Threatened mammals of Europe

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The list below contains threatened mammals that dwell in or migrate to any region in Europe, the East Atlantic Ocean, and any nearby islands of the Atlantic Ocean. This includes mammals that are found in the East Atlantic Ocean (Azores), Iceland, the Adriatic Sea, the Sea of Azov, the Black and Caspian Sea, Corsica, Cyprus, Palearctic, Russia, Eurasia, North African Coast, the Mediterranean Sea and islands located in the Mediterranean Sea, and the islands of Spain (Canary, Balearic). The list below was compiled from data on the IUCN Red List of Endangered Species (IUCN). The International Union for Conservation of Nature [1] identifies species in need of attention before approaching extinction and works to increase prevention of extinction. The list below includes vulnerable (VU), endangered (EN), critically endangered (CR), and recently extinct (EX) species.

Threatened species

Threatened species are any species which are vulnerable to endangerment in the near future. Species that are threatened are sometimes characterised by the population dynamics measure of critical depensation, a mathematical measure of biomass related to population growth rate. This quantitative metric is one method of evaluating the degree of endangerment.

Mammal class of tetrapods

Mammals are vertebrate animals constituting the class Mammalia, and characterized by the presence of mammary glands which in females produce milk for feeding (nursing) their young, a neocortex, fur or hair, and three middle ear bones. These characteristics distinguish them from reptiles and birds, from which they diverged in the late Triassic, 201–227 million years ago. There are around 5,450 species of mammals. The largest orders are the rodents, bats and Soricomorpha. The next three are the Primates, the Cetartiodactyla, and the Carnivora.

Europe Continent in the Northern Hemisphere and mostly in the Eastern Hemisphere

Europe is a continent located entirely in the Northern Hemisphere and mostly in the Eastern Hemisphere. It is bordered by the Arctic Ocean to the north, the Atlantic Ocean to the west and the Mediterranean Sea to the south. It comprises the westernmost part of Eurasia.

Barbary sheep BarbarySheep4.jpg
Barbary sheep
Southwestern water vole Arvicola sapidus 02 by-dpc.jpg
Southwestern water vole
Adult blue whale from the eastern Pacific Ocean Bluewhale877.jpg
Adult blue whale from the eastern Pacific Ocean
A fin whale surfaces in the Kenai Fjords, Alaska LMazzuca Fin Whale.jpg
A fin whale surfaces in the Kenai Fjords, Alaska
A European bison in a game park near Springe Bison bonasus (Linnaeus 1758).jpg
A European bison in a game park near Springe
Hamilton Smith's copy of a painting of an aurochs believed to date to the 16th century Ur-painting.jpg
Hamilton Smith's copy of a painting of an aurochs believed to date to the 16th century
Hooded seal pup (next to researcher) on ice in the Gulf of St. Lawrence Hooded seal crop.JPG
Hooded seal pup (next to researcher) on ice in the Gulf of St. Lawrence
Wild horses Przewalski 26-9-2004-2.jpg
Wild horses
North Atlantic right whale mother and calf Eubalaena glacialis with calf.jpg
North Atlantic right whale mother and calf
Pyrenean desman Galemys pyrenaicus 01 by-dpc.jpg
Pyrenean desman
Water deer Shammy.jpg
Water deer
Iberian lynx Linces19.jpg
Iberian lynx
Barbary macaque Portrait of a father.jpg
Barbary macaque
Mediterranean monk seal Monachus monachus - Museo civico di storia naturale (Milan).jpg
Mediterranean monk seal
European mink Europaischer Nerz.jpg
European mink
Long-fingered bat Myotis capaccinii 0105b.jpg
Long-fingered bat
Sperm whale Sperm whale 12.jpg
Sperm whale
Sardinian long-eared bat Plecotus-sardus.png
Sardinian long-eared bat
Polar bears Ursus maritimus Polar bear with cub 2.jpg
Polar bears
Adult marbled polecat (Vormela peregusna) Marbled polecat.jpg
Adult marbled polecat (Vormela peregusna)
Scientific name Common name(s)DistributionStatus
Ammotragus lervia Aoudad, Barbary sheep, uaddanNative:

Algeria; Chad; Egypt; Libyan Arab Jamahiriya; Mali; Mauritania; Morocco; Niger; Sudan; Tunisia Introduced: Mexico; Spain (Canary Is.); United States Presence uncertain: Western Sahara

Vulnerable
Arvicola sapidus Southwestern water voleFrance; Portugal; SpainVulnerable
Balaenoptera borealis Sei whaleAngola; Argentina; Australia; Bahamas; Bermuda; Brazil; Canada; Cape Verde; Chile; Congo; Congo, The Democratic Republic of the; Cuba; Dominican Republic; Falkland Islands; Faroe Islands; French Southern Territories (the); Gibraltar; Greenland; Haiti; Iceland; Ireland; Japan; Kenya; Korea, Democratic People's Republic of; Korea, Republic of; Madagascar; Mauritania; Mexico; Morocco; Namibia; New Zealand; Northern Mariana Islands; Norway; Peru; Portugal; Réunion; Russian Federation; Saint Pierre and Miquelon; South Africa; South Georgia and the South Sandwich Islands; Spain; Turks and Caicos Islands; United Kingdom; United States; Uruguay; Western SaharaEndangered
Balaenoptera musculus Blue whaleAngola; Argentina; Australia; Bahamas; Bangladesh; Benin; Bermuda; Brazil; Cameroon; Canada; Cape Verde; Chile; China; Cocos (Keeling) Islands; Colombia; Comoros; Cook Islands; Costa Rica; Côte d'Ivoire; Djibouti; Ecuador; El Salvador; Equatorial Guinea; Eritrea; Falkland Islands; Faroe Islands; France; French Southern Territories (the); Gabon; Ghana; Gibraltar; Greece; Greenland; Grenada; Guatemala; Iceland; India; Indonesia; Iran, Islamic Republic of; Iraq; Ireland; Japan; Kenya; Madagascar; Malaysia; Maldives; Marshall Islands; Mauritania; Mauritius; Mexico; Morocco; Mozambique; Myanmar; Namibia; New Caledonia; New Zealand; Nicaragua; Nigeria; Northern Mariana Islands; Norway; Oman; Pakistan; Palau; Panama; Peru; Philippines; Pitcairn; Portugal; Réunion; Russian Federation; Saint Helena (Tristan da Cunha); Saint Pierre and Miquelon; Sao Tomé and Principe; Senegal; Seychelles; Somalia; South Africa; South Georgia and the South Sandwich Islands; Spain; Sri Lanka; Taiwan, Province of China; Tanzania, United Republic of; Thailand; Timor-Leste; Togo; United Kingdom; United States; Uruguay; Western Sahara; YemenEndangered
Balaenoptera physalus Fin whaleAlgeria; Angola; Argentina; Australia; Belgium; Bermuda; Brazil; Canada; Chile; China; Congo; Congo, The Democratic Republic of the; Cyprus; Denmark; Egypt; Falkland Islands (Malvinas); Faroe Islands; Fiji; France; French Polynesia; French Southern Territories (the); Germany; Gibraltar; Greece; Greenland; Iceland; Ireland; Israel; Italy; Japan; Korea, Democratic People's Republic of; Korea, Republic of; Lebanon; Libyan Arab Jamahiriya; Madagascar; Malta; Mexico; Monaco; Morocco; Mozambique; Namibia; Netherlands; New Caledonia; New Zealand; Niue; Northern Mariana Islands; Norway; Peru; Philippines; Pitcairn; Portugal; Réunion; Russian Federation; Saint Pierre and Miquelon; South Africa; South Georgia and the South Sandwich Islands; Spain; Sweden; Syrian Arab Republic; Taiwan, Province of China; Togo; Tunisia; Turkey; Tuvalu; United Kingdom; United States; Uruguay; Vanuatu; Western SaharaEndangered
Bison bonasus European bisonNative:

Belarus; Lithuania; Poland; Romania; Russian Federation; Slovakia; Ukraine Introduced: Kyrgyzstan

Vulnerable
Bos primigenius primigenius AurochsPolandExtinct
Crocidura canariensis Canarian shrewSpain (Canary Is.)Endangered
Crocidura zimmermanni Cretan white-toothed shrewGreece (Kriti)Vulnerable
Cystophora cristata Hooded sealNative:

Canada; Greenland; Iceland; Norway; United States Vagrant: Argentina; Bahamas; Bermuda; Denmark; Faroe Islands; France; Germany; Ireland; Portugal; Puerto Rico; Russian Federation; Spain; Svalbard and Jan Mayen; Turks and Caicos Islands; United Kingdom

Vulnerable
Dinaromys bogdanovi Native:

Bosnia and Herzegovina; Croatia; Macedonia, the Republic of; Montenegro; Serbia Presence uncertain: Albania; Greece

Vulnerable
Equus ferus przewalskii Przewalski's horse Regionally extinct:

Belarus; China; Germany; Kazakhstan; Lithuania; Poland; Russian Federation; Ukraine Reintroduced: Mongolia

Endangered
Eubalaena glacialis North Atlantic right whaleNative:

Bahamas; Bermuda; Canada; United States Possibly extinct: Belgium; Faroe Islands; France; Germany; Ireland; Morocco; Netherlands; Norway; Portugal (Azores, Madeira, Portugal (mainland)); Spain (Canary Is., Spain (mainland)); United Kingdom; Western Sahara Vagrant: Greenland; Iceland

Endangered
Galemys pyrenaicus Pyrenean desmanAndorra; France; Portugal; SpainVulnerable
Hydropotes inermis Chinese water deerNative:

China; Korea, Democratic People's Republic of; Korea, Republic of Introduced: France; United Kingdom

Vulnerable
Lepus castroviejoi Broom hareSpainVulnerable
Lepus corsicanus Corsican hareNative:

Italy (Sicilia) Presence uncertain: France (Corse)

Vulnerable
Lynx pardinus Iberian lynxNative:

Spain Presence uncertain: Portugal

Endangered
Macaca sylvanus Barbary macaqueNative:

Algeria; Morocco Regionally extinct: Tunisia Introduced: Gibraltar

Endangered
Microtus bavaricus Bavarian pine voleNative:

Austria Regionally extinct: Germany

Critically endangered
Monachus monachus Mediterranean monk sealNative:

Algeria; Greece; Mauritania; Portugal (Azores - Regionally Extinct, Madeira - Regionally Extinct, Portugal (mainland) - Regionally Extinct); Turkey; Western Sahara Possibly extinct: Croatia; Gambia; Libyan Arab Jamahiriya; Montenegro; Romania; Spain (Baleares, Canary Is. - Native, Spain (mainland) - Regionally Extinct); Tunisia Regionally extinct: Albania; Bosnia and Herzegovina; Bulgaria; Cape Verde; Cyprus; Egypt; France (Corse, France (mainland)); Georgia; Israel; Italy (Italy (mainland), Sardegna, Sicilia); Lebanon; Malta; Morocco; Russian Federation; Senegal; Slovenia; Syrian Arab Republic; Ukraine Presence uncertain: Afghanistan

Endangered
Mustela lutreola European minkNative:

France; Romania; Russian Federation; Spain; Ukraine Regionally extinct: Austria; Belarus; Bulgaria; Croatia; Czech Republic; Estonia; Finland; Georgia; Germany; Hungary; Kazakhstan; Latvia; Lithuania; Moldova; Montenegro; Netherlands; Poland; Serbia; Slovakia; Switzerland

Critically endangered
Myomimus roachi Roach's mouse-tailed dormouseBulgaria; Greece; TurkeyVulnerable
Myotis capaccinii Long-fingered batNative:

Albania; Algeria; Andorra; Bosnia and Herzegovina; Bulgaria; Croatia; Cyprus; France (Corse); Greece (Kriti); Holy See (Vatican City State); Iran, Islamic Republic of; Iraq; Israel; Italy (Sardegna, Sicilia); Jordan; Lebanon; Macedonia, the Republic of; Montenegro; Morocco; Romania; Serbia; Slovenia; Spain (Baleares); Syrian Arab Republic; Turkey Regionally extinct: Switzerland

Vulnerable
Nyctalus azoreum Azores noctuleNative:

Albania; Algeria; Angola; Antarctica; Antigua and Barbuda; Argentina; Australia; Bahamas; Bangladesh; Barbados; Belgium; Belize; Benin; Brazil; Brunei Darussalam; Cameroon; Canada; Cape Verde; Chile; China; Colombia; Comoros; Costa Rica; Croatia; Cyprus; Denmark; Djibouti; Dominica; Dominican Republic; Ecuador; Egypt; El Salvador; Equatorial Guinea; Falkland Islands (Malvinas); Faroe Islands; Fiji; France; Gabon; Gambia; Ghana; Gibraltar; Greece; Greenland; Grenada; Guatemala; Guinea; Guinea-Bissau; Guyana; Haiti; Honduras; Iceland; India; Indonesia; Iran, Islamic Republic of; Ireland; Israel; Italy; Jamaica; Japan; Kenya; Kiribati; Korea, Democratic People's Republic of; Korea, Republic of; Lebanon; Liberia; Libyan Arab Jamahiriya; Madagascar; Malaysia; Maldives; Malta; Marshall Islands; Mauritania; Mauritius; Mexico; Micronesia, Federated States of; Monaco; Morocco; Mozambique; Namibia; Nauru; Netherlands; Netherlands Antilles; New Zealand; Nicaragua; Nigeria; Niue; Norway; Oman; Pakistan; Palau; Panama; Papua New Guinea; Peru; Philippines; Portugal; Russian Federation; Saint Helena; Saint Kitts and Nevis; Saint Lucia; Saint Vincent and the Grenadines; Samoa; Sao Tomé and Principe; Senegal; Seychelles; Sierra Leone; Singapore; Slovenia; Solomon Islands; Somalia; South Africa; Spain; Sri Lanka; Suriname; Syrian Arab Republic; Taiwan, Province of China; Tanzania, United Republic of; Thailand; Timor-Leste; Togo; Tonga; Trinidad and Tobago; Tunisia; Turkey; Tuvalu; United Kingdom; United States; Uruguay; Vanuatu; Venezuela; Viet Nam; Yemen Presence uncertain: American Samoa; Anguilla; Aruba; Bermuda; Bosnia and Herzegovina; British Indian Ocean Territory; Cambodia; Cayman Islands; Christmas Island; Cocos (Keeling) Islands; Congo; Congo, The Democratic Republic of the; Cook Islands; Côte d'Ivoire; Eritrea; French Guiana; French Polynesia; French Southern Territories (the); Germany; Guadeloupe; Guam; Hong Kong; Martinique; Mayotte; Montenegro; Montserrat; Myanmar; New Caledonia; Norfolk Island; Northern Mariana Islands; Palestinian Territory, Occupied; Pitcairn; Puerto Rico; Qatar; Réunion; Saint Pierre and Miquelon; Saudi Arabia; South Georgia and the South Sandwich Islands; Sudan; Sweden; Tokelau; Turks and Caicos Islands; United Arab Emirates; United States Minor Outlying Islands; Virgin Islands, British; Virgin Islands, U.S.; Wallis and Futuna; Western Sahara

Endangered
Physeter macrocephalus Sperm whaleNative:

Albania; Algeria; Angola; Antarctica; Antigua and Barbuda; Argentina; Australia; Bahamas; Bangladesh; Barbados; Belgium; Belize; Benin; Brazil; Brunei Darussalam; Cameroon; Canada; Cape Verde; Chile; China; Colombia; Comoros; Costa Rica; Croatia; Cyprus; Denmark; Djibouti; Dominica; Dominican Republic; Ecuador; Egypt; El Salvador; Equatorial Guinea; Falkland Islands; Faroe Islands; Fiji; France; Gabon; Gambia; Ghana; Gibraltar; Greece; Greenland; Grenada; Guatemala; Guinea; Guinea-Bissau; Guyana; Haiti; Honduras; Iceland; India; Indonesia; Iran, Islamic Republic of; Ireland; Israel; Italy; Jamaica; Japan; Kenya; Kiribati; Korea, Democratic People's Republic of; Korea, Republic of; Lebanon; Liberia; Libyan Arab Jamahiriya; Madagascar; Malaysia; Maldives; Malta; Marshall Islands; Mauritania; Mauritius; Mexico; Micronesia, Federated States of; Monaco; Morocco; Mozambique; Namibia; Nauru; Netherlands; Netherlands Antilles; New Zealand; Nicaragua; Nigeria; Niue; Norway; Oman; Pakistan; Palau; Panama; Papua New Guinea; Peru; Philippines; Portugal; Russian Federation; Saint Helena; Saint Kitts and Nevis; Saint Lucia; Saint Vincent and the Grenadines; Samoa; Sao Tomé and Principe; Senegal; Seychelles; Sierra Leone; Singapore; Slovenia; Solomon Islands; Somalia; South Africa; Spain; Sri Lanka; Suriname; Syrian Arab Republic; Taiwan, Province of China; Tanzania, United Republic of; Thailand; Timor-Leste; Togo; Tonga; Trinidad and Tobago; Tunisia; Turkey; Tuvalu; United Kingdom; United States; Uruguay; Vanuatu; Venezuela; Viet Nam; Yemen Presence uncertain: American Samoa; Anguilla; Aruba; Bermuda; Bosnia and Herzegovina; British Indian Ocean Territory; Cambodia; Cayman Islands; Christmas Island; Cocos (Keeling) Islands; Congo; Congo, The Democratic Republic of the; Cook Islands; Côte d'Ivoire; Eritrea; French Guiana; French Polynesia; French Southern Territories (the); Germany; Guadeloupe; Guam; Hong Kong; Martinique; Mayotte; Montenegro; Montserrat; Myanmar; New Caledonia; Norfolk Island; Northern Mariana Islands; Palestinian Territory, Occupied; Pitcairn; Puerto Rico; Qatar; Réunion; Saint Pierre and Miquelon; Saudi Arabia; South Georgia and the South Sandwich Islands; Sudan; Sweden; Tokelau; Turks and Caicos Islands; United Arab Emirates; United States Minor Outlying Islands; Virgin Islands, British; Virgin Islands, U.S.; Wallis and Futuna; Western Sahara

Vulnerable
Pipistrellus maderensis Madeira pipistrellePortugal (Azores - Presence Uncertain, Madeira); Spain (Canary Is.)Endangered
Plecotus sardus Sardinian long-eared batItaly (Sardegna)Vulnerable
Plecotus teneriffae Tenerife long-eared batSpain (Canary Is.)Endangered
Prolagus sardus Sardinian pikaFrance (Corse); Italy (Sardegna)Extinct
Rhinolophus mehelyi Mehely's horseshoe batNative:

Afghanistan; Algeria; Armenia; Azerbaijan; Bosnia and Herzegovina; Bulgaria; Cyprus; Egypt; Georgia; Gibraltar; Greece; Iran, Islamic Republic of; Iraq; Israel; Italy (Sardegna, Sicilia); Jordan; Libyan Arab Jamahiriya; Macedonia, the Republic of; Moldova; Montenegro; Morocco; Palestinian Territory, Occupied; Portugal; Romania; Russian Federation; Serbia; Slovenia; Spain; Syrian Arab Republic; Tunisia; Turkey Regionally extinct: Croatia Presence uncertain: France

Vulnerable
Saiga tatarica Mongolian saigaNative:

Kazakhstan; Mongolia; Russian Federation; Turkmenistan; Uzbekistan Regionally extinct: China; Moldova; Poland; Ukraine

Critically endangered
Spermophilus citellus European ground squirrelNative:

Austria; Bulgaria; Czech Republic; Greece; Hungary; Macedonia, the Republic of; Moldova; Romania; Serbia (Kosovo, Serbia); Slovakia; Turkey; Ukraine Regionally extinct: Croatia; Germany Reintroduced: Poland

Vulnerable
Ursus maritimus Polar bearNative:

Canada (Labrador, Manitoba, Newfoundland, Northwest Territories, Nunavut, Ontario, Québec, Yukon); Greenland; Norway; Russian Federation (Krasnoyarsk, North European Russia, West Siberia, Yakutiya); Svalbard and Jan Mayen; United States (Alaska) Presence uncertain: Iceland

Vulnerable
Vormela peregusna European marbled polecatNative:

Afghanistan; Armenia; Azerbaijan; Bulgaria; China; Georgia; Greece; Iran, Islamic Republic of; Iraq; Israel; Kazakhstan; Lebanon; Macedonia, the Republic of; Mongolia; Montenegro; Pakistan; Romania; Russian Federation; Serbia; Syrian Arab Republic; Turkey; Turkmenistan; Ukraine; Uzbekistan

Vulnerable

See also

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Near-threatened species IUCN conservation category

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