Iberian lynx

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Iberian lynx
Temporal range: Early Pleistocene [1] -Recent 1.7–0  Ma
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Lince Iberico Donana.jpg
Scientific classification Red Pencil Icon.png
Kingdom: Animalia
Phylum: Chordata
Class: Mammalia
Order: Carnivora
Suborder: Feliformia
Family: Felidae
Subfamily: Felinae
Genus: Lynx
Species:
L. pardinus
Binomial name
Lynx pardinus
(Temminck, 1827)
IberianLynx distribution2015.jpg
Distribution of Iberian Lynx, 2015

The Iberian lynx (Lynx pardinus) is a wild cat species endemic to the Iberian Peninsula in southwestern Europe. It is listed as Endangered on the IUCN Red List. [2] In the 20th century, the Iberian lynx population had declined because of overhunting and poaching, fragmentation of suitable habitats; the population of its main prey species, the European rabbit (Oryctolagus cuniculus), experienced a severe decline caused by myxomatosis and rabbit haemorrhagic disease. [3] [4] [5]

Contents

By the turn of the 21st century, the Iberian lynx was on the verge of extinction, as only about 100 individuals survived in two isolated subpopulations in Andalusia. Conservation measures were implemented since 2002 which included improving habitat, restocking of rabbits, translocating, re-introducing and monitoring Iberian lynxes. By 2012, the population had increased to 326 individuals. [6]

It is a monotypic species and is thought to have evolved from Lynx issiodorensis .

Taxonomy

Felis pardina was the scientific name proposed by Coenraad Jacob Temminck in 1827 who described skins of Iberian lynxes that were killed in the area of the Tagus river in Portugal and were traded in Paris and London. [7] It is a monotypic species. [8]

Evolution

The Iberian lynx is thought to have evolved from Lynx issiodorensis . [9] The earliest fossil remains of the Iberian lynx date to the Early Pleistocene. [1]

Characteristics

The Iberian lynx has a short bright yellowish to tawny coloured spotted fur. The spots vary in shape and size from small round to elongate. They are arranged in lines and decrease in size from the back towards the sides. [10] Its head is small with tufted ears and a ruff. Its body is short with long legs and a short tail. Head and body length of males is 74.7–82 cm (29.4–32.3 in) with a 12.5–16 cm (4.9–6.3 in) long tail and a weight of 7–15.9 kg (15–35 lb). Females are smaller with a head-to-body-length of approximately 68.2–77.5 cm (26.9–30.5 in) and a weight of 9.2–10 kg (20–22 lb). [11]

Distribution and habitat

The Iberian lynx was once present throughout the Iberian Peninsula and southern France. In the 1950s, the northern population extended from the Mediterranean to Galicia and parts of northern Portugal, and the southern population from central to southern Spain. [12] Populations declined from 15 subpopulations in the 1940s to only two subpopulations in the early 1990s, most noticeably in Montes de Toledo and Sierra Morena. Before 1973, it was present in Sierra de Gata, Montes de Toledo, eastern Sierra Morena, Sierra de Relumbrar and coastal plains in the Doñana area. Between the early 1960s and 2000, it has lost about 80% of its former range. [13] [14] It is now restricted to very limited areas in southern Spain, with breeding only confirmed in Sierra Morena and Doñana coastal plains. [3]

Fossil remains indicate that the Iberian lynx had a wider range during the Late Pleistocene and Holocene. Five lynx remains found in Arene Candide in northern Italy date to about 24,820–18,620 before present. One specimen found in Cabias cave in southern France was radiocarbon dated to 3780±90 before present. [15]

The Iberian lynx prefers heterogeneous environments of open grassland mixed with dense shrubs such as strawberry tree, mastic, and juniper, and trees such as holm oak and cork oak. It is now largely restricted to mountainous areas.[ citation needed ]

Behaviour and ecology

The Iberian lynx marks its territory with its urine, scratch marks on the barks of trees, and scat. The home ranges of adults are stable over many years. [11] Camera trapping surveys in the eastern Sierra Morena Mountains between 1999 and 2008 revealed that six females had home ranges of 5.2–6.6 km2 (2.0–2.5 sq mi). Four males in the area had home ranges of 11.8–12.2 km2 (4.6–4.7 sq mi). [16]

Diet and hunting

Iberian lynx hunting common quail (Coturnix coturnix)
Iberian Lynx catching his prey.jpg
Swiping with right paw with claws extended
Iberian Lynx eating bird.jpg
Caught prey in mouth

The Iberian lynx preys foremost on the European rabbit (Oryctolagus cuniculus) for the bulk of its diet, supplemented by red-legged partridge (Alectoris rufa), rodents and to a smaller degree also on wild ungulates. [17] [18] [19] It sometimes preys on young fallow deer (Dama dama), roe deer (Capreolus capreolus), mouflon (Ovis orientalis), and ducks. [20] A male requires one rabbit per day while a female raising kittens will eat three per day. [21]

The Iberian species has low adaptability—it continued to rely heavily on rabbits (75% of its food intake) despite the latter's repeated population crashes due to myxomatosis and rabbit haemorrhagic disease. [5]

It competes for prey with red fox (Vulpes vulpes), Egyptian mongoose (Herpestes ichneumon) and European wildcat (Felis silvestris). Also, it often kills other smaller carnivores such as red fox, Egyptian mongoose and common genet (Genetta genetta). [22] The species is solitary and hunts alone; it will stalk its prey or lie in wait for hours behind a bush or rock until the prey is sufficiently close to pounce in a few strides.

Reproduction

Iberian lynx cub Iberian Lynx cub 07.jpg
Iberian lynx cub

During the mating season the female leaves her territory in search of a male. The typical gestation period is about two months; the kittens are born between March and September, with a peak of births in March and April. A litter consists of two or three (rarely one, four or five) kittens weighing between 200 and 250 grams (7.1 and 8.8 oz).

The kittens become independent at 7 to 10 months old, but remain with the mother until around 20 months old. Survival of the young depends heavily on the availability of prey species. In the wild, both males and females reach sexual maturity at the age of one year, though in practice they rarely breed until a territory becomes vacant; one female was known not to breed until five years old when its mother died. The maximum longevity in the wild is 13 years. [23] [24]

Siblings become violent towards one another between 30 and 60 days, peaking at 45 days. A kitten will frequently kill its littermate in a brutal fight. It is unknown why these episodes of aggression occur, though many scientists believe it is related to a change in hormones when a kitten switches from its mother's milk to meat. Others believe it is related to hierarchy, and "survival of the fittest".

Difficulty in finding mates has led to more inbreeding, which results in fewer kittens and a greater rate of non-traumatic death. [25] Inbreeding leads to lower semen quality and greater rates of infertility in males, hindering efforts to increase the species' fitness. [26]

Threats

The Iberian lynx is threatened by habitat loss, road accidents and illegal hunting. [2] Habitat loss is due mainly to infrastructure improvement, urban and resort development and tree mono cultivation, which fragments the lynx's distribution. In the 20th century, rabbit diseases such as myxomatosis and hemorrhagic disease resulted in a dramatic decline of its main prey. [27] Illegal traps set for rabbits and foxes were leading causes for lynx fatality in the 1990s. [28] Every year, several Iberian lynxes die when trying to cross highways with heavy traffic. [3] In 2013, 14 Iberian lynxes died on roads, and 21 in 2014. [29] [30]

In 2007, several individuals died of feline leukemia. [31] [32]

In 2013, it was reported that the Iberian lynx possesses antibiotic resistant bacteria within its digestive tract, which may lead to more dangerous and difficult-to-treat infections and decrease the cat's fitness. [33] A 2013 study suggests climate change may threaten the Iberian lynx species due to their inability to adapt well to a climate change or it may lead them to relocate to areas that have a more suitable climate but fewer rabbits, increasing mortality. [5]

Conservation

Iberian lynx Linces10.jpg
Iberian lynx

The Iberian lynx is fully protected. It is listed on CITES Appendix I, on Appendix II of the Berne Convention on the Conservation of European Wildlife and Natural Habitats and on Annexes II and IV of the Habitats Directive of the European Union. It has been listed as Endangered on the IUCN Red List since 2014. [2]

Conservation measures include restoring its native habitat, maintaining the wild rabbit population, reducing unnatural causes of death, and releasing captive bred individuals. [34] The Spanish National Commission for the Protection of Nature endorsed the Iberian Lynx Ex Situ Conservation Breeding Program to serve as a "safety net" by managing the captive population and also to "help establish new Iberian lynx free-ranging populations through reintroduction programmes." Before release of captive-bred cats, their natural habit may be simulated to prepare them for life in the wild. [34] A 2006 study used a non-intrusive monitoring system involving cameras to monitor the demographics of both lynxes and rabbits residing in Sierra Morena. Supplemental food sources could be provided if wild rabbits suffered a decline. [35]

Management efforts are being developed to conserve and restore the animal's native range. [36] Officials intending to release captive-bred lynx look for areas of appropriate habitat, rabbit abundance, and acceptance by the local human population. [37] About 90 million euros was spent on various conservation measures between 1994 and 2013. [38] The European Union contributes up to 61% of funding. [39] [40]

Reintroduction programme

Graph showing Iberian lynx population in Spain, 1960-2007 Iberian Linx Population in the wild.jpg
Graph showing Iberian lynx population in Spain, 1960–2007

Beginning in 2009, the Iberian lynx was reintroduced into Guadalmellato, resulting in a population of 23 in 2013. [41] Since 2010, the species has also been released in Guarrizas. [37] [42] Discussions were held with the Ministry of Environment on plans for releases in the Campanarios de Azaba area near Salamanca. [43] In April 2013, it was reported that Andalusia's total wild population—only 94 in 2002—had tripled to 309 individuals. [44] [41] In July 2013, environmental groups confirmed the presence of a wild-born litter in the Province of Cáceres (Extremadura). [45] A study published in July 2013 in Nature Climate Change advised that reintroduction programs take place in northern Iberia, suggesting that climate change would threaten rabbits in the south. [38] [46]

On 26 November 2014, 8 Iberian lynxes were released into Toledo, Spain; one of them traveled near Madrid, the first time in 40 years. [47]

The presence of Iberian lynxes in Portugal, particularly in the south, has been verified. [48] In 2014, the Institute for Nature Conservation and Forests signed contracts securing 2,000 hectares of land for Portugal's reintroduction project. [49] [50] [51] On 16 December 2014, a pair of Iberian lynx was released into Guadiana Valley Natural Park near Mértola, Portugal. [52] On 7 February 2015, another pair was released into the park, but the female was later found dead on 12 March 2015 after being poisoned in Mértola. [53] The last pair of captive-bred Iberian lynxes were released into Guadiana Valley Nature Reserve on 12 May 2015. [54] By the end of 2015 there were 400 lynx on the Iberian peninsula, the vast majority in Andalusia, in southern Spain, but with smaller new populations in the hills near Toledo, in Extremadura (south-western Spain) and in southern Portugal. [55]

The reintroduction of Iberian lynx in Portugal has been a success; from 17 animals that were reintroduced, 12 have already established territories. [56]

Since a 2007 outbreak of feline leukemia virus (FeLV), wild lynxes are tested periodically for possible disease. September–December 2013 samples were negative for FeLV but one male became the first of his species to test positive for feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV) and was placed into quarantine. [57]

Captive breeding

The Iberian Lynx CNRLI reproduction centre near the village of Vale Fuzeiros (mun. of Silves, Portugal) Iberian Lynx CNRLI reproduction centre 10 May 2015 (15).JPG
The Iberian Lynx CNRLI reproduction centre near the village of Vale Fuzeiros (mun. of Silves, Portugal)

In 2002, the Jerez Zoo confirmed it had three females and was developing a plan for a captive breeding program. One of those females was Saliega, captured as a kitten in April 2002. [58] She became the first Iberian lynx to breed in captivity, giving birth to three healthy kittens on 29 March 2005 at the El Acebuche Breeding Center, in the Doñana Nature Park in Huelva, Spain. [59] Over the following years, the number of births grew and additional breeding centers were opened. In March 2009, it was reported that 27 kittens had been born since the beginning of the program. [60] In 2009, the Spanish government planned to build a €5.5 million breeding center in Zarza de Granadilla. [60] In Portugal the Centro Nacional de Reprodução do Lince-Ibérico (CNRLI) established a breeding center in Silves. [61] [62]

There were 14 surviving kittens in 2008 and 15 in 2009. In 2010, intense rain and health issues resulted in lower reproductive success—14 born, 8 surviving [63] —but the next year, breeding centers recorded 45 births with 26 surviving kittens. [64] In 2012, breeding centers in Portugal and Spain reported a total of 44 survivors from 59 births, [64] while 2013 saw a total of 44 survivors out of 53 born. [65] In 2017, the total population of Iberian lynx reached 475 specimens. [66]

In March 2013, it was reported that Iberian lynx embryos and oocytes had been collected and preserved for the first time. They were collected from Saliega and another female—both sterilized and retired from the breeding program—by Berlin's Leibniz Institute for Zoo and Wildlife Research and stored in liquid nitrogen at the Museo Nacional de Ciencias Naturales in Madrid for possible future breeding. [67] In July 2014, the MNCN-CSIC announced they had produced sperm cells from the testicular tissue of sexually immature lynx. [68]

Iberian lynx can be observed in captivity only at the Jerez Zoo, [69] since December 2014 at the Lisbon Zoo, [70] and since July 2016 at the Madrid Zoo. [71] The Jerez animals integrate the breeding program, the two Lisbon lynxes were formerly in the Portuguese breeding center but are no longer suited for the program (the female had multiple failed pregnancies and the male has a form of epilepsy), [72] and the two Madrid lynxes were equally retired from the breeding program for not being suited for reproduction.

Genetic research

The genetic diversity of the Iberian lynx is lower than in any other genetically impoverished felid, which is possibly a consequence of fragmentation and isolation of population units. [73] Iberian lynxes in Doñana and Andujar differ genetically at microsatellite markers. Samples collected in Doñana exhibited a high degree of inbreeding as this unit was isolated for a long time. [73]

See also

Related Research Articles

Lynx Genus of mammals (medium-sized wild cats)

A lynx is any of the four species within the medium-sized wild cat genus Lynx. The name lynx originated in Middle English via Latin from the Greek word λύγξ, derived from the Indo-European root leuk- in reference to the luminescence of its reflective eyes.

Doñana National Park national park of Spain

Doñana National Park is a natural reserve in Andalusia, southern Spain, in the provinces of Huelva, Cádiz and Seville. It covers 543 km2 (209.65 sq mi), of which 135 km2 (52.12 sq mi) are a protected area. The park is an area of marshes, shallow streams, and sand dunes in Las Marismas, the delta where the Guadalquivir River flows into the Atlantic Ocean. It was established as a nature reserve in 1969 when the World Wildlife Fund joined with the Spanish government and purchased a section of marshes to protect it. The eco-system has been under constant threat by the draining of the marshes, the use of river water to boost agricultural production by irrigating land along the coast, water pollution by upriver mining, and the expansion of tourist facilities. It is named after Doña Ana de Silva y Mendoza wife of the seventh Duke of Medina-Sidonia.

Egyptian vulture species of Old World vultures of the genus Neophron

The Egyptian vulture, also called the white scavenger vulture or pharaoh's chicken, is a small Old World vulture and the only member of the genus Neophron. It is widely distributed from the Iberian Peninsula and North Africa to India. The contrasting underwing pattern and wedge-shaped tail make it distinctive in flight as it soars in thermals during the warmer parts of the day. Egyptian vultures feed mainly on carrion but are opportunistic and will prey on small mammals, birds, and reptiles. They also feed on the eggs of other birds, breaking larger ones by tossing a large pebble onto them.

Western swamphen Species of waterbird

The western swamphen is a swamphen in the rail family Rallidae, one of the six species of purple swamphen. From the French name talève sultane, it is also known as the sultana bird. This chicken-sized bird, with its large feet, bright plumage and red bill and frontal shield is easily recognisable in its native range. It used to be considered the nominate subspecies of the purple swamphen, but is now recognised as a separate species. The western swamphen is found in wetlands in Spain, Portugal, southeastern France, Italy and northwestern Africa.

Bonellis eagle species of bird

The Bonelli's eagle is a large bird of prey. The common name of the bird commemorates the Italian ornithologist and collector Franco Andrea Bonelli. Bonelli is credited with gathering the type specimen, most likely from an exploration of Sardinia. Some antiquated texts also refer to this species as the crestless hawk-eagle. Like all eagles, Bonelli's eagle belongs to the family Accipitridae. Its feathered legs marked it as member of the Aquilinae or booted eagle subfamily. This species breeds from southern Europe, Africa on the montane perimeter of the Sahara Desert and across the Indian Subcontinent to Indonesia. On the great Eurasian continent, this species may be found as far west as Portugal and as far east as southeastern China and Thailand. It is usually a resident breeder. The Bonelli's eagle is often found in hilly or mountainous habitats, with rocky walls or crags, from sea level to 1,500 m (4,900 ft). Habitats are often open to wooded land and can occur in arid to semi-moist climate. This eagle, though it can be considered partially opportunistic, is something of a special predator of certain birds and mammals, especially rabbits, galliforms and pigeons. On evidence, when staple prey populations decline or are locally scarce, Bonelli's eagle switch to being an opportunistic predator of a wide variety of birds. Despite its persistence over a large range and its continued classification as a least concern species by the IUCN, the Bonelli's eagle has declined precipitously in various parts of its range, including almost all of its European distribution, and may face potential local extinction. The species' declines are due to widespread habitat destruction, electrocution from electricity pylons as well as persistent persecution.

Iberian ibex species of mammal

The Iberian ibex, Spanish ibex, Spanish wild goat, or Iberian wild goat is a species of ibex with four subspecies. Of these, two can still be found on the Iberian Peninsula, but the remaining two are now extinct. The Portuguese subspecies became extinct in 1892 and the Pyrenean subspecies became extinct in 2000. An ongoing project to clone to the Pyrenean subspecies resulted in one clone being born alive in July 2003. This is the first taxon to become "un-extinct", although the clone died a few minutes after birth due to physical defects in lungs.

Spanish imperial eagle species of bird

The Iberian Imperial Eagle, also known as the Spanish imperial eagle, Spanish eagle, or Adalbert's eagle, is a threatened species of eagle native to the Iberian Peninsula. The binomial commemorates Prince Adalbert of Bavaria.

Saliega is an Iberian lynx who in 2005 became the first of her species to give birth in captivity.

Common genet species of mammal

The common genet is a small viverrid indigenous to Africa that was introduced to southwestern Europe and the Balearic Islands. It is widely distributed north of the Sahara, in savanna zones south of the Sahara to southern Africa and along the coast of Arabia, Yemen and Oman. It is listed as Least Concern on the IUCN Red List.

Egyptian mongoose Species of mammal

The Egyptian mongoose, also known as ichneumon, is a mongoose species native to the Iberian Peninsula, coastal regions along the Mediterranean Sea between North Africa and Turkey, tropical and subtropical grasslands, savannas, and shrublands in Africa. Because of its widespread occurrence, it is listed as Least Concern on the IUCN Red List.

Iberian wolf subspecies of grey wolf

The Iberian wolf also known as Spanish wolf, is a proposed subspecies of grey wolf that inhabits the northwest of the Iberian Peninsula, which includes northern Portugal and northwestern Spain. It is home to 2,200-2,700 wolves which have been isolated from mixing with other wolf populations for over a century. They form the largest wolf population in Western Europe.

Cabañeros National Park national park in the Montes de Toledo, Spain

Cabañeros National Park is a national park in the Montes de Toledo, Spain. It falls within two provinces, the northwest of Ciudad Real and the southwest of Toledo.

<i>Dehesa</i> multifunctional agro-sylvo-pastoral system

A dehesa is a multifunctional, agrosylvopastoral system and cultural landscape of southern and central Spain and southern Portugal; in Portugal, it is known as a montado. Its name comes from the Latin 'defensa' (fenced) referring to land that was fenced, and usually destined for pasture. Dehesas may be private or communal property. Used primarily for grazing, they produce a variety of products, including non-timber forest products such as wild game, mushrooms, honey, cork, and firewood. They are also used to raise the Spanish fighting bull and the Iberian pig. The main tree component is oaks, usually holm and cork. Other oaks, including melojo and quejigo, may be used to form dehesa, the species depending on geographical location and elevation. Dehesa is an anthropogenic system that provides not only a variety of foods, but also wildlife habitat for endangered species such as the Spanish imperial eagle.

European rabbit Species of mammal

The European rabbit or coney is a species of rabbit native to southwestern Europe and to northwest Africa. It has been widely introduced elsewhere, often with devastating effects on local biodiversity. However, its decline in its native range, has caused the decline of its highly dependent predators, the Iberian lynx and the Spanish imperial eagle. It is known as an invasive species because it has been introduced to countries on all continents with the exception of Antarctica, and has caused many problems within the environment and ecosystems. Feral European rabbits in Australia have had a devastating impact, due in part to the lack of natural predators there.

Great bustard Species of bird

The great bustard is a bird in the bustard family, the only member of the genus Otis. It breeds in open grasslands and farmland from northern Morocco, South and Central Europe, to temperate Central and East Asia. European populations are mainly resident, but Asian populations migrate farther south in winter. It has been listed as Vulnerable on the IUCN Red List since 1996.

Guadalmellato Reservoir is a reservoir in Adamuz, province of Córdoba, Andalusia, Spain.

<i>Pyrus bourgaeana</i> species of plant

Pyrus bourgaeana, the Iberian pear, is a close relative of Pyrus communis L. The last was domesticated about 2500 years ago. This monoecious small tree is widely distributed across the southern Iberian Peninsula and northern Morocco, where it coexists with four Pyrus species: P. communis L., P. cordata Dew., P. spinosa Forssk, and P. nivalis Jacq. Characteristics to discriminate these species are the width of fruit peduncle, petal size, leaf width and petiole length served to the taxa.

Efforts to save endangered species may, paradoxically, lead to conservation-induced extinction of other species. This mostly threatens the parasite and pathogen species that are highly host-specific to critically endangered hosts. When the last individuals of a host species are captured for the purpose of captive breeding and reintroduction programs, they typically undergo anti-parasitic treatments to increase survival and reproductive success. This practice may unintentionally result in the extinction of the species antagonistic to the target species, such as certain parasites. It has been proposed that the parasites should be reintroduced to the endangered population. A few cases of conservation-induced extinction have occurred in parasitic lice.

Odelouca River river in Portugal

River Odelouca is a river in the Portuguese region of the Algarve. The river is a tributary of the Arade River.

Meridional serotine species of mammal

The meridional serotine is a species of bat found in the Iberian Peninsula, Morocco, Algeria, Tunisia, and Libya.

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