Viverridae

Last updated

Viverridae [1]
Temporal range: 34–0  Ma
O
S
D
C
P
T
J
K
Pg
N
Eocene to Recent [2]
Viverrids mosaic.jpg
Viverrids, including (top left to bottom right), species of Paradoxurus , Genetta , Paguma and Arctictis
Scientific classification Red Pencil Icon.png
Kingdom: Animalia
Phylum: Chordata
Class: Mammalia
Order: Carnivora
Suborder: Feliformia
Infraorder: Viverroidea
Family: Viverridae
Gray, 1821
Genera

Viverridae is a family of small to medium-sized mammals, the viverrids ( /vˈvɛrɪdz/ ), comprising 15 genera, which are subdivided into 38species. [1] This family was named and first described by John Edward Gray in 1821. [3] Viverrids occur all over Africa, southern Europe, and South and Southeast Asia, across the Wallace Line. Their occurrence in Sulawesi and in some of the adjoining islands shows them to be ancient inhabitants of the Old World tropics. [4]

Contents

Characteristics

Binturong (Arctictis binturong) on display at the Museum of Osteology Binturong skeleton.jpg
Binturong ( Arctictis binturong) on display at the Museum of Osteology

Viverrids have four or five toes on each foot and half-retractile claws. They have six incisors in each jaw and molars with two tubercular grinders behind in the upper jaw, and one in the lower jaw. The tongue is rough with sharp prickles. A pouch or gland occurs beneath the anus, but there is no cecum. [3]

Viverrids are the most primitive of all the families of feliform Carnivora and clearly less specialized than the Felidae. In external characteristics, they are distinguished from the Felidae by the longer muzzle and tuft of facial vibrissae between the lower jaw bones, and by the shorter limbs and the five-toed hind foot with the first digit present. The skull differs by the position of the postpalatine foramina on the maxilla, almost always well in advance of the maxillopalatine suture, and usually about the level of the second premolar; and by the distinct external division of the auditory bulla into its two elements either by a definite groove or, when rarely this is obliterated, by the depression of the tympanic bone in front of the swollen entotympanic. The typical dental formula is: 3.1.4.23.1.4.2, but the number may be reduced, although never to the same extent as in the Felidae. [4]

Their flesh-shearing carnassial teeth are relatively undeveloped compared to those of other feliform carnivores. [5] Most viverrid species have a penis bone (a baculum). [6]

Classification

Living species

In 1821, Gray defined this family as consisting of the genera Viverra , Genetta , Herpestes , and Suricata. [3] Reginald Innes Pocock later redefined the family as containing a great number of highly diversified genera, and being susceptible of division into several subfamilies, based mainly on the structure of the feet and of some highly specialized scent glands, derived from the skin, which are present in most of the species and are situated in the region of the external generative organs. He subordinated the subfamilies Hemigalinae, Paradoxurinae, Prionodontinae, and Viverrinae to the Viverridae. [4]

In 1833, Edward Turner Bennett described the Malagasy fossa (Cryptoprocta ferox) and subordinated the Cryptoprocta to the Viverridae. [7] A molecular and morphological analysis based on DNA/DNA hybridization experiments suggests that Cryptoprocta does not belong within Viverridae, but is a member of the Eupleridae. [8]

The African palm civet (Nandinia binotata) resembles the civets of the Viverridae, but is genetically distinct and belongs in its own monotypic family, the Nandiniidae. There is little dispute that the Poiana species are viverrids. [1]

DNA analysis based on 29 Carnivora species, comprising 13 Viverrinae species and three species representing Paradoxurus , Paguma and Hemigalinae, confirmed Pocock's assumption that the African linsang Poiana represents the sister group of the genus Genetta . The placement of Prionodon as the sister group of the family Felidae is strongly supported, and it was proposed that the Asiatic linsangs be placed in the monogeneric family Prionodontidae. [9]

Family Viverridae [2] [1] [10]
SubfamilyGenusSpeciesImage of type species
Viverrinae Viverra Linnaeus, 1758 [11] Large Indian Civet, Viverra zibetha in Kaeng Krachan national park.jpg
Viverricula Hodgson, 1838 [14] Small Indian civet (V. indica) (Geoffroy Saint-Hilaire, 1803) [15] Small Indian Civet, Silchar, Assam, India.jpg
Civettictis Pocock, 1915 [16] African civet (C. civetta) (Schreber, 1776) [17] Civettictis civetta 11.jpg
Hemigalinae Gray, 1864 [18]
Hemigalus Jourdan, 1837 [19] Banded palm civet (H. derbyanus) Jourdan, 1837 [19] Banded palm civet 10.jpg
CynogaleGray, 1836 [20] Otter civet (C. bennettii) Gray, 1836 [20] Mampalon.jpg
Diplogale Thomas, 1912 [21] Hose's palm civet (D. hosei) (Thomas, 1892) [22] HemigaleHoseiSmit.jpg
Macrogalidia Schwarz, 1910 [23] Sulawesi palm civet (M. musschenbroekii) (Schlegel, 1877) [24] Macrogalidia musschenbroekii.jpg
ChrotogaleThomas, 1912 [21] Owston's palm civet (C. owstoni) Thomas, 1912 [21] Chrotogale owstoni PWP.jpg
Paradoxurinae Gray, 1864 [18] Paradoxurus Cuvier, 1822 [25] Asian or Common Palm Civet Paradoxurus hermaphroditus Chambal by Dr. Raju Kasambe (6).JPG
Arctictis Temminck, 1824 [29] Binturong (A. binturong) (Raffles, 1822) [30] Binturong in Overloon.jpg
PagumaGray, 1831 [31] Masked palm civet (P. larvata) (Smith, 1827) [32] Palm civet on tree (detail).jpg
Arctogalidia Merriam, 1897 [33] Small-toothed palm civet (A. trivirgata) (Gray, 1832) [34] Small-toothed Palm Civet (Arctogalidia trivirgata stigmatica) (8076736823) (cut).jpg
Genettinae Genetta Cuvier, 1816 [35] Genetta genetta felina (Wroclaw zoo).JPG
Poiana Gray, 1864 [18] Em - Poiana richardsonii 2.jpg

Phylogeny

The phylogenetic relationships of Viverridae are shown in the following cladogram: [2] [10]

 Viverridae 
 Paradoxurinae 
 Paradoxurus 

Golden palm civet P. zeylonensis

Jerdon's palm civet P. jerdoni

Asian palm civet P. hermaphroditus

 Macrogalidia 

Sulawesi palm civet M. musschenbroekii

 Paguma 

Masked palm civet P. larvata

 Arctictis 

Binturong A. binturong

 Arctogalidia 

Small-toothed palm civet A. trivirgata

 Hemigalinae 
 Cynogale 

Otter civet C. bennettii

 Chrotogale 

Owston's palm civet C. owstoni

 Diplogale 

Hose's palm civet D. hosei

 Hemigalus 

Banded palm civet H. derbyanus

 Viverrinae 
  Viverrinae  
 Viverra 

Malabar large-spotted civet V. civettina

Large-spotted civet V. megaspila

Large Indian civet V. zibetha

Malayan civet V. tangalunga Malay Civet (Viverra tangalunga) white background.jpg

 Civettictis 

African civet C. civetta Viverra civetta - 1700-1880 - Print - Iconographia Zoologica - Special Collections University of Amsterdam -(white background).jpg

 Viverricula 

Small Indian civet V. indica

 sensu stricto 
 Genettinae 
 Poiana 

West African oyan P. leightoni

Central African oyan P. richardsonii

 Genetta 

Abyssinian genet G. abyssinica

Haussa genet G. thierryi

Giant forest genet G. victoriae

Johnston's genet G. johnstoni

Aquatic genet G. piscivora

Servaline genet G. servalina

Crested servaline genet G. cristata

South African small-spotted genet G. felina

Common genet G. genetta

Cape genet G. tigrina

G. letabae

Schouteden’s genet G. schoutedeni

Rusty-spotted genet G. maculata

Angolan genet G. angolensis

Pardine genet G. pardina

Bourlon's genet G. bourloni

King genet G. poensis

 sensu lato 

Extinct species

SubfamilyGenusSpecies
ViverrinaeViverraLinnaeus, 1758 Leakey's civet (V. leakeyi) Leakey, 1982
Semigenetta Helbing 1927
  • S. cadeotiRoman and Viret 1934
  • S. elegansDehm, 1950
  • S. grandisCrusafont & Golpe, 1981
  • S. laugnacensisDe Bonis, 1973
  • S. ripolliPetter, 1976
  • S. sansaniensisLartet, 1851
Paradoxurinae Kichechia Savage, 1965 [46]
Tugenictis Morales & Pickford, 2005 [48] [49] T. ngororaensis [48] Morales & Pickford, 2005
Kanuites Dehghani & Werdelin, 2008 [50] K. lewisae [50] Dehghani & Werdelin, 2008
Siamictis Grohé et al., 2020 [51] S. carbonensis [51] Grohé et al., 2020

Ecology and behavior

They are generally solitary and have excellent hearing and vision. They are omnivorous; the palm civet is almost entirely herbivorous. [5]

Favored habitats include woodland, savanna, mountains, and above all tropical rainforest. Due to heavy deforestation, many face severe habitat loss. Several species, such as the Hose's palm civet, which is endemic to northern Borneo, are considered vulnerable. The otter civet is classified as endangered. [1]

See also

Related Research Articles

Felidae Family of mammals

Felidae is a family of mammals in the order Carnivora, colloquially referred to as cats, and constitutes a clade. A member of this family is also called a felid. The term "cat" refers both to felids in general and specifically to the domestic cat.

Mongoose A family of mammals in Africa and Asia

A mongoose is a small terrestrial carnivorous mammal belonging to the family Herpestidae. This family is currently split into two subfamilies, the Herpestinae and the Mungotinae. The Herpestinae comprises 23 living species that are native to southern Europe, Africa and Asia, whereas the Mungotinae comprises 11 species native to Africa. The Herpestidae originated about 21.8 ± 3.6 million years ago in the Early Miocene and genetically diverged into two main genetic lineages between 19.1 and 18.5 ± 3.5 million years ago.

Asiatic linsang genus of mammals

The Asiatic linsang (Prionodon) is a genus comprising two species native to Southeast Asia: the banded linsang and the spotted linsang. Prionodon is considered a sister taxon of the Felidae.

Asian palm civet Species of viverrid

The Asian palm civet is a viverrid native to South and Southeast Asia. Since 2008, it is IUCN Red Listed as Least Concern as it accommodates to a broad range of habitats. It is widely distributed with large populations that in 2008 were thought unlikely to be declining. In Indonesia, it is threatened by poaching and illegal wildlife trade; buyers use it for the increasing production of kopi luwak, a form of coffee that involves ingestion and excretion of the beans by the animal.

African civet largest representative of the African Viverridae

The African civet is a large viverrid native to sub-Saharan Africa, where it is considered common and widely distributed in woodlands and secondary forests. It is listed as Least Concern on the IUCN Red List since 2008. In some countries, it is threatened by hunting, and wild-caught individuals are kept for producing civetone for the perfume industry.

<i>Paradoxurus</i> genus of mammals

Paradoxurus is a genus of three palm civets within the viverrid family that was denominated and first described by Frédéric Cuvier in 1822. The Paradoxurus species have a broad head, a narrow muzzle with a large rhinarium that is deeply sulcate in the middle. Their large ears are rounded at the tip. The tail is nearly as long as the head and body.

Felinae subfamily of mammals

The Felinae are a subfamily of the family Felidae. This subfamily comprises the small cats having a bony hyoid, because of which they are able to purr but not roar.

Small Indian civet Species of mammal

The small Indian civet is a civet native to South and Southeast Asia. It is listed as Least Concern on the IUCN Red List because of its widespread distribution, widespread habitat use and healthy populations living in agricultural and secondary landscapes of many range states.

Genet (animal) genus of mammals

A genet is a member of the genus Genetta, which consists of 14 to 17 species of small African carnivorans. The common genet is the only genet present in Europe and occurs in the Iberian Peninsula and France.

Eupleridae family of carnivorans

Eupleridae is a family of carnivorans endemic to Madagascar and comprising 10 known living species in seven genera, commonly known as euplerids, Malagasy mongooses or Malagasy carnivorans. The best known species is the fossa, in the subfamily Euplerinae. All species of Euplerinae were formerly classified as viverrids, while all species in the subfamily Galidiinae were classified as herpestids.

Rusty-spotted genet species of mammal

The rusty-spotted genet, also called panther genet and large-spotted genet, is a genet that is widely distributed in sub-Saharan Africa. It is considered common and therefore listed as Least Concern on the IUCN Red List.

Golden palm civet species of mammal

The golden palm civet is a palm civet endemic to Sri Lanka. It is listed as Vulnerable on the IUCN Red List. Its distribution is severely fragmented, and the extent and quality of its habitat in Sri Lanka's hill regions are declining.

Malayan civet species of mammal

The Malayan civet, also known as the Malay civet and Oriental civet, is a viverrid native to the Malay Peninsula and the islands of Sumatra, Bangka, Borneo, the Riau Archipelago, and the Philippines. It is listed as "Least Concern" by IUCN as it is a relatively widely distributed, appears to be tolerant of degraded habitats, and occurs in a number of protected areas.

Large Indian civet species of mammal

The large Indian civet is a viverrid native to South and Southeast Asia. It is listed as Least Concern on the IUCN Red List. The global population is considered decreasing mainly because of trapping-driven declines in heavily hunted and fragmented areas, notably in China, and the heavy trade as wild meat.

Cape genet species of blotched genet, large-spotted genet, or muskeljaatkat in Afrikaans, a carnivorous mammal related to the African linsang and to the civets

The Cape genet, also known as the South African large-spotted genet, is a genet species endemic to South Africa. As it is common and not threatened, it is listed as Least Concern on the IUCN Red List. Like other genets, it is nocturnal and arboreal, preferring to live in the riparian zones of forests, as long as these are not marshy areas.

Civet Mammals of the families Viverridae and Nandiniidae

A civet is a small, lean, mostly nocturnal mammal native to tropical Asia and Africa, especially the tropical forests. The term civet applies to over a dozen different mammal species. Most of the species diversity is found in southeast Asia. The best-known civet species is the African civet, Civettictis civetta, which historically has been the main species from which a musky scent used in perfumery was obtained. The word civet may also refer to the distinctive musky scent produced by the animals.

Viverrinae subfamily of mammals, the viverrids

The Viverrinae represent the largest subfamily within the Viverridae comprising five genera, which are subdivided into 22 species native to Africa and Southeast Asia. This subfamily was denominated and first described by John Edward Gray in 1864.

Paradoxurinae subfamily of mammals, the viverrids

The Paradoxurinae are a subfamily of the viverrids that was denominated and first described by John Edward Gray in 1864. Pocock subordinated the oriental genera Paradoxurus, Paguma and Arctictis to this subfamily.

Hemigalinae subfamily of mammals, the viverrids

The Hemigalinae are a subfamily of the viverrids denominated and first described by John Edward Gray in 1864. Hemigalinae species are native to Southeast Asia from southern China through Indochina, Malay Peninsula to Sumatra, Borneo and Sulawesi.

References

  1. 1 2 3 4 5 Wozencraft, W.C. (2005). "Family Viverridae". In Wilson, D.E.; Reeder, D.M (eds.). Mammal Species of the World: A Taxonomic and Geographic Reference (3rd ed.). Johns Hopkins University Press. pp. 548–559. ISBN   978-0-8018-8221-0. OCLC   62265494.
  2. 1 2 3 Gaubert, P. & Cordeiro-Estrela, P. (2006). "Phylogenetic systematics and tempo of evolution of the Viverrinae (Mammalia, Carnivora, Viverridae) within feliformians: implications for faunal exchanges between Asia and Africa" (PDF). Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution . 41 (2): 266–278. doi:10.1016/j.ympev.2006.05.034. PMID   16837215. Open Access logo PLoS transparent.svg
  3. 1 2 3 Gray, J. E. (1821). "On the natural arrangement of vertebrose animals". London Medical Repository. 15 (1): 296–310.
  4. 1 2 3 Pocock, R. I. (1939). "Family Viverridae". The Fauna of British India, including Ceylon and Burma. Mammalia. – Volume 1. London: Taylor and Francis. pp. 330–332.
  5. 1 2 Wozencraft, W. C. (1984). Macdonald, D. (ed.). The Encyclopedia of Mammals . New York: Facts on File. pp.  134–135. ISBN   0-87196-871-1.
  6. Ewer, R. F. (1998). The Carnivores. Cornell University Press. ISBN   0-8014-8493-6.
  7. Bennett, E. T. (1833). "Notice of a new genus of Viverridous Mammalia from Madagascar". Proceedings of the Zoological Society of London. 1833: 46.
  8. Veron, G.; Catzeflis, F. M. (1993). "Phylogenetic relationships of the endemic Malagasy carnivore Cryptoprocta ferox (Aeluroideae): DNA/DNA hybridization experiments". Journal of Mammalian Evolution. 1 (3): 169–185. doi:10.1007/bf01024706. S2CID   21555307.
  9. Gaubert, P.; Veron, G. (2003). "Exhaustive sample set among Viverridae reveals the sister-group of felids: the linsangs as a case of extreme morphological convergence within Feliformia". Proceedings of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences. 270 (1532): 2523–2530. doi:10.1098/rspb.2003.2521. PMC   1691530 . PMID   14667345.
  10. 1 2 Nyakatura, K. & Bininda-Emonds, O. R. P. (2012). "Updating the evolutionary history of Carnivora (Mammalia): a new species-level supertree complete with divergence time estimates". BMC Biology. 10: 12. doi:10.1186/1741-7007-10-12. PMC   3307490 . PMID   22369503.
  11. 1 2 Linnaeus, C. (1758). "Viverra". Systema naturæ per regna tria naturæ, secundum classes, ordines, genera, species, cum characteribus, differentiis, synonymis, locis 1 (Tenth ed.). Stockholm: Laurentius Salvius. pp. 43–45.
  12. Gray, J. E. (1832). "On the family of Viverridae and its generic sub-divisions, with an enumeration of the species of several new ones". Proceedings of the Committee of Science and Correspondence of the Zoological Society of London. 2: 63–68.
  13. 1 2 Blyth, E. (1862). "Report of Curator, Zoological Department, February 1862". The Journal of the Asiatic Society of Bengal. 31 (3): 331–345.
  14. Hodgson, B. H. (1838). "Classified Catalogue of Nepalese Mammalia". Annals of Natural History. 1 (2): 152−154.
  15. Geoffroy Saint-Hilaire, E. (1803). "La Civette de l'Inde". Catalogue des Mammifères du Museum National d'Histoire Naturelle. Paris: Museum National d'Histoire Naturelle. p. 113.
  16. Pocock, R. I. (1915). "On the Feet and Glands and other External Characters of the Viverrinae, with the description of a New Genus". Proceedings of the Zoological Society of London: 131−149.
  17. Schreber, J. C. D. (1778). "Die Civette Viverra civetta". Die Säugethiere in Abbildungen nach der Natur, mit Beschreibungen. Erlangen: Wolfgang Walther. pp. 418–420.
  18. 1 2 3 Gray, J. E. (1864). "A revision of the genera and species of viverrine animals (Viverridae), founded on the collection in the British Museum". Proceedings of the Zoological Society of London for the Year 1864: 502–579.
  19. 1 2 Jourdan, C. (1837). "Mémoire sur deux mammifères nouveaux de l'Inde, considérés comme types des deux genres voisins des Paradoxures, genres Hémigale et Ambliodon". Comptes rendus hebdomadaires des séances de l'Académie des sciences: 442–447.
  20. 1 2 Gray, J.E. (1836). "Characters of some new species of Mammalia in the Society's collection". Proceedings of the Zoological Society of London. Part IV (October): 87–88.
  21. 1 2 3 Thomas, O. (1912). "Two new Genera and a Species of Viverrine Carnivora". Proceedings of the Zoological Society of London. Part II: 498–503.
  22. Thomas, O. (1892). "On some Mammals form Mount Dulit, North Borneo". Proceedings of the Zoological Society of London. Part I: 221–226.
  23. Schwarz, E. (1910). "Notes on some Palm-Civets". The Annals and Magazine of Natural History; Zoology, Botany, and Geology. 8. 5 (29): 422–424.
  24. Schlegel, H. (1879). "Paradoxurus musschenbroekii". Notes from the Royal Zoological Museum of the Netherlands at Leyden. 1 (Note XIV): 43.
  25. Cuvier, F. (1822). "Du genre Paradoxure et de deux espèces nouvelles qui s'y rapportent". Mémoires du Muséum d'Histoire Naturelle Paris. 9: 41–48.
  26. Pallas, P. S. (1778). "Das Zwitterstinkthier". In Schreber, J. C. D. (ed.). Die Säugethiere in Abbildungen nach der Natur, mit Beschreibungen. Erlangen: Wolfgang Walther. p. 426.
  27. Pallas, P. S. (1778). "Der Boshond". In Schreber, J. C. D. (ed.). Die Säugethiere in Abbildungen nach der Natur, mit Beschreibungen. Erlangen: Wolfgang Walther. p. 451.
  28. Blanford, W. T. (1885). "A Monograph of the Genus Paradoxurus, F. Cuvier". Proceedings of the Zoological Society of London. 53 (4): 780–808. doi:10.1111/j.1096-3642.1885.tb02921.x.
  29. Temminck, C. J. (1824). "XVII Genre Arctictis". Monographies de mammalogie. Paris: Dufour & d'Ocagne. p. xxi.
  30. Raffles, T. S. (1822). "XVII. Descriptive Catalogue of a Zoological Collection, made on account of the Honourable East India Company, in the Island of Sumatra and its Vicinity, under the Direction of Sir Thomas Stamford Raffles, Lieutenant-Governor of Fort Marlborough', with additional Notices illustrative of the Natural History of those Countries". The Transactions of the Linnean Society of London. XIII: 239–274.
  31. Gray, J. E. (1831). "Paguma". Proceedings of the Committee of Science and Correspondence of the Zoological Society of London. 1. London: Zoological Society of London. p. 95.
  32. Smith, C.H. (1827). "Gulo larvatus, the Masked Glutton". In Griffith, E. (ed.). The animal kingdom : arranged in conformity with its organization. 2. Mammalia. London: G.B. Whittaker. p. 281.
  33. Merriam, C. H. (1897). "The generic names Ictis, Arctogale, and Arctogalidia". Science. 5 (112): 302. doi:10.1126/science.5.112.302. PMID   17741859.
  34. Gray, J.E. (1832). "On the Family of Viverridae and its generic subdivisions; with an enumeration of the Species of Paradoxurus, and Characters of several new ones". Proceedings of the Committee of Science and Correspondence of the Zoological Society of London (Part 2): 63–68.
  35. Cuvier, F. (1816). Cuvier, G. (ed.). Le règne animal distribué d'après son organisation, pour servir de base à l'histoire naturelle des animaux et d'introduction à l'anatomie comparée. I. Paris: Deterville.
  36. Linnaeus, C. (1758). "Viverra genetta". Systema naturæ per regna tria naturæ, secundum classes, ordines, genera, species, cum characteribus, differentiis, synonymis, locis 1 (Tenth ed.). Stockholm: Laurentius Salvius. p. 45.
  37. Schreber, J. C. D. (1778). "Die Bisamkaze Viverra tigrina". Die Säugethiere in Abbildungen nach der Natur mit Beschreibungen. Dritter Theil. Erlangen: Walther. pp. 425–426.
  38. Gray, J. E. (1828). "Viverra maculata". Spicilegia zoologica : original figures and short systematic descriptions of new and unfigured animals. London: Treuttel, Wurtz & Co. p. 9.
  39. Waterhouse, G. R. (1838). "On some New Species of Mammalia from Fernando Po". Proceedings of the Zoological Society of London: 57–61.
  40. Thomas, O. (1901). "On the more notable Mammals obtained by Sir Harry Johnston in the Uganda Protectorate". Proceedings of the Zoological Society of London. II: 85–90.
  41. Thomas, O. & Schwann, H. (1906). "The Rudd Exploration of South Africa.—IV. List of Mammals obtained by Mr. Grant at Knysna". Proceedings of the Zoological Society of London. 76 (1–2): 159–168. doi:10.1111/j.1469-7998.1906.tb08427.x.
  42. Allen, J. A. (1919). "Preliminary notes on African carnivora". Journal of Mammalogy. 1 (1): 23–31. doi:10.2307/1373716. JSTOR   1373716.
  43. Gaubert, P. (2003). "Description of a new species of genet (Carnivora; Viverridae; genus Genetta) and taxonomic revision of forest forms related to the Large-spotted Genet complex". Mammalia. 67 (1): 85–108. doi:10.1515/mamm.2003.67.1.85. S2CID   84351854.
  44. Thomson, T. R. H. (1842). "Description of a new species of Genetta, and of two species of Birds from Western Africa". The Annals and Magazine of Natural History; Zoology, Botany, and Geology. 10 (64): 203–205. doi:10.1080/03745484209445224.
  45. Pocock, R. I. (1907). "Report upon a Small Collection of Mammalia brought from Liberia by Mr. Leonard Leighton". Proceedings of the Zoological Society of London (November): 1037–1046.
  46. 1 2 Savage, R. J. G. (1965). "Fossil mammals of Africa: 19, The Miocene Carnivora of East Africa". Bulletin of the British Museum (Natural History). 10 (8): 239–316.
  47. Adrian, B.; Werdelin, L. & Grossman, A. (2018). "New Miocene Carnivora (Mammalia) from Moruorot and Kalodirr, Kenya" (PDF). Palaeontologia Electronica. 21 (1 10A): 1–19. doi:10.26879/778.
  48. 1 2 Morales, J. & Pickford, M. (2005). "Carnivores from the Middle Miocene Ngorora Formation (13-12 Ma), Kenya" (PDF). Estudios Geológicos. 61 (3–6): 271–284. doi:10.3989/egeol.05613-668.
  49. Werdelin, L. (2019). "Middle Miocene Carnivora and Hyaenodonta from Fort Ternan, western Kenya" (PDF). Geodiversitas. 41 (6): 267. doi:10.5252/geodiversitas2019v41a6. S2CID   146620949.
  50. 1 2 Dehghani, R. & Werdelin, L. (2008). "A new small carnivoran from the Middle Miocene of Fort Ternan, Kenya". Neues Jahrbuch für Geologie und Paläontologie - Abhandlungen. 248 (2): 233–244. doi:10.1127/0077-7749/2008/0248-0233.
  51. 1 2 Grohé, C.; Bonis, L. D.; Chaimanee, Y.; Chavasseau, O.; Rugbumrung, M.; Yamee, C.; Suraprasit, K.; Gibert, C.; Surault, J.; Blondel, C.; Jaeger, J.-J. (2020). "The Late Middle Miocene Mae Moh Basin of Northern Thailand: The Richest Neogene Assemblage of Carnivora from Southeast Asia and a Paleobiogeographic Analysis of Miocene Asian Carnivorans". American Museum Novitates. 2020 (3952): 1–57. doi:10.1206/3952.1. S2CID   219296152.