Threadfin rainbowfish

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Threadfin rainbowfish
Iriatherina Werneri-Male group.jpg
Scientific classification Red Pencil Icon.png
Kingdom: Animalia
Phylum: Chordata
Class: Actinopterygii
Order: Atheriniformes
Family: Melanotaeniidae
Subfamily: Melanotaeniinae
Genus: Iriatherina
Meinken, 1974
I. werneri
Binomial name
Iriatherina werneri
Meinken, 1974

The threadfin rainbowfish or featherfin rainbowfish (Iriatherina werneri) is a rainbowfish, the only species in the genus Iriatherina. It is characterized by long beautiful fins, and is among the most attractive of the rainbowfishes.

Rainbowfish family of fish (Melanotaeniidae)

The rainbowfish are a family, Melanotaeniidae, of small, colourful, freshwater fish found in northern and eastern Australia, New Guinea, islands in Cenderawasih Bay the Raja Ampat Islands in Indonesia and in Madagascar.

It is native to freshwater swamps and demersal or thickly vegetated areas of flowing waters, in tropical northern Australia and New Guinea. [1]

Australia Country in Oceania

Australia, officially the Commonwealth of Australia, is a sovereign country comprising the mainland of the Australian continent, the island of Tasmania, and numerous smaller islands. It is the largest country in Oceania and the world's sixth-largest country by total area. The neighbouring countries are Papua New Guinea, Indonesia, and East Timor to the north; the Solomon Islands and Vanuatu to the north-east; and New Zealand to the south-east. The population of 26 million is highly urbanised and heavily concentrated on the eastern seaboard. Australia's capital is Canberra, and its largest city is Sydney. The country's other major metropolitan areas are Melbourne, Brisbane, Perth, and Adelaide.

New Guinea Island in the Pacific Ocean

New Guinea is a large island separated by a shallow sea from the rest of the Australian continent. It is the world's second-largest island, after Greenland, covering a land area of 785,753 km2 (303,381 sq mi), and the largest wholly or partly within the Southern Hemisphere and Oceania.

It grows up to 5 cm (2.0 in) in length, but this does not include the Threadfin's long tail. Sexing is easy by examining fins: males have larger, gaudier finnage than females. Males also have more intense colours. [2] When reproduction takes place eggs are scattered among the leaves of submerged vegetation, and hatch after7-10 days. [3]

The threadfin rainbowfish was described by Herman Meinkin in 1974 from types collected in Merauke, Irian Jaya, Indonesia. [4] Meinken honoured the German aquarium fish trader Arthur Werner, who collected the type, in the specific name. The generic name is a combination of Iri referring to Irian Jaya and atherina, referring to the silverside genus Atherina as they were thought to be in the same family at the time of naming. [5] Genetic studies have appeared to indicate that there may be significant genetic divergence between the different populations of threadfin rainbowfish that occur parapatrically in northern Queensland and in the Northern Territory which would mean these populations were different species. It is likely that the New Guinea populations will be shown to be third species. [6]

A species description is a formal description of a newly discovered species, usually in the form of a scientific paper. Its purpose is to give a clear description of a new species of organism and explain how it differs from species which have been described previously or are related. The species description often contains photographs or other illustrations of the type material and states in which museums it has been deposited. The publication in which the species is described gives the new species a formal scientific name. Some 1.9 million species have been identified and described, out of some 8.7 million that may actually exist. Millions more have become extinct.

Type (biology) Specimen(s) to which a scientific name is formally attached

In biology, a type is a particular specimen of an organism to which the scientific name of that organism is formally attached. In other words, a type is an example that serves to anchor or centralize the defining features of that particular taxon. In older usage, a type was a taxon rather than a specimen.

Merauke Place in Papua

Merauke is a large town and an administrative district which is also the administrative centre of Merauke Regency, Papua province, Indonesia. However, it is intended by the Indonesian Government that Merauke will become an city independent from the Regency, and will then become the capital of the proposed South Papua Province. It is considered to be one of the easternmost cities in Indonesia. The town was originally called Ermasoe. It is next to the Maro River where the Port of Merauke is located.

In the aquarium

In aquaria they are usually peaceful, they live preferably in groups of six or more. Because of their long fins they should obviously be kept in a tank without fin-nippers. They breed best in tanks without other species. The male courts the female by posturing in front of her repeatedly quickly raising then lowering the forward dorsal fin. The recommended male-to-female ratio is about 1:3, due to polygamous behavior of dominant male.

Aquarium transparent tank of water for fish and water-dwelling species

An aquarium is a vivarium of any size having at least one transparent side in which aquatic plants or animals are kept and displayed. Fishkeepers use aquaria to keep fish, invertebrates, amphibians, aquatic reptiles such as turtles, and aquatic plants. The term "aquarium", coined by English naturalist Philip Henry Gosse, combines the Latin root aqua, meaning water, with the suffix -arium, meaning "a place for relating to". The aquarium principle was fully developed in 1850 by the chemist Robert Warington, who explained that plants added to water in a container would give off enough oxygen to support animals, so long as the numbers of animals did not grow too large. The aquarium craze was launched in early Victorian England by Gosse, who created and stocked the first public aquarium at the London Zoo in 1853, and published the first manual, The Aquarium: An Unveiling of the Wonders of the Deep Sea in 1854. An aquarium is a water-filled tank in which fish swim about. Small aquariums are kept in the home by hobbyists. There are larger public aquariums in many cities. This kind of aquarium is a building with fish and other aquatic animals in large tanks. A large aquarium may have otters, turtles, dolphins, and other sea animals. Most aquarium tanks also have plants.

Threadfin rainbowfish do well in aquariums of 20 US gallons (76 L), however 30 US gallons (110 L) is preferred. They are best housed in a "species only" tank; meaning that the tank is reserved for the Threadfins alone. Because of their tiny mouths, they can be difficult to feed. They do well with live foods, such as baby brine shrimp, and the micrometre larval diets.

They prefer water that is soft to moderately hard, slightly acidic (pH 6.0–7.0), and with a temperature of 23–29 °C (73–84 °F).

pH measure of the acidity or basicity of an aqueous solution

In chemistry, pH is a scale used to specify how acidic or basic a water-based solution is. Acidic solutions have a lower pH, while basic solutions have a higher pH. At room temperature (25 °C), pure water is neither acidic nor basic and has a pH of 7.

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  1. Froese, Rainer and Pauly, Daniel, eds. (2019). "Iriatherina werneri" in FishBase . February 2019 version.
  2. John Robertson (September 2013). "Breeding the Threadfin Rainbowfish". Tropical Fishkeeping.
  3. Gomon, M.F. & Bray, D.J. (2017). "Iriatherina werneri". Fishes of Australia. Museums Victoria. Retrieved 7 July 2019.
  4. Eschmeyer, W. N.; R. Fricke & R. van der Laan (eds.). "Iriatherina werneri". Catalog of Fishes. California Academy of Sciences. Retrieved 7 July 2019.
  5. Christopher Scharpf & Kenneth J. Lazara (14 March 2019). "Order ATHERINIFORMES: Families BEDOTIIDAE, MELANOTAENIIDAE, PSEUDOMUGILIDAE, TELMATHERINIDAE, ISONIDAE, DENTATHERINIDAE and PHALLOSTETHIDAE". The ETYFish Project Fish Name Etymology Database. Christopher Scharpf and Kenneth J. Lazara. Retrieved 7 July 2019.
  6. Adrian R. Lappin (September 2015). "Iriatherina werneri". Rainbowfish. Australia New Guinea Fish Association (ANGFA). Retrieved 7 July 2019.