 48 additional wind turbines of 6.15MWp were installed.
Phase 2, completed in October 2012, comprises the installation of 30 of the 48 wind turbines.These wind turbines have been installed on steel jacket foundations designed by OWEC Tower AS and assembled at Smulders, Hoboken.
In the third and last phase, completed in September 2013, the remaining 18 wind turbines were installed, bringing the total capacity to around 325 MW.
To assess the environmental impact C-Power has enlisted the assistance of the Research Institute for Nature and Forest (INBO) and the Institute for Agricultural and Fisheries Research (ILVO ) to obtain the most detailed possible information on the occurrence of these animal species at Thornton Bank and to assess the possible effect of a wind farm on them.
How the Wind Farms affect the landscape will be studied by WES-Onderzoek & Advies, who were also involved in earlier research in connection with the perceived impact on the landscape of near shore wind farms.
Offshore wind farms may affect sea fishing. Certain areas may be closed to commercial fishing, as a result of which the total area that can be fished is reduced, but new habitats may also be created as a result. The basis for this study is a thorough investigation of the importance of the Thornton Bank for sea fishing.
Offshore wind farms create new structures at sea and by definition they therefore pose an additional risk to the safety of shipping. C-Power has, however, chosen a location which is a long way from the most important shipping routes so that this risk can be reduced to a minimum. C-Power will be calling upon the specialised knowledge of German consultants Germanischer Lloyd.
Thorntonbank was only the second offshore wind farm to be Project Financed.
The United Kingdom is one of the best locations for wind power in the world and is considered to be the best in Europe. Wind power contributed 20% of UK electricity generation in 2019, making up 54% of electricity generation from renewable sources. Wind power in the UK is a popular low cost generation mode which is still dropping in price and delivers a rapidly growing percentage of the electricity of the United Kingdom.
Arklow Bank Wind Park is a 25 megawatt offshore wind farm generating electrical power for the Wicklow region in Ireland. It is the first offshore wind farm in Ireland, and the world's first erection of wind turbines rated over 3 MW. It is located on the Arklow Bank, a shallow water sandbank in the Irish Sea, around 10 kilometers (6.2 mi) off the coast of Arklow with an area of 27 by 2.5 kilometres.
As of December 2017, installed capacity of wind power in the European Union totaled 169.3 gigawatts (GW). In 2017, a total of 15,680 MW of wind power was installed, representing 55% of all new power capacity, and the wind power generated 336 TWh of electricity, enough to supply 11.6% of the EU's electricity consumption.
The Shiloh wind power plant is a wind farm located in the Montezuma Hills of Solano County, California, USA, close to Bird's Landing and Collinsville, 40 miles (64 km) northeast of San Francisco. It has a nameplate capacity of 505 megawatts (MW) of power and was built in four stages between 2005 and 2012. Several additional projects are also located in the Montezuma.
The Princess Amalia Wind Farm is an offshore wind farm in the Netherlands. Prior to its official opening, it was known as the Q7 Wind Farm.
Offshore wind power or offshore wind energy is the use of wind farms constructed in bodies of water, usually in the ocean, to harvest wind energy to generate electricity. Higher wind speeds are available offshore compared to on land, so offshore wind power’s electricity generation is higher per amount of capacity installed, and NIMBY opposition to construction is usually much weaker.
The Belwind Wind Farm is located on Bligh Bank, 46 kilometres (29 mi) from the Belgian port of Zeebrugge, and has been built in two phases. It has a 330 MW production capacity and an estimated annual output of 1.1 TWh. Phase 1 had a 165 MW production capacity.
Alpha Ventus Offshore Wind Park is Germany's first offshore wind farm. It is situated in the North Sea 45 kilometres (28 mi) north of the island of Borkum.
Gode Wind 1, 2, and 3 are offshore wind farms located north-west of Norderney in the German sector of North Sea. They are owned by Ørsted. Gode Wind 1 and 2 are operational, while Gode Wind 3 is being developed.
Wind power in Belgium depends partially on regional governments and partially on the Belgian federal government. Wind energy producers in both the Flemish and Walloon regions get green certificates but not with the same conditions.
Wind power in the Netherlands reached an installed capacity of 4,341 MW by year end 2017, 1,118 MW of which were based offshore. The 2,294 turbines sited in the Netherlands by the end of 2017 provided the country with 9% of its electricity demand during the year, a figure that is growing but somewhat below the average of 11.6% that wind power provides across the whole of the EU’s electricity consumption. 2015 was a record year for new installations in the Netherlands with 586 MW added of which 180 MW were offshore.
The Lincs Wind Farm is a 270 MW offshore wind farm 8 kilometres (5.0 mi) off Skegness on the east coast of England. The total cost of the project is estimated at £1 billion including electrical transmission links. The farm was completed in 2013. It is adjacent to the smaller Lynn and Inner Dowsing Wind Farm.
The Ormonde Wind Farm is a wind farm west of Barrow-in-Furness in the Irish Sea. The wind farm covers an area of 8.7 square kilometres (3.4 sq mi). It has a total capacity of 150 MW and is expected to produce around 500 GWh of electricity per year.
Nordsee-Ost offshore wind farm is an offshore wind farm in operation in the eastern part of the North Sea German sector. The project was developed by RWE Innogy, a subsidiary of RWE.
Walney Wind Farms are a group of offshore wind farms 9 miles (14 km) west of Walney Island off the coast of Cumbria, in the Irish Sea, England. The group, operated by Ørsted, consists of Walney Phase 1, Phase 2 and the Walney Extension. The extension has a capacity of 659 MW making it the world's s second largest offshore wind farm.
Teesside Wind Farm, or alternatively referred to as Redcar Wind Farm, is a 27 turbine 62 MW capacity offshore wind farm constructed just to the east of the mouth of the River Tees and 1.5 km north of Redcar off the North Yorkshire coast, in the North Sea, England.
The following outline is provided as an overview of and topical guide to wind energy:
Renewable energy in Taiwan contributed to 8.7% of national electricity generation as of end of 2013. The total installed capacity of renewable energy in Taiwan by the end of 2013 was 3.76 GW.
The Formosa 1 Offshore Wind Farm is a 128 MW offshore wind power station in Miaoli County, Taiwan. It is Taiwan's first offshore wind farm.
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to Thornton Bank wind farm .|