Pardofelis

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Pardofelis
Lydekker - Marbled Cat.JPG
Illustration of Catolynx marmoratus [1]
Scientific classification Red Pencil Icon.png
Kingdom: Animalia
Phylum: Chordata
Class: Mammalia
Order: Carnivora
Suborder: Feliformia
Family: Felidae
Subfamily: Felinae
Genus: Pardofelis
Severtzov, 1858
Species
Marbled Cat area.png
Marbled cat range

Pardofelis is a genus of the cat family Felidae. [2] This genus is defined as including one species native to Southeast Asia: the marbled cat. [3] Two other species, formerly classified to this genus, now belong to the genus Catopuma .

Contents

The word pardofelis is composed of the Latin words pardus pard, and felis cat in allusion to the spots of the type species, the marbled cat. [4]

Taxonomic history

Pardofelis was first proposed by the Russian explorer and naturalist Nikolai Severtzov in 1858 as generic name comprising a single felid species occurring in tropical Asia, the marbled cat Pardofelis marmorata. [5] The British zoologist Reginald Innes Pocock recognized the taxonomic classification of Pardofelis in 1917 as comprising not only the marbled cat but also the Borneo bay cat Pardofelis badia, because of similarities in the shape of their skulls. [2] In 1939, he described Pardofelis marmorata on the basis of skins and skulls which originated in Java, Sumatra, Darjeeling and Sikkim. [6]

Until 2006, the classification of Pardofelis as a monotypic genus was widely accepted. [7] Genetic analysis carried out at the turn of the century revealed a close genetic relationship with the Borneo bay cat Pardofelis badia and the Asian golden cat Pardofelis temminckii. All of them diverged from the other felids about 9.4  million years ago, and have therefore been proposed to be placed in the genus Pardofelis. [3] Meanwhile, Pardofelis is considered a synonym of Catopuma . [8] [9]

The relationship between this branch and others on the feline family tree has also become clearer. Pardofelis species do not stem from the Pantherinae subfamily but belong to the other main branch of mostly smaller cat species, the Felinae . They share a more recent common ancestor with servals, caracals, and African golden cats than with any other existing cat genus. [3] [10] [11]

Characteristics

Pardofelis are small long-tailed, short-headed cats with rounded ears, distinguishable from Prionailurus and related Oriental genera by having the skull higher and more rounded, with the mesopterygoid fossa lanceolate in front and provided with thickened margins or a better developed external crest. [2] The skull is short, broad, strongly convex in dorsal profile, not comparatively long and low. The nasal branch of the premaxilla is thin, not expanded, the summit of the muzzle is not compressed above, the maxilla is not expanded where it abuts against the nasal bone, and develops no excrescence outside the suborbital foramen. [6]

Related Research Articles

Felidae Family of mammals

Felidae is a family of mammals in the order Carnivora, colloquially referred to as cats, and constitutes a clade. A member of this family is also called a felid. The term "cat" refers both to felids in general and specifically to the domestic cat.

<i>Panthera</i> Genus within Felidae

Panthera is a genus within the family Felidae that was named and described by Lorenz Oken in 1816 who placed all the spotted cats in this group. Reginald Innes Pocock revised the classification of this genus in 1916 as comprising the species tiger, lion, jaguar, and leopard on the basis of common cranial features. Results of genetic analysis indicate that the snow leopard also belongs to the Panthera, a classification that was accepted by IUCN Red List assessors in 2008.

<i>Felis</i> Genus of mammals (cats)

Felis is a genus of small and medium-sized cat Felinae species native to most of Africa and south of 60° latitude in Europe and Asia to Indochina. The genus includes the domestic cat. The smallest Felis species is the black-footed cat with a head and body length from 38 to 42 cm. The largest is the jungle cat with a head and body length from 62 to 76 cm.

<i>Neofelis</i> genus of mammals

Neofelis is a genus comprising two extant cat species from Southeast Asia: the clouded leopard of mainland Asia, and the Sunda clouded leopard of Sumatra and Borneo.

Asian golden cat Small wild cat

The Asian golden cat is a medium-sized wild cat native to the northeastern Indian subcontinent and Southeast Asia. It has been listed as Near Threatened on the IUCN Red List since 2008, and is threatened by hunting pressure and habitat loss, since Southeast Asian forests are undergoing the world's fastest regional deforestation.

Bay cat Small wild cat

The bay cat, also known as Borneo bay cat and Bornean bay cat, is a wild cat endemic to the island of Borneo that appears to be relatively rare compared to sympatric wild cats, based on the paucity of historical, as well as recent records. Since 2002, it has been listed as Endangered on the IUCN Red List because it is estimated that fewer than 2,500 mature individuals exist, and that the population declined in the past. The bay cat has been recorded as rare and seems to occur at relatively low density, even in pristine habitat.

African golden cat Small wild cat

The African golden cat is a wild cat endemic to the rainforests of West and Central Africa. It is threatened due to deforestation and bushmeat hunting and listed as Vulnerable on the IUCN Red List. It is a close relative of both the caracal and the serval. Previously, it was placed in the genus Profelis. Its body size ranges from 61 to 101 cm with a 16 to 46 cm long tail.

<i>Catopuma</i> genus of mammals

Catopuma is a genus containing two Asian small wild cat species, the Asian golden cat and the bay cat . Both are typically reddish brown in colour, with darker markings on the head.

Asiatic linsang genus of mammals

The Asiatic linsang (Prionodon) is a genus comprising two species native to Southeast Asia: the banded linsang and the spotted linsang. Prionodon is considered a sister taxon of the Felidae.

<i>Prionailurus</i> genus of mammals

Prionailurus is a genus of spotted, small wild cats native to Asia. Forests are their preferred habitat; they feed on small mammals, reptiles and birds, some also on aquatic wildlife.

Marbled cat Small wild cat

The marbled cat is a small wild cat native from the eastern Himalayas to Southeast Asia, where it inhabits forests up to 2,500 m (8,200 ft) altitude. As it is present in a large range, it has been listed as Near Threatened on the IUCN Red List since 2015.

Reginald Innes Pocock British zoologist (1863–1947)

Reginald Innes Pocock F.R.S. was a British zoologist.

Felinae subfamily of mammals

The Felinae are a subfamily of the family Felidae. This subfamily comprises the small cats having a bony hyoid, because of which they are able to purr but not roar.

Pantherinae subfamily of mammals

Pantherinae is a subfamily within the family Felidae, which was named and first described by Reginald Innes Pocock in 1917. The Pantherinae and the Felinae diverged from a common ancestor between 10.8 and 11.5 million years ago.

Sunda clouded leopard species of medium-sized wild cat

The Sunda clouded leopard is a medium-sized wild cat native to Borneo and Sumatra. It is listed as Vulnerable on the IUCN Red List since 2015, as the total effective population probably consists of fewer than 10,000 mature individuals, with a decreasing population trend. On both Sunda islands, it is threatened by deforestation.

Hukaung Valley Wildlife Sanctuary

Hukaung Valley Wildlife Sanctuary is a protected area in northern Myanmar, covering 17,373.57 km2 (6,707.97 sq mi). It was established in 2004 and extended to its present size in 2010. It was initially gazetted in 2004 with an area of 6,371 km2 (2,460 sq mi) in Tanaing Township and extended to Kamaing, Nayun and Kamti Townships. In elevation, it ranges from 125 to 3,435 m in the Hukawng Valley located in Kachin State and Sagaing Region. It harbours evergreen and mixed deciduous forests.

Htamanthi Wildlife Sanctuary

Htamanthi Wildlife Sanctuary is a 2,150.73 km2 (830.40 sq mi) large protected area in northern Myanmar. It was established in 1974 in the Sagaing Region.

Bumhpa Bum Wildlife Sanctuary

Bumhpa Bum Wildlife Sanctuary is a protected area in Myanmar, covering an area of 1,854.43 km2 (716.00 sq mi). It was established in 2004. It ranges in elevation from 140 to 3,435 m and harbours evergreen forest in Kachin State.

Hponkanrazi Wildlife Sanctuary Protected area in Myanmar

Hponkanrazi Wildlife Sanctuary is a protected area in northern Myanmar, stretching over an area of 2,703.95 km2 (1,044.00 sq mi). It was established in 2003. It encompasses riverine habitats, subtropical moist forest, temperate forest, deciduous forest and alpine forest. It is contiguous with Hkakaborazi National Park, Bumhpa Bum Wildlife Sanctuary and Hukaung Valley Wildlife Sanctuary. Together, they form a 30,269 km2 (11,687 sq mi) large protected area complex of natural forest called the Northern Forest Complex. It is managed by the Forest Department.

References

  1. Lydekker, R. (1896). A Handbook to the Carnivora: part 1: Cats, Civets, and Mongooses. Edward Lloyd Limited, London
  2. 1 2 3 Pocock, R. I. (1917). "The classification of the existing Felidae". Annals and Magazine of Natural History. Series 8. XX (119): 329–350. doi:10.1080/00222931709487018.
  3. 1 2 3 Johnson, W. E.; Eizirik, E.; Pecon-Slattery, J.; Murphy, W. J.; Antunes, A.; Teeling, E.; O'Brien, S. J. (2006). "The Late Miocene Radiation of Modern Felidae: A Genetic Assessment". Science. 311 (5757): 73–77. Bibcode:2006Sci...311...73J. doi:10.1126/science.1122277. PMID   16400146.
  4. Palmer, T. S.; Merriam, C. H. (1904). Index generum mammalium: a list of the genera and families of mammals. Government Printing Office, Washington.
  5. Severtzow, M. N. (1858). "Notice sur la classification multisériale des Carnivores, spécialement des Félidés, et les études de zoologie générale qui s'y rattachent". Revue et Magasin de Zoologie Pure et Appliquée. 2. Séptembre: 385–396.
  6. 1 2 Pocock, R. I. (1939). "Pardofelis". The fauna of British India, including Ceylon and Burma. Mammalia. – Volume 1. London: Taylor and Francis. pp. 253–258.
  7. Wozencraft, W.C. (2005). "Genus Pardofelis". In Wilson, D.E.; Reeder, D.M (eds.). Mammal Species of the World: A Taxonomic and Geographic Reference (3rd ed.). Johns Hopkins University Press. pp. 545–546. ISBN   978-0-8018-8221-0. OCLC   62265494.
  8. Hearn, A.; Brodie, J.; Cheyne, S.; Loken, B.; Ross, J.; Wilting, A. (2016). "Catopuma badia". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species . 2016: e.T4037A112910221.
  9. McCarthy, J.; Dahal, S.; Dhendup, T.; Gray, T.N.E.; Mukherjee, S.; Rahman, H.; Riordan, P.; Boontua, N. & Wilcox, D. (2015). "Catopuma temminckii". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species . 2015: e.T4038A97165437.
  10. O'Brien, S.J.; Johnson, W.E. (2005). "Big cat genomics". Annual Review of Genomics and Human Genetics. 6 (1): 407–429. doi:10.1146/annurev.genom.6.080604.162151. PMID   16124868.
  11. Johnson, W.E.; O'Brien, S.J. (1997). "Phylogenetic reconstruction of the Felidae using 16S rRNA and NADH-5 mitochondrial genes". Journal of Molecular Evolution. 44 (Supplement 1): 98–116. Bibcode:1997JMolE..44S..98J. doi:10.1007/PL00000060. PMID   9071018.