|Genus:|| Iriatherina |
The threadfin rainbowfish or featherfin rainbowfish (Iriatherina werneri) is a rainbowfish, the only species in the genus Iriatherina. It is characterized by long beautiful fins, and is among the most attractive of the rainbowfishes.
The rainbowfish are a family, Melanotaeniidae, of small, colourful, freshwater fish found in northern and eastern Australia, New Guinea, islands in Cenderawasih Bay the Raja Ampat Islands in Indonesia and in Madagascar.
It is native to freshwater swamps and demersal or thickly vegetated areas of flowing waters, in tropical northern Australia and New Guinea.
Australia, officially the Commonwealth of Australia, is a sovereign country comprising the mainland of the Australian continent, the island of Tasmania, and numerous smaller islands. It is the largest country in Oceania and the world's sixth-largest country by total area. The neighbouring countries are Papua New Guinea, Indonesia, and East Timor to the north; the Solomon Islands and Vanuatu to the north-east; and New Zealand to the south-east. The population of 26 million is highly urbanised and heavily concentrated on the eastern seaboard. Australia's capital is Canberra, and its largest city is Sydney. The country's other major metropolitan areas are Melbourne, Brisbane, Perth, and Adelaide.
New Guinea is a large island separated by a shallow sea from the rest of the Australian continent. It is the world's second-largest island, after Greenland, covering a land area of 785,753 km2 (303,381 sq mi), and the largest wholly or partly within the Southern Hemisphere and Oceania.
It grows up to 5 cm (2.0 in) in length, but this does not include the Threadfin's long tail. Sexing is easy by examining fins: males have larger, gaudier finnage than females. Males also have more intense colours. When reproduction takes place eggs are scattered among the leaves of submerged vegetation, and hatch after7-10 days.
The threadfin rainbowfish was described by Herman Meinkin in 1974 from types collected in Merauke, Irian Jaya, Indonesia.Meinken honoured the German aquarium fish trader Arthur Werner, who collected the type, in the specific name. The generic name is a combination of Iri referring to Irian Jaya and atherina, referring to the silverside genus Atherina as they were thought to be in the same family at the time of naming. Genetic studies have appeared to indicate that there may be significant genetic divergence between the different populations of threadfin rainbowfish that occur parapatrically in northern Queensland and in the Northern Territory which would mean these populations were different species. It is likely that the New Guinea populations will be shown to be third species.
A species description is a formal description of a newly discovered species, usually in the form of a scientific paper. Its purpose is to give a clear description of a new species of organism and explain how it differs from species which have been described previously or are related. The species description often contains photographs or other illustrations of the type material and states in which museums it has been deposited. The publication in which the species is described gives the new species a formal scientific name. Some 1.9 million species have been identified and described, out of some 8.7 million that may actually exist. Millions more have become extinct.
In biology, a type is a particular specimen of an organism to which the scientific name of that organism is formally attached. In other words, a type is an example that serves to anchor or centralize the defining features of that particular taxon. In older usage, a type was a taxon rather than a specimen.
Merauke is a large town and an administrative district which is also the administrative centre of Merauke Regency, Papua province, Indonesia. However, it is intended by the Indonesian Government that Merauke will become an city independent from the Regency, and will then become the capital of the proposed South Papua Province. It is considered to be one of the easternmost cities in Indonesia. The town was originally called Ermasoe. It is next to the Maro River where the Port of Merauke is located.
In aquaria they are usually peaceful, they live preferably in groups of six or more. Because of their long fins they should obviously be kept in a tank without fin-nippers. They breed best in tanks without other species. The male courts the female by posturing in front of her repeatedly quickly raising then lowering the forward dorsal fin. The recommended male-to-female ratio is about 1:3, due to polygamous behavior of dominant male.
An aquarium is a vivarium of any size having at least one transparent side in which aquatic plants or animals are kept and displayed. Fishkeepers use aquaria to keep fish, invertebrates, amphibians, aquatic reptiles such as turtles, and aquatic plants. The term "aquarium", coined by English naturalist Philip Henry Gosse, combines the Latin root aqua, meaning water, with the suffix -arium, meaning "a place for relating to". The aquarium principle was fully developed in 1850 by the chemist Robert Warington, who explained that plants added to water in a container would give off enough oxygen to support animals, so long as the numbers of animals did not grow too large. The aquarium craze was launched in early Victorian England by Gosse, who created and stocked the first public aquarium at the London Zoo in 1853, and published the first manual, The Aquarium: An Unveiling of the Wonders of the Deep Sea in 1854. An aquarium is a water-filled tank in which fish swim about. Small aquariums are kept in the home by hobbyists. There are larger public aquariums in many cities. This kind of aquarium is a building with fish and other aquatic animals in large tanks. A large aquarium may have otters, turtles, dolphins, and other sea animals. Most aquarium tanks also have plants.
Threadfin rainbowfish do well in aquariums of 20 US gallons (76 L), however 30 US gallons (110 L) is preferred. They are best housed in a "species only" tank; meaning that the tank is reserved for the Threadfins alone. Because of their tiny mouths, they can be difficult to feed. They do well with live foods, such as baby brine shrimp, and the micrometre larval diets.
They prefer water that is soft to moderately hard, slightly acidic (pH 6.0–7.0), and with a temperature of 23–29 °C (73–84 °F).
In chemistry, pH is a scale used to specify how acidic or basic a water-based solution is. Acidic solutions have a lower pH, while basic solutions have a higher pH. At room temperature (25 °C), pure water is neither acidic nor basic and has a pH of 7.
Maylandia estherae is a haplochromine cichlid. It is a rock dwelling fish or mbuna from Lake Malawi. This fish, like most cichlids from Lake Malawi, is a mouthbrooder - females hold their fertilized eggs then fry in their mouths until they are released after about 21 days.
The red rainbowfish or salmon-red rainbowfish is a species of rainbowfish from Lake Sentani in Irian Jaya, Indonesia. Belonging to the family Melanotaeniidae, in the subfamily Melanotaeniinae, the Australian rainbowfishes. It is threatened in its native range, but easily bred in captivity and common in the aquarium trade.
Maylandia lombardoi, is a 13 centimetres (5.1 in) long freshwater fish from the family Cichlidae. This species is popular in the aquarium hobby where it is sold under a variety of common names including: lombardoi mbuna, kenyi mbuna or kennyi mbuna or kenyi cichlid. This species is sometimes seen in the genus Metriaclima owing to a dispute in which a minority of cichlid researchers do not consider Maylandia valid (see Maylandia for discussion. The specific name honours the exotic fish dealer John Lombardo.
The threadfin acara, also known as Heckel's thread-finned acara, is a South American species of cichlid fish. It is the only member of the genus Acarichthys and is native to rivers in the Amazon and Essequibo basins in tropical South America, and has become established in southeastern Asia. It is sometimes found in the aquarium trade.
Pseudotropheus johannii or the bluegray mbuna is an African freshwater fish from the family Cichlidae.
The red-tailed silverside, or zona is a species of Madagascar rainbowfish endemic to the Mananjary River drainage in Madagascar. It is threatened by habitat loss and introduced species. It has often been confused with the related B. madagascariensis, which is common in the aquarium trade. In addition to meristics, the two can be separated by the exact colour pattern on their tail fin and the distinct red spot on the lower jaw of breeding male B. geayi. B. geayi was described in 1907 by Jacques Pellegrin from a type collected by the pharmacist and natural history collector Martin François Geay (1859-1910), who Pellegrin honoured with its specific name.
Axelrod's rainbowfish is a species of rainbowfish in the subfamily Melanotaeniinae. It is found in Papua New Guinea in the Yungkiri stream in the north western part of that nation. Typically its preferred habitat is a narrow stream with gentle moving, cloudy water surrounded by lush rainforest.
The convict julie is a cichlid species in the subfamily Pseudocrenilabrinae family endemic to Lake Tanganyika. Hence it is found in Burundi, the Democratic Republic of the Congo, Tanzania, and Zambia. The fish is named after Charles Tate Regan.
The glass blue-eye is a species of fish in the subfamily Pseudomugilinae. It is endemic to Papua New Guinea where it is only known to occur in a few small creeks adjacent to a 15–20 kilometres (9.3–12.4 mi) stretch of the Ok Tedi Mine supply road between the settlements of Kiunga and Tabubil in the Upper Fly River system close to the frontier with Irian Jaya. This species has a mainly transparent body with silvery gill covers and belly, there are black spots on the margins of the scales and there are black markings on the fins and lateral line, with the fins being shaded with yellow, with the exception of the transparent pectoral fins. It attains a standard length of 3 centimetres (1.2 in).This species was described by Gerald R. Allen in 1983 and its specific name honours the site biologist at the Ok Tedi Mine, David Balloch, for the support and assistance he gave Allen.
The threadfin cichlid is a species of cichlid endemic to Lake Tanganyika found in areas with rocky substrates on which it can graze on algae. This species can reach a length of 18 cm (7.1 in). It can be found in the aquarium trade. The specific name of this cichlid honours the British ichthyologist Ethelwynn Trewavas (1900-1993).
The Popondetta blue-eye or Popondetta rainbowfish, is a species of fish in the subfamily Pseudomugilinae. It is endemic to Papua New Guinea where it occurs at three localities around Popondetta in the east of the country. This species inhabits clear, fast flowing freshwater streams, although it has been reported from brackish water. This species was described in 1981 as Popondetta connieae by Gerald R. Allen from a typelocality of Auga Creek, about 5 kilometres (3.1 mi) south of Popondetta where Allen collected the 200 types along with Brian Parkinson. Allen gave it the specific name connieae to honour his wife, Connie, who normally prepared Allen's manuscripts for publication. This species is sought-after in the aquarium trade and is available in the European and Australian markets.
The electric blue hap is a species of cichlid fish endemic to Lake Malawi. It prefers to live in caves and crevices in rocky substrates. This species can reach a length of 20 centimetres (7.9 in) TL. It can also be found in the aquarium trade.
The Celebes rainbowfish is a species of sailfin silverside endemic to Sulawesi in Indonesia. It is the only known member of its genus.
Pseudochromis steenei, also known as lyretail lottyback, is a saltwater fish from Indonesia that is occasionally kept in aquariums. The specific name honours the Australian naturalist and underwater photographer Roger C. Steene who assisted in the collection of the type specimen.
Melanotaenia duboulayi, the crimson-spotted rainbowfish, less commonly known as the Duboulay's rainbowfish, is a species of freshwater rainbowfish endemic to eastern Australia. M. duboulayi has also been kept in aquariums since the early 20th century, and is the original Australian rainbowfish.
The ornate rainbowfish is a species of rainbowfish endemic to an area in eastern Australia, where it is native to coastal regions and sandy offshore islands in southern Queensland and northern New South Wales. It is the only known member of its genus. It is a popular aquarium fish.
Aplocheilus werneri is a species of killifish endemic to Sri Lanka. This species grows to a length of 7 cm (2.8 in). Its natural habitats are small, shallow, slow-flowing, heavily shaded streams and rivulets with a silt or clay substrate. They are largely use as an aquarium fish. The specific name honours the fish importer Andreas Werner whi imported this species into Germany for the first time in 1964.
Melanotaeniinae the Australian rainbowfishes is a subfamily of the rainbowfishes of the family Melanotaeniidae. They are a group of small, colourful, freshwater fish found in northern and eastern Australia, New Guinea, islands in Cenderawasih Bay the Raja Ampat Islands in Indonesia and in Madagascar.
Pseudomugil ivantsoffi is a species of blue-eye from the subfamily Pseudomugilinae, part of the rainbowfish family Melanotaeniidae. It is endemic to Western Papua in Indonesia. It was described in 1999 by Gerald R. Allen and Samuel J. Renyaan from types collected in southern Irian Jaya at two locations one a tributary of the Kopi River approximately 1 kilometre (0.62 mi) of the Tembagapura Road and from the mile 39 Camp of the Freeport Mining Company in 1995. They named the species in honour of the ichthyologist Walter Ivantsoff of Macquarie University in Sydney.