Striped hyena

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Striped hyenas
Temporal range: 0.7–0  Ma
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Middle Pleistocene – Recent
Striped Hyena - Shreeram M V - Velavadar Blackbuck National Park, Gujarat, India.jpg
Iena Striata.JPG
Adult at the Blackbuck National Park, India and a close-up view of a male in the Central Zoo, Nepal
Scientific classification Red Pencil Icon.png
Kingdom: Animalia
Phylum: Chordata
Class: Mammalia
Order: Carnivora
Suborder: Feliformia
Family: Hyaenidae
Genus: Hyaena
Species:
H. hyaena
Binomial name
Hyaena hyaena
Striped Hyaena area.png
     Striped hyena range
Synonyms [3]

The striped hyena (Hyaena hyaena) is a species of hyena native to North and East Africa, the Middle East, the Caucasus, Central Asia and the Indian subcontinent. It is listed by the IUCN as near-threatened, as the global population is estimated to be under 10,000 mature individuals which continues to experience deliberate and incidental persecution along with a decrease in its prey base such that it may come close to meeting a continuing decline of 10% over the next three generations. [1] It is also the national animal of Lebanon. [4]

Contents

It is the smallest of the true hyenas and retains many primitive viverrid characteristics lost in larger species, [5] having a smaller and less specialised skull. [6] [7] Though primarily a scavenger, large specimens have been known to kill their own prey, [8] and attacks on humans have occurred on rare instances. [9] The striped hyena is a monogamous animal, with both males and females assisting one another in raising their cubs. [10] A nocturnal animal, the striped hyena typically only emerges in complete darkness, and is quick to return to its lair before sunrise. [11] Although it has a habit of feigning death when attacked, it has been known to stand its ground against larger predators in disputes over food. [12]

The striped hyena features prominently in Middle Eastern and Asian folklore. In some areas, its body parts are considered magical, and are used as charms or talismans. [13] It is mentioned in the Hebrew Bible, where it is referred to as tzebua or zevoa, though the species is absent in some Bible translations into English. [14] Ancient Greeks knew it as γλάνος (glános) and ύαινα (húaina) and were familiar with it from the Aegean coast of Asia Minor. [15]

Evolution

The species may have evolved from H. namaquensis of Pliocene Africa. Striped hyena fossils are common in Africa, with records going back as far as the Middle Pleistocene and even to the Villafranchian. As fossil striped hyenas are absent from the Mediterranean region, it is likely that the species is a relatively late invader to Eurasia, having likely spread outside Africa only after the extinction of spotted hyenas in Asia at the end of the last glacial period. The striped hyena occurred for some time in Europe during the Pleistocene, having been particularly widespread in France and Germany. It also occurred in Montmaurin, Hollabrunn in Austria, the Furninha Cave in Portugal and the Genista Caves in Gibraltar. The European form was similar in appearance to modern populations, but was larger, being comparable in size to the brown hyena. [5]

Description

Build

Skull drawn by V. N. Lyakhov MSU V2P2 - Hyaena hyaena skull.png
Skull drawn by V. N. Lyakhov
Dentition, as illustrated in Knight's Sketches in Natural History Animaldentition hyaenahyaena.png
Dentition, as illustrated in Knight's Sketches in Natural History
Skeleton Die vergleichende Osteologie (1821) Hyaena hyaena.jpg
Skeleton

The striped hyena has a fairly massive, but short torso set on long legs. The hind legs are significantly shorter than the forelimbs, thus causing the back to slope downwards. The legs are relatively thin and weak, with the forelegs being bent at the carpal region. The neck is thick, long and largely immobile, while the head is heavy and massive with a shortened facial region. The eyes are small, while the sharply pointed ears are very large, broad and set high on the head. Like all hyenas, the striped hyena has bulky pads on its paws, as well as blunt but powerful claws. The tail is short and the terminal hairs do not descend below the achilles tendon. [16] The striped hyena lacks the enlarged clitoris and false scrotal sack noted in the female genitalia of the spotted hyena. [17] The female has 3 pairs of nipples. [18] Adult weight can range from 22 to 55 kg (49 to 121 lb), averaging at about 35 kg (77 lb). Body length can range from 85 to 130 cm (33 to 51 in), not counting a tail of 25 to 40 cm (9.8 to 15.7 in), and shoulder height is between 60–80 cm (24–31 in). [19] [20] [21] [22] The male has a large pouch of naked skin located at the anal opening. Large anal glands open into it from above the anus. Several sebaceous glands are present between the openings of the anal glands and above them. [23] The anus can be everted up to a length of 5 cm, and is everted during social interaction and mating. When attacked, the striped hyena everts its rectum and sprays a pungent smelling liquid from its anal glands. [24] Its eyesight is acute, though its senses of smell and hearing are weak. [25]

The skull is entirely typical of the genus, having a very high sagittal crest, a shortened facial region and an inflated frontal bone. [26] The skull of the striped hyena differs from that of the brown [7] and spotted hyena by its smaller size and slightly less massive build. It is nonetheless still powerfully structured and well adapted to anchoring exceptionally strong jaw muscles [6] which give it enough bite-force to splinter a camel's thigh bone. [25] Although the dentition is overall smaller than that of the spotted hyena, the upper molar of the striped hyena is far larger. [6] The dental formula is 3.1.4.0–13.1.3.010.

Fur

The winter coat is unusually long and uniform for an animal its size, with a luxuriant mane of tough, long hairs along the back from the occiput to the base of the tail. The coat is generally coarse and bristly, though this varies according to season. In winter, the coat is fairly dense, soft, and has well-developed underfur. The guard hairs are 50–75 mm long on the flanks, 150–225 mm long on the mane and 150 mm on the tail. In summer, the coat is much shorter and coarser, and lacks underfur, though the mane remains large. [16]

In winter, the coat is usually of a dirty-brownish grey or dirty grey colour. The hairs of the mane are light grey or white at the base, and black or dark brown at the tips. The muzzle is dark, greyish brown, brownish-grey or black, while the top of the head and cheeks are more lightly coloured. The ears are almost black. A large black spot is present on the front of the neck, and is separated from the chin by a light zone. A dark field ascends from the flanks ascending to the rear of the cheeks. The inner and outer surface of the forelegs are covered with small dark spots and transverse stripes. The flanks have four indistinct dark vertical stripes and rows of diffused spots. The outer surface of the thighs has 3–4 distinct vertical or oblique dark bands which merge into transverse stripes in the lower portion of the legs. The tip of the tail is black with white underfur. [16]

Geographic variation

As of 2005, [3] no subspecies are recognised. The striped hyena is nonetheless a geographically varied animal. Hyenas in the Arabian peninsula have an accentuated blackish dorsal mane, with mid-dorsal hairs reaching 20 cm in length. The base colour of Arabian hyenas is grey to whitish grey, with dusky grey muzzles and buff yellow below the eyes. Hyenas in Israel have a dorsal crest which is mixed grey and black in colour, rather than being predominantly black. [19] The largest striped hyenas come from the Middle East, Asia Minor, Central Asia and the Indian subcontinent, while those of East Africa and the Arabian peninsula are smaller. [8] [27]

Behaviour

A pair of striped hyenas fighting at the Colchester Zoo Striped hyenas fighting.JPG
A pair of striped hyenas fighting at the Colchester Zoo
Illustration from Frank Finn's Wild Beasts of the World (1909) Winifred austen hyena.jpg
Illustration from Frank Finn's Wild Beasts of the World (1909)

Social and territorial behaviours

The striped hyena is a primarily nocturnal animal, which typically only leaves its den at the onset of total darkness, returning before sunrise. [11] Striped hyenas typically live alone or in pairs, though groups of up to seven animals are known in Libya. They are generally not territorial animals, with home ranges of different groups often overlapping each other. Home ranges in the Serengeti have been recorded to be 44 km2 (17 sq mi)-72 km2 (28 sq mi), while one in the Negev was calculated at 61 km2 (24 sq mi). When marking their territory, striped hyenas use the paste of their anal pouch (hyena butter) to scent mark grass, stalks, stones, tree trunks and other objects. In aggressive encounters, the black patch near the thoracic and lumbar vertebrae is erected. When fighting, striped hyenas will bite at the throat and legs, but avoid the mane, which serves as a signalling device. When greeting each other, they lick the mid-back region, sniff each other's noses, extrude their anal pouch or paw each other's throats. [28] The species is not as vocal as the spotted hyena, its vocalisations being limited to a chattering laugh and howling. [25]

Reproduction and development

The striped hyena is monogamous, with the male establishing the den with the female, helping her raise and feed when cubs are born. The mating season varies according to location; in Transcaucasia, striped hyenas breed in January–February, while those in southeast Turkmenia breed in October–November. In captivity, breeding is non-seasonal. Mating can occur at any time of the day, during which the male grips the skin of the female's neck. [10]

The gestation period lasts 90–91 days. Striped hyena cubs are born with adult markings, closed eyes and small ears. This is in marked contrast to newborn spotted hyena cubs which are born almost fully developed, though with black, unmarked coats. [29] Their eyes open after 7–8 days, and the cubs leave their dens after one month. Cubs are weaned at the age of 2 months, and are then fed by both parents. By autumn, the cubs are half the size of their parents. In the wild, striped hyenas can live for 12 years, while in captivity they have been known to reach 23. [10]

Burrowing behaviours

The striped hyena may dig its own dens, but it also establishes its lairs in caves, rock fissures, erosion channels and burrows formerly occupied by porcupines, wolves, warthogs and aardvarks. Hyena dens can be identified by the presence of bones at their entrances. The striped hyena hides in caves, niches, pits, dense thickets, reeds and plume grass during the day to shelter from predators, heat or winter cold. The size and elaboration of striped hyena dens varies according to location ; dens in the Karakum have entrances 0.67–0.72 m wide and are extended over a distance of 4.15–5 m, with no lateral extensions or special chambers. In contrast, hyena dens in Israel are much more elaborate and large, exceeding 27 m in length. [28] [30]

Diet

Stuffed striped hyena defending a sheep carcass from hooded crows, exhibited in The Museum of Zoology, St. Petersburg Stripedhyenacrows.JPG
Stuffed striped hyena defending a sheep carcass from hooded crows, exhibited in The Museum of Zoology, St. Petersburg

The striped hyena is primarily a scavenger which feeds mainly on ungulate carcasses in different stages of decomposition, fresh bones, cartilages, ligaments and bone marrow. It crushes long bones into fine particles and swallows them, though sometimes entire bones are eaten whole. [31] The striped hyena is not a fussy eater, though it has an aversion to vulture flesh. [32] It will occasionally attack and kill any animal it can overcome. [12] It hunts prey by running it down, grabbing its flanks or groin and inflicting mortal wounds by tearing out the viscera. [33] In Turkmenistan, the species is recorded to feed on wild boar, kulan, porcupines and tortoises. A seasonal abundance of oil willow fruits is an important food source in Uzbekistan and Tajikistan, while in the Caucasus, it is grasshoppers. [31] In Israel, the striped hyena feeds on garbage, carrion and fruits. In eastern Jordan, its main sources of food are feral horse and water buffalo carcasses and village refuse. It has been suggested that only the large hyenas of the Middle East, Asia minor, central Asia and the Indian subcontinent attack large prey, with no evidence of their smaller Arabian and east African cousins doing so. [8] Because of its scavenging diet, the striped hyena requires more water to survive than most other carnivores. [31] When eating, the striped hyena gorges itself until satisfied, though hyenas with cubs will transport food to their dens. [32] Because of the high content of calcium in its diet, the feces of the striped hyena becomes white very rapidly, and can be visible from long distances. [30]

Relationships with other predators

Illustration of striped hyena (top) and spotted hyena (bottom) Rosevear spotted & striped hyena.png
Illustration of striped hyena (top) and spotted hyena (bottom)

The striped hyena competes with the gray wolf in the Middle East and central Asia. In the latter area, a great portion of the hyena's diet stems from wolf-killed carcasses. The striped hyena is dominant over the wolf on a one-to-one basis, though wolves in packs can displace single hyenas from carcasses. [28] Both species have been known to share dens on occasion. [34] On rare occasions, Striped Hyenas are also known to travel with and live amongst wolf packs, with each doing the other no harm. Both predators may benefit from this unusual alliance, as the hyenas have better senses of smell and greater strength, and the wolves may be better at tracking large prey. [35] Red foxes may compete with striped hyenas on large carcasses. Red foxes may give way to hyenas on unopened carcasses, as the latter's stronger jaws can easily tear open flesh which is too tough for foxes. Foxes may harass hyenas, using their smaller size and greater speed to avoid the hyena's attacks. Sometimes, foxes seem to deliberately torment hyenas even when there is no food at stake. Some foxes may mistime their attacks, and are killed. [36]

The species frequently scavenges from the kills of felids such as tigers, leopards, cheetahs and caracals. A caracal can drive a subadult hyena from a carcass. The hyena usually wins in one-to-one disputes over carcasses with leopards, cheetahs and tiger cubs, but is dominated by adult tigers. [12] [28] In addition, the hyena is sympatric with the Asiatic lion in Gir Forest National Park, [37] and the sloth bear in Balaram Ambaji Wildlife Sanctuary, in the Indian State of Gujarat. [38]

Range and population

A wild individual at Blackbuck National Park, Velavadar Striped Hyena Adult.jpg
A wild individual at Blackbuck National Park, Velavadar

The striped hyena's historical range encompasses Africa north of and including the Sahel zone, eastern Africa south into Tanzania, the Arabian Peninsula and the Middle East up to the Mediterranean shores, Turkey, Iraq, the Caucasus (Azerbaijan, Armenia, Georgia), Iran, Turkmenistan, Uzbekistan, Tajikistan, Afghanistan (excluding the higher areas of Hindukush) and the Indian Subcontinent. Today the species' distribution is patchy in most ranges, thus indicating that it occurs in many isolated populations, particularly in most of west Africa, most of the Sahara, parts of the Middle East, the Caucasus and central Asia. It does however have a continuous distribution over large areas of Ethiopia, Kenya, and Tanzania. Its modern distribution in Pakistan, Iran and Afghanistan is unknown with some sizable large number in India in open areas of Deccan Peninsula. [39] During the recent Afghanistan conflict, periodic sightings were reported in Kandahar Province, though not definitively.

Relationships with humans

In folklore, religion, and mythology

Striped hyena pugmark in wet clay, Coimbatore, Tamil Nadu, India Hyaena pugmark.jpg
Striped hyena pugmark in wet clay, Coimbatore, Tamil Nadu, India
A striped hyena, as depicted on the Nile mosaic of Palestrina Hyenamosaic.jpg
A striped hyena, as depicted on the Nile mosaic of Palestrina

Striped hyenas are frequently referenced in Middle Eastern literature and folklore, typically as symbols of treachery and stupidity. [46] In the Near and Middle East, striped hyenas are generally regarded as physical incarnations of jinns. [13] Zakariya al-Qazwini (1204–1283) wrote in Arabic of a tribe of people called "Hyena People". In his book Marvels of Creatures and the Strange Things Existing (عجائب المخلوقات وغرائب الموجودات), he wrote that should one of this tribe be in a group of 1,000 people, a hyena could pick him out and eat him. [46] A Persian medical treatise written in 1376 tells how to cure cannibalistic people known as kaftar who are said to be "half-man, half-hyena". [13] Al-Doumairy in his writings in Hawayan Al-Koubra (1406) wrote that striped hyenas were vampiric creatures that attacked people at night and sucked the blood from their necks. He also wrote that hyenas only attacked brave people. Arab folklore tells of how hyenas can mesmerise victims with their eyes or sometimes with their pheromones. [46] Until the end of the 19th century, the Greeks believed that the bodies of werewolves, if not destroyed, would haunt battlefields as vampiric hyenas which drank the blood of dying soldiers. [47] The image of striped hyenas in Afghanistan, India and Palestine is more varied. Though feared, striped hyenas were also symbolic of love and fertility, leading to numerous varieties of love medicine derived from hyena body parts. Among the Baloch people and in North India, witches or magicians are said to ride striped hyenas at night. [13]

The Arabic word for striped hyenas is alluded in a valley in Israel known as Shaqq al-Diba (meaning "cleft of the hyenas") and Wadi Abu Diba (meaning "valley of the hyenas"). Both places have been interpreted by some scholars as being the Biblical Valley of Zeboim mentioned in 1 Samuel 13:18. The Hebrew word for hyena is tzebua or zevoa, which literally means "colored creature" (compare לִצְבֹּעַ litzboa "to color, to paint, to dye"). Though the King James Version of the Bible interprets this word (which appears in the Book of Jeremiah 12:9) as referring to a "speckled bird", Henry Baker Tristram argued that it was most likely a hyena being mentioned. [14]

In Gnosticism, the Archon Astaphaios is depicted with a hyena face. [48]

Livestock and crop predation

Striped hyena scavenging on poultry waste in Dahod district, Gujarat, India Striped Hyena - Dahod, Gujarat.jpg
Striped hyena scavenging on poultry waste in Dahod district, Gujarat, India

The striped hyena is sometimes implicated in the killing of livestock, particularly goats, sheep, dogs and poultry. Larger stock is sometimes reportedly taken, though it is possible that these are cases of scavenging mistaken for actual predation. Although most attacks occur at low densities, a substantial number reputedly occur in Egypt, Ethiopia, India, Iraq, and possibly Morocco.

In Turkmenistan, striped hyenas kill dogs, while they also kill sheep and other small animals in the Caucasus, and were event reported to have killed horses and donkeys in Iraq during the mid-twentieth century. Sheep, dogs, horses, and goats are also preyed upon in North Africa, Israel, Iran, Pakistan, and India. [49]

Striped hyenas do also cause damage on occasion to melon-fields and to date-palms in date-plantations in Israel and Egypt, and to plantations of water-melons and plantations of honey-melons in Turkmenistan. [49]

Attacks on humans and grave desecration

Engraving of a striped hyena attacking a man in The Naturalist's Cabinet (1806) Striped hyena shot.jpg
Engraving of a striped hyena attacking a man in The Naturalist's Cabinet (1806)

In ordinary circumstances, striped hyenas are extremely timid around humans, though they may show bold behaviours toward people at night. [11] On rare occasions, striped hyenas have preyed on humans. In the 1880s, a hyena was reported to have attacked humans, especially sleeping children, over a three-year period in the Erivan Governorate, with 25 children and 3 adults being wounded in one year. The attacks provoked local authorities into announcing a reward of 100 rubles for every hyena killed. Further attacks were reported later in some parts of Transcaucasia, particularly in 1908. Instances are known in Azerbaijan of striped hyenas killing children sleeping in courtyards during the 1930s and 1940s. In 1942, a guard sleeping in his hut was mauled by a hyena in Golyndzhakh. Cases of children being taken by hyenas by night are known in southeast Turkmenia's Bathyz Nature Reserve. A further attack on a child was reported around Serakhs in 1948. [9] Several attacks have occurred in India; in 1962, nine children were thought to have been taken by hyenas in the town of Bhagalpur in the Bihar State in a six-week period [14] and 19 children up to the age of four were killed by hyenas in Karnataka, Bihar in 1974. [50] A census on wild animal attacks during a five-year period in the Indian state of Madhya Pradesh showed that hyenas had only attacked three people, the lowest figure when compared to deaths caused by wolves, gaur, boar, elephants, tigers, leopards and sloth bears. [51]

Though attacks on live humans are rare, striped hyenas will scavenge on human corpses. In Turkey, stones are placed on graves to stop hyenas digging the bodies out. In World War I, the Turks imposed conscription (safar barlek) on mount Lebanon; people escaping from the conscription fled north, where many died and were subsequently eaten by hyenas. [46]

Hunting

Hyena (1739) by Jean-Baptiste Oudry OudryHyena.jpg
Hyena (1739) by Jean-Baptiste Oudry
A striped hyena being speared in British India, as illustrated in the Illustrated London News Speared hyena.JPG
A striped hyena being speared in British India, as illustrated in the Illustrated London News

Striped hyenas were hunted by Ancient Egyptian peasants for duty and amusement along with other animals that were a threat to crops and livestock. [52] Algerian hunters historically considered the killing of striped hyenas as beneath their dignity, due to the animal's reputation for cowardice. [53] A similar attitude was held by British sportsmen in British India. [12] Although striped hyenas are capable of quickly killing a dog with a single bite, [34] they usually feign death when escape from hunting dogs is impossible, and will remain in this state for long periods, even when badly bitten. [25] On some rare occasions, hyenas were ridden down and speared by men on horseback. Although hyenas were generally not fast enough to outrun horses, they had the habit of doubling and turning frequently during chases, thus ensuring long pursuits. Generally though, hyenas were hunted more as pests than sporting quarries; their scavenging damages skulls, skins and other articles from hunter's camps, which made them unpopular among sportsmen. [54] In the Soviet Union, hyena hunting was not specially organised. Most hyenas were caught incidentally in traps meant for other animals. [55] Some hunters in southern Punjab, Kandahar and Quetta, catch striped hyenas to use them in hyena-baiting. The hyenas are pitted against specially trained dogs, and are restrained with ropes in order to pull them away from the dogs if necessary. [13] In Kandahar, hunters locally called payloch (naked foot) hunt striped hyenas by entering their dens naked with a noose in hand. When the hyena is cornered at the end of its lair, the hunter murmurs the magic formula "turn into dust, turn into stone," which causes the animal to enter a hypnotic state of total submission, by which point the hunter can slip a noose over its forelegs and, finally, drag it out of the cave. [13] A similar method was once practised by Mesopotamian Arab hunters, who would enter hyena dens and "flatter" the animal, which they believed could understand Arabic. The hunter would murmur "You are very nice and pretty and quite like a lion; indeed, you are a lion". The hyena would then allow the hunter to place a noose around its neck and pose no resistance on being dragged out of its lair. [53]

The fur is coarse and sparse, with the few skins sold by hunters often being marketed as poor quality dog or wolf fur. Hyena skins were however once used in preparing chamois leather. The selling price of hyena pelts in the Soviet Union ranged from 45 kopeks to 1 ruble, 80 kopeks. [55]

Striped hyenas as food

A mural depicted on Mereruka's tomb in Sakkara indicates that Old Kingdom Egyptians forcefed hyenas in order to fatten them up for food, though certain scholars have argued that the depicted animals were really aardwolves. Striped hyenas are still eaten by Egyptian peasants, Arabian Bedouins, Palestinian laborers, Sinai Bedouins, Tuaregs, [52] and in Somalia. [56] Among the Bedouins of Arabia, hyena meat is generally considered medicine, rather than food. [13]

Striped hyenas in folk magic

The Ancient Greeks and Romans believed the blood, excrement, rectum, genitalia, eyes, tongue, hair, skin, and fat, as well as the ash of different parts of the striped hyena's body, were effective means to ward off evil and to ensure love and fertility. The Greeks and Romans believed that the genitalia of a hyena "would hold a couple peaceably together" and that a hyena anus worn as an amulet on the upper arm would make its male possessor irresistible to women. In West and South Asia, hyena body parts apparently play an important role in love magic and in the making of amulets. In Iranian folklore, it is mentioned that a stone found in the hyenas body can serve as a charm of protection for whoever wears it on his upper arm. In the Pakistani province of Sindh, the local Muslims place the tooth of a striped hyena over churns in order not to lose the milk's baraka . In Iran, a dried striped hyena pelt is considered a potent charm which forces all to succumb to the possessors attraction. In Afghanistan and Pakistan striped hyena hair is used either in love magic or as a charm in sickness. Hyena blood has been held in high regard in northern India as potent medicine, and the eating of the tongue helps fight tumors. In the Khyber area, burned striped hyena fat is applied to a man's genitals or sometimes taken orally to ensure virility, while in India the fat serves as a cure for rheumatism. In Afghanistan, some mullahs wear the vulva (kus) of a female striped hyena wrapped in silk under their armpits for a week. If a man peers through the vulva at the woman of his desire, he will invariably get hold of her. This has led to the proverbial expression in Dari of kus-e kaftar bay, as well as in Pashto of kus-e kaftar which literally mean "it happens as smoothly as if you would look through the vulva of a female striped hyena". In the North-West Frontier Province and Baluchistan, the Pakhtun keep the vulva in vermilion powder, itself having aphrodesic connotations. The rectum of a freshly killed striped hyena is likewise used by homosexuals and bisexuals to attract young men. This has led to the expression "to possess the anus of a [striped] hyena" which denotes somebody who is attractive and has many lovers. A striped hyena's penis kept in a small box filled with vermilion powder can be used for the same reasons. [13]

Tameability

A tame striped hyena Striped hyena at Jungle Cat World 1.jpg
A tame striped hyena

The striped hyena is easily tamed and can be fully trained, particularly when young. Although the Ancient Egyptians did not consider striped hyenas sacred, they did supposedly tame them for use in hunting. When raised with a firm hand, they may eventually become affectionate and as amenable as well-trained dogs, [52] [57] though they emit a strong odour which no amount of bathing will cover. [58] Although they kill dogs in the wild, striped hyenas raised in captivity can form bonds with them. [25]

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The honey badger, also known as the ratel, is a mammal widely distributed in Africa, Southwest Asia, and the Indian subcontinent. Because of its wide range and occurrence in a variety of habitats, it is listed as Least Concern on the IUCN Red List.

European badger species of carnivorans

The European badger, also known as the Eurasian badger, is a badger species in the family Mustelidae native to almost all of Europe and some parts of Western Asia. It is classified as least concern on the IUCN Red List as it has a wide range and a large stable population size, and is thought to be increasing in some regions. Several subspecies are recognized with the nominate subspecies predominating in most of Europe. In Europe, where no other badger species commonly occurs, it is generally just called "badger".

Least weasel Species of mammal

The least weasel, little weasel, common weasel, or simply weasel in the UK and much of the world, is the smallest member of the genus Mustela, family Mustelidae and order Carnivora. It is native to Eurasia, North America and North Africa, and has been introduced to New Zealand, Malta, Crete, Bermuda, Madeira Island, the Azores, the Canary Islands, São Tomé, the Falkland Islands, Argentina and Chile. It is classified as least concern by the IUCN, due to its wide distribution and large population throughout the Northern Hemisphere.

Brown hyena species of mammal

The brown hyena, also called strandwolf, is a species of hyena found in Namibia, Botswana, western and southern Zimbabwe, southern Mozambique and South Africa. It is currently the rarest species of hyena. The largest remaining brown hyena population is located in the southern Kalahari Desert and coastal areas in Southwest Africa. The global population of brown hyena is estimated by IUCN at a number between 4,000 and 10,000 and its conservation status is marked as near threatened in the IUCN Red List.

Spotted hyena Species of hyena

The spotted hyena, also known as the laughing hyena, is a hyena species, currently classed as the sole extant member of the genus Crocuta, native to sub-Saharan Africa. It is listed as being of least concern by the IUCN on account of its widespread range and large numbers estimated between 27,000 and 47,000 individuals. The species is, however, experiencing declines outside of protected areas due to habitat loss and poaching. The species may have originated in Asia, and once ranged throughout Europe for at least one million years until the end of the Late Pleistocene. The spotted hyena is the largest known member of the Hyaenidae, and is further physically distinguished from other species by its vaguely bear-like build, its rounded ears, its less prominent mane, its spotted pelt, its more dual purposed dentition, its fewer nipples and the presence of a pseudo-penis in the female. It is the only mammalian species to lack an external vaginal opening.

Beech marten species of marten

The beech marten, also known as the stone marten, house marten or white breasted marten, is a species of marten native to much of Europe and Central Asia, though it has established a feral population in North America. It is listed as Least Concern by the IUCN on account of its wide distribution, its large population, and its presence in a number of protected areas. It is superficially similar to the pine marten, but differs from it by its smaller size and habitat preferences. While the pine marten is a forest specialist, the beech marten is a more generalist and adaptable species, occurring in a number of open and forest habitats.

<i>Pachycrocuta</i> Genus of mammals (fossil)

Pachycrocuta was a genus of prehistoric hyenas. The largest and most well-researched species is Pachycrocuta brevirostris, colloquially known as the giant short-faced hyena as it stood about 90–100 cm (35–39 in) at the shoulder and it is estimated to have averaged 110 kg (240 lb) in weight, approaching the size of a lioness, making it the largest known hyena. Pachycrocuta first appeared during the late Pliocene, about 3 million years ago and became extinct during the middle Pleistocene, 400,000 years ago.

Siberian weasel species of mammal

The Siberian weasel or kolonok is a medium-sized weasel native to Asia, where it is widely distributed and inhabits various forest habitats and open areas. It is therefore listed as Least Concern on the IUCN Red List.

Yellow-throated marten species of mammal

The yellow-throated marten is a marten species native to Asia. It is listed as Least Concern on the IUCN Red List due to its wide distribution, evidently relatively stable population, occurrence in a number of protected areas, and lack of major threats.

Ussuri brown bear subspecies of mammal

The Ussuri brown bear, also known as the Ezo brown bear and the black grizzly bear, is a subspecies of the brown bear or population of the Eurasian brown bear. One of the largest brown bears, a very large Ussuri brown bear may approach the Kodiak bear in size. The Ussuri is not the same subspecies as the grizzly bear.

African wild dog Species of canid native to Sub-Saharan Africa

The African wild dog, also called the painted wolf or Cape hunting dog, is a canine native to sub-Saharan Africa. It is the largest indigenous canine in Africa, and the only extant member of the genus Lycaon, which is distinguished from Canis by dentition highly specialised for a hypercarnivorous diet, and a lack of dewclaws. It is estimated that about 6,600 adults including 1,400 mature individuals live in 39 subpopulations that are all threatened by habitat fragmentation, human persecution and outbreaks of diseases. As the largest subpopulation probably consists of less than 250 individuals, the African wild dog is listed as endangered on the IUCN Red List since 1990.

Tigrovaya Balka Nature Reserve protected area

Tigrovaya Balka Nature Reserve is in Tajikistan close to the Afghan border where the Vakhsh River and the Panj River join to form the Amu Darya. The reserve stretches over 40 km from the southwest to the northeast.

African golden wolf One of the only two wolf species in Africa, along with the Ethiopian wolf

The African golden wolf is a canine native to North Africa and the Horn of Africa. It is the descendant of a genetically admixed canid of 72% gray wolf and 28% Ethiopian wolf ancestry. It occurs in Senegal, Nigeria, Chad, Morocco, Algeria, Tunisia, Libya, Kenya, Egypt, and Tanzania. It is listed as least concern on the IUCN Red List. In the Atlas Mountains, it was sighted in elevations as high as 1,800 m (5,900 ft). It is primarily a predator, targeting invertebrates and mammals as large as gazelle fawns, though larger animals are sometimes taken. Its diet also includes animal carcasses, human refuse, and fruit. The African golden wolf is a monogamous and territorial species; offspring remain with the family to assist in raising their parents' younger pups.

Ussuri dhole subspecies of mammal

The Ussuri dhole, also known as the Indian dhole, Eastern Asiatic dhole, Chinese dhole or Southern dhole, is the nominate subspecies of the dhole native to East Asia. It is widespread in the Indian subcontinent and the Indochinese Peninsula. The Ussuri dhole is also native to China, however it is probably extinct in most of its ranges in China, as well as in Mongolia and the Russian Far East.

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Bibliography