Meles (genus)

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Meles
Temporal range: Early Pleistocene to present
Meles (Genus).jpg
Meles meles, M. leucurus, and M. anakuma.
Scientific classification Red Pencil Icon.png
Kingdom: Animalia
Phylum: Chordata
Class: Mammalia
Order: Carnivora
Family: Mustelidae
Subfamily: Melinae
Genus: Meles
Brisson, 1762
Species
Meles species range map.jpg
Range map of the genus

Meles is a genus of badgers containing three living species, the Japanese badger (Meles anakuma), Asian badger (Meles leucurus), and European badger (Meles meles). [2] In an older categorization, they were seen as a single species with three subspecies (Meles meles anakuma, Meles meles leucurus and Meles meles meles). There are also several extinct members of the genus. They are members of the subfamily Melinae of the weasel family, Mustelidae. [3] [4] [5]

Contents

Taxonomy

The genus Meles was erected by French zoologist Mathurin Jacques Brisson in 1762 after Carl Linnaeus had described the Eurasian badger Meles meles in 1758. This animal had a very extensive range over most of temperate Europe and Asia and there has been much discussion as to whether it is a single species or three distinct species. There are geographical differences between individuals from different parts of the range in skull structure, morphology of the first premolar teeth, and facial markings. Some authorities advocated placing European and Asian badgers in separate species, Meles meles and Meles leptorhynchus (Milne-Edwards, 1867), the boundary between the two being the Volga River. Others considered there to be three subspecies, M. m. meles, found west of the Volga, M. m. arenarius-leptorhynchus, found between the Volga and Transbaikalia, and M. m. amurensis-anakuma from the Amur region and Primorskii. [6]

Genetic studies of mitochondrial DNA shows the separation of two variants on either side of the Volga but their exact taxonomic rank remains undefined. A further study of cheek teeth from individuals across the entire range supports this division and provides confirmation that M. meles and M. anakuma are indeed separate species. [6]

Extant Species

SpeciesDescriptionCurrent distribution
European badger Meles meles

Badger-badger.jpg

Powerfully built animals with small heads; thick, short necks; stocky, wedge-shaped bodies; short legs, and club-shaped tails. Their feet are digitigrade and short, with five toes on each foot. The limbs are short and massive, with naked lower surfaces on the feet. The claws are strong and elongated, and have an obtuse end for digging. They have flexible snouts and small eyes and ears. The coat is harsh on the back and sides with long bristly guard hairs and a sparse, short-haired underlayer. The belly is clothed in fine short hairs. The colour of the back and sides is light silvery-grey, with straw-coloured highlights on the sides. The tail has long and coarse hairs, and is generally the same colour as the back. Two black bands pass along the head, starting from the upper lip and passing upwards to the whole base of the ears. Other parts of the face are white. Size varies according to subspecies but is usually between 60 and 90 centimetres (24 and 35 in) in body length and 12 and 24 cm (5 and 9 in) in tail length. Adult males are generally heavier than females and can weigh between 15 and 17 kilograms (33 and 37 lb) in autumn when maximum fat reserves are present. [7] across Europe and in parts of Asia west of the Volga River. [8]
Asian badger Meles leucurus

Aziatskii barsuk (Meles leucurus).jpg

Smaller than European badgers but have larger upper cheek teeth. The colour varies somewhat over the large range but most individuals are lighter in colour than the European badger, though some forms may be much the same shade. In general, their colouration is more brownish-grey. Their sides are paler than the ridge of their backs and the dark facial streaks curve up behind the eyes and pass above the ears. The central pale band on the snout is correspondingly shorter and narrower and the white facial characteristics are altogether more brown-tinged. Their size varies by the region in which they live with males of the Siberian subspecies being about 70 centimetres (28 in) long and females about 65 centimetres (26 in), with males weighing between 10 and 13 kilograms (22 and 29 lb). Kazakh badgers are about the same length but males weigh less at 7 to 8.3 kilograms (15 to 18 lb). The Amur badger is between 60 and 70 centimetres (24 and 28 in) in length. [9] central and northern Asia east of the Volga River. [10]
Japanese badger Meles anakuma

Meles anakuma (Mount Ibuki).JPG

Smaller than the other two species, males being about 80 centimetres (31 in) long and females 72 centimetres (28 in). Their weight is usually between 4 and 8 kilograms (8.8 and 17.6 lb). They have a much browner coat and the facial markings are less distinct. [11]

Japanese badgers are nocturnal and hibernate during the coldest months of the year. Japanese badgers are more solitary than European badgers; they do not aggregate into social clans, and mates do not form pair bonds. During the mating season, the range of a male badger overlaps with those of two or three females. A female becomes sexually mature at two years of age and gives birth to a litter of two or three (occasionally four) cubs in March or April. Soon after this, the female mates again but implantation is delayed until the following February. [11]

Endemic to Japan but are not present on the large island of Hokkaido. [11]

Fossils

Meles thorali fossil skull Meles thorali.JPG
Meles thorali fossil skull

A further species is Meles thorali from the late Pleistocene, known only from fossil remains, specimens of which have been found at Saint-Vallier, Drôme, in southeastern France and Binagady, in Azerbaijan. [6] These have large cheek teeth and characteristics intermediate between M. meles and M. anakuma. It is theorized that they were an ancestral species from which these two modern species diverged. Another extinct species from Europe is Meles hollitzeri from the Early Pleistocene, remains of which were found in Deutsch-Altenburg, in northeastern Austria, and Untermassfeld, in southeastern Germany. [6]

Related Research Articles

Hyena family of mammal

Hyenas or hyaenas are any feliform carnivoran mammals of the family Hyaenidae. With only four extant species, it is the fifth-smallest biological family in the Carnivora, and one of the smallest in the class Mammalia. Despite their low diversity, hyenas are unique and vital components of most African ecosystems.

Stoat Species of mammal (mustelid)

The stoat, also known as the ermine, short-tailed weasel or simply the weasel in Ireland where the least weasel does not live, is a mammal of the genus Mustela of the family Mustelidae native to Eurasia and North America, distinguished from the least weasel by its larger size and longer tail with a prominent black tip. Originally from Eurasia, it crossed into North America some 500,000 years ago, where it naturalized and joined the notably larger, closely related native long-tailed weasel.

Wildcat Small wild cat

The wildcat is a species complex comprising two small wild cat species, the European wildcat and the African wildcat. The European wildcat inhabits forests in Europe and the Caucasus, while the African wildcat inhabits semi-arid landscapes and steppes in Africa, the Arabian Peninsula, Central Asia, into western India and western China. The wildcat species differ in fur pattern, tail, and size: the European wildcat has long fur and a bushy tail with a rounded tip; the smaller African wildcat is more faintly striped, has short sandy-gray fur and a tapering tail; the Asiatic wildcat is spotted.

Badger informal group of mammals, use Q10328397 for Melinae

Badgers are short-legged omnivores in the families Mustelidae, and Mephitidae. Badgers are a polyphyletic grouping, and are not a natural taxonomic grouping: badgers are united by possession of a squat body adapted for fossorial activity. All belong to the caniform suborder of carnivoran mammals. The 11 species of mustelid badgers are grouped in four subfamilies: Melinae, Helictidinae, Mellivorinae, and Taxideinae ; the respective genera are Arctonyx, Meles, Melogale, Mellivora and Taxidea. Badgers include the most basal mustelids; the American badger is the most basal of all, followed successively by the ratel and Melinae; the estimated split dates are about 17.8, 15.5 and 14.8 million years ago, respectively. The two species of Asiatic stink badgers of the genus Mydaus were formerly included within Melinae, but more recent genetic evidence indicates these are actually members of the skunk family.

Honey badger species of mammal

The honey badger, also known as the ratel, is a mammal widely distributed in Africa, Southwest Asia, and the Indian subcontinent. Because of its wide range and occurrence in a variety of habitats, it is listed as Least Concern on the IUCN Red List.

European badger species of carnivorans

The European badger also known as the Eurasian badger, is a badger species in the family Mustelidae native to almost all of Europe and some parts of Western Asia. It is classified as least concern on the IUCN Red List as it has a wide range and a large stable population size, and is thought to be increasing in some regions. Several subspecies are recognized with the nominate subspecies predominating in most of Europe.

Least weasel Species of mammal

The least weasel, little weasel, common weasel, or simply weasel in the UK and much of the world, is the smallest member of the genus Mustela, family Mustelidae and order Carnivora. It is native to Eurasia, North America and North Africa, and has been introduced to New Zealand, Malta, Crete, Bermuda, Madeira Island, the Azores, the Canary Islands, São Tomé, the Falkland Islands, Argentina and Chile. It is classified as least concern by the IUCN, due to its wide distribution and large population throughout the Northern Hemisphere.

European mink species of mammal

The European mink, also known as the Russian mink and Eurasian mink, is a semiaquatic species of mustelid native to Europe.

Steppe polecat species of mammal

The steppe polecat, also known as the white or masked polecat, is a species of mustelid native to Central and Eastern Europe and Central Asia. It is listed as Least Concern by the IUCN because of its wide distribution, occurrence in a number of protected areas, and tolerance to some degree of habitat modification. It is generally of a very light yellowish colour, with dark limbs and a dark mask across the face. Compared to its relative, the European polecat, the steppe polecat is larger in size and has a more powerfully built skull.

Beech marten species of marten

The beech marten, also known as the stone marten, house marten or white breasted marten, is a species of marten native to much of Europe and Central Asia, though it has established a feral population in North America. It is listed as Least Concern by the IUCN on account of its wide distribution, its large population, and its presence in a number of protected areas. It is superficially similar to the pine marten, but differs from it by its smaller size and habitat preferences. While the pine marten is a forest specialist, the beech marten is a more generalist and adaptable species, occurring in a number of open and forest habitats.

Hog badger species of mammal

The hog badger, also known as the greater hog badger, is a terrestrial mustelid native to Central and Southeast Asia. It is listed as Vulnerable in the IUCN Red List of Threatened Species because the global population is thought to be declining due to high levels of poaching.

Siberian weasel species of mammal

The Siberian weasel is a medium-sized weasel native to Asia, where it is widely distributed and inhabits various forest habitats and open areas. It is therefore listed as Least Concern on the IUCN Red List.

Ferret-badger genus of mammals

Ferret-badgers are the five species of the genus Melogale, which is the only genus of the monotypic mustelid subfamily Helictidinae.

Yellow-throated marten species of mammal

The yellow-throated marten is an Asian marten species, which is listed as Least Concern on the IUCN Red List due to its wide distribution, evidently relatively stable population, occurrence in a number of protected areas, and lack of major threats.

Javan ferret-badger species of mammal

The Javan ferret-badger is a mustelid endemic to Java and Bali, Indonesia. It is listed as Least Concern on the IUCN Red List and occurs from at least 260 to 2,230 m elevation in or close to forested areas.

Stink badger genus of skunks

Stink badgers (Mydaus) are a genus of the skunk family of carnivorans, the Mephitidae. They resemble the better known members of family Mustelidae also termed 'badgers'. There are only two extant species – the Palawan stink badger, and the Sunda stink badger or Teledu. They live only on western islands of the Malay Archipelago: Sumatra, Java, Borneo and on the Philippine island of Palawan; as well as many other, smaller islands in the region.

Japanese weasel species of mammal

The Japanese weasel is a carnivorous mammal belonging to the genus Mustela in the family Mustelidae. The closest phylogenetically Mustela species is the Siberian weasel. Its taxonomic species name, itatsi, is a corruption of the Japanese word for weasel, itachi (イタチ). It is native to Japan where it occurs on the islands of Honshū, Kyūshū and Shikoku. It has been introduced to Hokkaidō and the Ryukyu Islands to control rodents and has also been introduced to Sakhalin Island in Russia.

Asian badger species of mammal

The Asian badger, also known as the sand badger is a species of badger native to Mongolia, China, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, the Korean Peninsula and Russia.

Japanese badger species of mammal

The Japanese badger is a species of carnivoran of the family Mustelidae, the weasels and their kin. Endemic to Japan, it is found on Honshu, Kyushu, Shikoku, and Shōdoshima. It shares the genus Meles with the Asian and European badgers. In Japan it is called by the name anaguma (穴熊) meaning "hole-bear", or mujina.

References

  1. Madurell-Malapiera, J.; et al. (2011). "The taxonomic status of European Plio-Pleistocene badgers". Journal of Vertebrate Paleontology. 31 (4): 885–894. doi:10.1080/02724634.2011.589484.
  2. Wozencraft, W.C. (2005). "Order Carnivora". In Wilson, D.E.; Reeder, D.M (eds.). Mammal Species of the World: A Taxonomic and Geographic Reference (3rd ed.). Johns Hopkins University Press. pp. 611–612. ISBN   978-0-8018-8221-0. OCLC   62265494.
  3. Koepfli KP, Deere KA, Slater GJ, Begg C, Begg K, Grassman L, Lucherini M, Veron G, Wayne RK (February 2008). "Multigene phylogeny of the Mustelidae: Resolving relationships, tempo and biogeographic history of a mammalian adaptive radiation". BMC Biology. 6: 10. doi:10.1186/1741-7007-6-10. PMC   2276185 . PMID   18275614.
  4. Yu L, Peng D, Liu J, Luan P, Liang L, Lee H, Lee M, Ryder OA, Zhang Y (2011). "On the phylogeny of Mustelidae subfamilies: analysis of seventeen nuclear non-coding loci and mitochondrial complete genomes". BMC Evol Biol. 11 (1): 92. doi:10.1186/1471-2148-11-92. PMC   3088541 . PMID   21477367.
  5. Law, C. J.; Slater, G. J.; Mehta, R. S. (2018-01-01). "Lineage Diversity and Size Disparity in Musteloidea: Testing Patterns of Adaptive Radiation Using Molecular and Fossil-Based Methods". Systematic Biology. 67 (1): 127–144. doi:10.1093/sysbio/syx047. PMID   28472434.
  6. 1 2 3 4 Baryshnikov, G. F.; Puzachenko, A. Y.; Abramov, A. V. (2003). "New analysis of variability of cheek teeth in Eurasian badgers (Carnivora, Mustelidae, Meles)" (PDF). Russian Journal of Theriology. 1 (2): 133–149. doi:10.15298/rusjtheriol.01.2.07.
  7. Heptner & Sludskii 2002 , pp. 1228–1242
  8. Kranz, A.; Tikhonov, A.; Conroy, J.; Cavallini, P.; Herrero, J.; Stubbe, M.; Maran, T.; Fernades, M.; Abramov, A. & Wozencraft, C. (2008). "Meles meles". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species . IUCN. 2008. Retrieved 17 August 2009.
  9. Heptner & Sludskii 2002 , pp. 1260–1262
  10. Abramov, A. & Wozencraft, C. (2008). "Meles leucurus". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species . IUCN. 2008. Retrieved 17 August 2009.
  11. 1 2 3 Kaneko, Y.; Sasaki, H. (2008). "Meles anakuma". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species . IUCN. 2008. Retrieved 17 August 2009.

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