Malayan civet

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Malayan civet
Malay civet.jpg
Scientific classification Red Pencil Icon.png
Kingdom: Animalia
Phylum: Chordata
Class: Mammalia
Order: Carnivora
Suborder: Feliformia
Family: Viverridae
Genus: Viverra
Species:
V. tangalunga
Binomial name
Viverra tangalunga
Gray, 1832
Malayan Civet area.png
Malayan civet range
(dark green - extant,
light green - probably extant)

The Malayan civet (Viverra tangalunga), also known as the Malay civet and Oriental civet, is a viverrid native to the Malay Peninsula and the islands of Sumatra, Bangka, Borneo, the Riau Archipelago, and the Philippines. It is listed as "Least Concern" by IUCN as it is a relatively widely distributed, appears to be tolerant of degraded habitats, and occurs in a number of protected areas. [1]

Contents

Taxonomy

Taxidermied Malayan civet at Philippine National Museum Taxidermied Malayan Civet at Philippine National Museum.jpg
Taxidermied Malayan civet at Philippine National Museum

Viverra tangalunga was the scientific name proposed by John Edward Gray in 1832 for a spotted zoological specimen. [2]

Characteristics

The Malay civet's tail is black above and ringed on the lower side. [3]

Distribution and habitat

The historical range of the Malay civet includes Indonesia, Malaysia, Brunei, the Philippines and Singapore. In Malaysia, it occurs in Borneo, Banggi Island, Langkawi Island, Penang Island and in Peninsular Malaysia. [4] It is also known from Sumatra. [5] It was introduced to Sulawesi and the Maluku Islands. [1] Museum records indicate that the Malay civet also occurred on the Indonesian islands of Java, Bawal and Telok Pai, and on the Philippine island Leyte. [6] In 2012, an individual was photographed in Singapore. [7] The Malay civet population in the Philippines may have originated in Borneo and colonized Palawan island naturally. It possibly later dispersed to the rest of Philippines through human introduction, because land connection between Philippines islands did not exist during last glacial period. [8]

The Malay civet inhabits a wide variety of habitats including forests, secondary habitats, cultivated land and the outskirts of villages. [9] They range in elevations of up to 900 m (3,000 ft) on Gunung Madalan in Sabah and 1,100 m (3,600 ft) on Usun Apau and the Kelabit Upland in Sarawak.[ citation needed ]

Ecology and behaviour

Malay civets are solitary, omnivorous, and primarily terrestrial. [10] Malay civets are nocturnal. They feed on invertebrates and small vertebrates.[ citation needed ]

Densities of Malay civets are higher in unlogged than in a logged forests. Fruit comprises a larger proportion of diet in unlogged forest compared to logged forest. With fruit contributing a larger percentage of the diet in unlogged forests, logging may lead to increased competition by other frugivores such as palm civets which may exploit fruit directly on trees unlike the mainly terrestrial Malay civet. [11] Around the Malaysian Bera Lake Malay civets were found in logged forest. Arboreal, frugivorous civets are little affected by logging, whereas terrestrial, carnivorous or insectivorous species might be negatively impacted by logging. [12]

Threats

As a ground-living species it is exposed to snaring and other forms of ground-level trapping, and hunting with dogs. The limited survey in areas heavily used by people suggests it is rather well able to persist at general levels of threat. The species is occasionally hunted for food and treated as a pest as it raids poultry. [1]

In Borneo, the Malayan civet is negatively affected by the effects of timber harvesting. [13]

Conservation

Viverra tangalunga is protected in Malaysia under the Wildlife Protection Act (WPA) of 1972. [1] However, in many rural areas of Peninsular Malaysia civets are considered a pest because they prey on small livestock and raid fruit orchards. Section 55 of the WPA of 1972 allows farmers to shoot any wild animal that causes damage to their property, as long as reasonable efforts have been made to frighten the animal away. [14]

Related Research Articles

Viverridae family of mammals, the viverrids

Viverridae is a family of small to medium-sized mammals, the viverrids, comprising 15 genera, which are subdivided into 38 species. This family was named and first described by John Edward Gray in 1821. Viverrids are found in South and Southeast Asia, across the Wallace Line, all over Africa, and into southern Europe. Their occurrence in Sulawesi and in some of the adjoining islands shows them to be ancient inhabitants of the Old World tropics.

Asian palm civet Species of viverrid

The Asian palm civet is a viverrid native to South and Southeast Asia. Since 2008, it is IUCN Red Listed as Least Concern as it accommodates to a broad range of habitats. It is widely distributed with large populations that in 2008 were thought unlikely to be declining. In Indonesia, it is threatened by poaching and illegal wildlife trade; buyers use it for the increasing production of kopi luwak.

Sun bear bear found in tropical forest habitats of Southeast Asia

The sun bear is a species in the family Ursidae occurring in the tropical forests of Southeast Asia. It is the smallest bear, standing nearly 70 cm (28 in) at the shoulder and weighing 25–65 kg (55–143 lb). It is stockily built, with large paws, strongly curved claws, small rounded ears and a short snout. The fur is generally jet-black, but can vary from grey to red. Sun bears get their name from the characteristic orange to cream coloured chest patch. Its unique morphology—inward-turned front feet, flattened chest, powerful forelimbs with large claws—suggests adaptations for climbing.

African palm civet species of mammal

The African palm civet, also known as the two-spotted palm civet, is a small feliform mammal widely distributed in sub-Saharan Africa. It is listed as Least Concern on the IUCN Red List.

African civet largest representative of the African Viverridae

The African civet is a large viverrid native to sub-Saharan Africa, where it is considered common and widely distributed in woodlands and secondary forests. It is listed as Least Concern on the IUCN Red List since 2008. In some countries, it is threatened by hunting, and wild-caught individuals are kept for producing civetone for the perfume industry.

Otter civet species of mammal

The otter civet is a semiaquatic civet native to Thailand, Malaysia, Indonesia and Brunei. It is listed as Endangered because of a serious ongoing population decline, estimated to be more than 50% over the past three generations, inferred from direct habitat destruction, and indirect inferred declines due to pollutants.

Malabar large-spotted civet species of mammal

The Malabar large-spotted civet, also known as the Malabar civet, is a viverrid endemic to the Western Ghats of India. It is listed as Critically Endangered on the IUCN Red List as the population is estimated to number fewer than 250 mature individuals. It has not been recorded during surveys carried out between 1990 and 2014. In the early 1990s, isolated populations still survived in less disturbed areas of South Malabar but were seriously threatened by habitat destruction and hunting outside protected areas.

Hoses palm civet species of mammal

Hose's palm civet, also known as Hose's civet, is a viverrid species endemic to the island of Borneo. It is listed on the IUCN Red List as Vulnerable because of an ongoing population decline, estimated to be more than 30% over the last three generations and suspected to be more than 30% in the next three generations due to declines in population inferred from habitat destruction and degradation.

Small Indian civet species of mammal

The small Indian civet is a civet native to South and Southeast Asia. It is listed as Least Concern on the IUCN Red List because of its widespread distribution, widespread habitat use and healthy populations living in agricultural and secondary landscapes of many range states.

Large-spotted civet species of mammal

The large-spotted civet is a viverrid native to Southeast Asia that is listed as Endangered on the IUCN Red List.

Large Indian civet species of mammal

The large Indian civet is a viverrid native to South and Southeast Asia. It is listed as Least Concern on the IUCN Red List. The global population is considered decreasing mainly because of trapping-driven declines in heavily hunted and fragmented areas, notably in China, and the heavy trade as wild meat.

Civet Mammals of the families Viverridae and Nandiniidae

A civet is a small, lean, mostly nocturnal mammal native to tropical Asia and Africa, especially the tropical forests. The term civet applies to over a dozen different mammal species. Most of the species diversity is found in southeast Asia. The best-known civet species is the African civet, Civettictis civetta, which historically has been the main species from which a musky scent used in perfumery was obtained. The word civet may also refer to the distinctive musky scent produced by the animals.

Feliformia suborder of mammals in the order Carnivora

Feliformia is a suborder within the order Carnivora consisting of "cat-like" carnivorans, including cats, hyenas, mongooses, civets, and related taxa. Feliformia stands in contrast to the other suborder of Carnivora, Caniformia.

Wildlife of Malaysia

The wildlife of Malaysia is diverse, with Malaysia being a megadiverse country. Most of the country is covered in rainforest, which hosts a huge diversity of plant and animal species. There are approximately 361 mammal species, 694 bird species, 250 reptile species and 150 frog species found in Malaysia. Its large marine territory also holds a great diversity of life, with the country's coastal waters comprising part of the Coral Triangle.

Viverrinae subfamily of mammals, the viverrids

The Viverrinae represent the largest subfamily within the Viverridae comprising five genera, which are subdivided into 22 species native to Africa and Southeast Asia. This subfamily was denominated and first described by John Edward Gray in 1864.

Binturong Species of mammal in the family Viverridae, native to South and Southeast Asia

The binturong, also known as bearcat, is a viverrid native to South and Southeast Asia. It is uncommon in much of its range, and has been assessed as Vulnerable on the IUCN Red List because of a declining population trend that is estimated at more than 30% since the mid 1980s.

Borneo lowland rain forests ecoregion of Borneo

The Borneo lowland rain forests is an ecoregion, within the tropical and subtropical moist broadleaf forests biome, of the large island of Borneo in Southeast Asia. It supports approximately 15,000 plant species, 380 bird species and several mammal species. The Borneo lowland rain forests is diminishing due to logging, hunting and conversion to commercial land use.

Wong Siew Te Malaysian wildlife biologist, Founder and CEO of Bornean Sun Bear Conservation Centre

Wong Siew Te is a Malaysian wildlife biologist known for his studies on the Malayan sun bear and the foundation of the Bornean Sun Bear Conservation Centre in Sandakan, Sabah.

References

  1. 1 2 3 4 5 Duckworth, J.W.; Mathai, J.; Wilting, A.; Holden, J.; Hearn, A. & Ross, J. (2016). "Viverra tangalunga". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species . 2016: e.T41708A45220284. Retrieved 30 October 2018.
  2. Gray, J. E. (1832). "On the family of Viverridae and its generic sub-divisions, with an enumeration of the species of several new ones". Proceedings of the Committee of Science and Correspondence of the Zoological Society of London. 2: 63–68.
  3. Gray, J. E. (1864). "A revision of the genera and species of viverrine animals (Viverridae), founded on the collection in the British Museum". Proceedings of the Scientific Meetings of the Zoological Society of London. 1864: 502–579. doi:10.1111/j.1469-7998.1864.tb00409.x.
  4. Corbet, G., B. and J. E. Hill (1992). "Mammals of the Indomalayan region. A systematic review." Oxford University Press, Oxford.
  5. Suyanto, A., Yoneda, M., Maryanto, I., Maharadatunkamsi Sugardjito J. (2002). Checklist of the Mammals of Indonesia: Scientific Names and Distribution Area Tables in Indonesia Including CITES, IUCN and Indonesian Categories for Conservation. LIPI-JICA-PHKA, Bogor, Indonesia. 63 pp.
  6. Meiri, S. (2005). Small carnivores on small islands: new data based on old skulls. Small Carnivore Conservation 33 Archived 2015-01-29 at the Wayback Machine : 21–23.
  7. Lim, N. T., and Ouyang, X. (2012). Occurrence of the Malay civet, Viverra Tangalunga (Mammalia: Carnivora: Viverridae) in Singapore. Nature in Singapore 5: 79–81.
  8. Veron, G., Willsch, M., Dacosta, V., Patou, M-L., Seymour, A., Bonillo, C., Couloux, A., Wong, S. T., Jennings, A.P., Fickel, J., Wilting, A. (2014). "The distribution of the Malay civet Viverra tangalunga (Carnivora: Viverridae) across Southeast Asia: natural or human-mediated dispersal?". Zoological Journal of the Linnean Society. 170 (4): 917−932. doi:10.1111/zoj.12110.CS1 maint: uses authors parameter (link)
  9. Colon, C. P. (2002). Ranging behaviour and activity of the Malay civet (Viverra tangalunga) in a logged and an unlogged forest in Danum Valley, East Malaysia. Journal of Zoology (London) 257: 473–485.
  10. Kanchanasakha, B., Simcharoen, S. and Tin Than, U. 1998. Carnivores of Mainland South-East Asia. Endangered Species Unit, WWF-Thailand Project Office, Thailand.
  11. Colón, C. P. (1999). Ecology of the Malay Civet (Viverra tangalunga) in a logged and unlogged forest in Sabah, East Malaysia. PhD dissertation. Fordham University, New York, USA.
  12. Syakirah, S., Zubaid, A., Prentice, C., Lopez, A., Azmin, M. R. and Mohd-Yusof, A. (2000). A small-mammal survey at Tasek Bera, Pahang, Malaysia's first Ramsar site. Malayan Nature Journal, 54: 31–41.
  13. Meijaard, E. (ed.). (2005). Life after logging: reconciling wildlife conservation and production forestry in Indonesian Borneo. Center for International Forestry Research
  14. Azlan, J. M. (2003). The diversity and conservation of mustelids, viverrids, and herpestids in a disturbed forest in Peninsular Malaysia. Small Carnivore Conservation 29 Archived 2015-01-29 at the Wayback Machine : 8–9.