Common genet

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Common genet
Genetta genetta felina (Wroclaw zoo).JPG
Scientific classification Red Pencil Icon.png
Kingdom: Animalia
Phylum: Chordata
Class: Mammalia
Order: Carnivora
Suborder: Feliformia
Family: Viverridae
Genus: Genetta
Species:
G. genetta
Binomial name
Genetta genetta
Common Genet area.png
Common genet range
(green - native,
red - extant introduced,
black - extinct introduced)
Synonyms

Viverra genetta(Linnaeus, 1758)

The common genet (Genetta genetta) is a small viverrid [2] indigenous to Africa that was introduced to southwestern Europe and the Balearic Islands. It is widely distributed north of the Sahara, in savanna zones south of the Sahara to southern Africa and along the coast of Arabia, Yemen and Oman. It is listed as Least Concern on the IUCN Red List. [1]

Contents

Characteristics

Skull of a common genet Genetta genetta 02 MWNH 118.jpg
Skull of a common genet

The common genet has a slender, cat-like body, a small head with a pointed muzzle, large oval ears, large eyes and well-developed whiskers up to 7 cm (2.8 in) in length. Its legs are short, with cat-like feet and semi-retractile claws. Its fur is dense and soft, and the coat is pale grey, with numerous black markings. The back and flanks are marked with about five rows of black spots, and a long black stripe runs along the middle of the back from the shoulders to the rump. There is also a black stripe on the forehead, and dark patches beneath the eyes, which are offset against the white fur of the chin and throat. The tail is striped, with anything from eight to thirteen rings along its length. Its body is 43 to 55 cm (17 to 22 in) long with a tail measuring 33 to 52 cm (13 to 20 in). Males weigh an average of 2 kg (4.4 lb) and are about 10% larger than females. [3] It has an erectile crest of hair from the shoulder to the base of the tail, a white tail tip and black hind feet. [4]

Distribution and habitat

In North Africa, the common genet occurs along the western Mediterranean coast, and in a broad band from Senegal and Mauritania in the west throughout the savannah zone south of the Sahara to Somalia and Tanzania in the east. On the Arabian Peninsula, it was recorded in coastal regions of Saudi Arabia, Yemen and Oman. Another discontinuous population inhabits Southern Africa, from southern Angola across Zambia, Zimbabwe to Mozambique. It inhabits a wide range of deciduous and evergreen habitats that provide plentiful shelter such as rocky terrain with caves and dense scrub land, but also come close to settlements and agricultural land. [1]

It is common in Morocco, [5] but rare in Libya, Egypt and Zambia. [3] In South Africa, it is common in west-central KwaZulu-Natal, [6] in the Cape Province, [7] and in QwaQwa National Park in the Free State province. [8]

It was brought to the Mediterranean region from Maghreb as a semi-domestic animal about 1,000 to 1,500 years ago. It spread from the Iberian Peninsula to the Balearic Islands and southern France. [9] In Italy, individuals were sighted in mountainous areas in the Piedmont region and in the Aosta Valley. Individuals sighted in Switzerland, Germany and the Netherlands are considered to have escaped or been released from captivity. [10] In southwestern Europe, they thrive in oak and pine forests, but also live in olive groves, riparian zones, ash groves, rocky areas, and shrublands. They are rare in open areas, marshes, and cereal croplands. Despite their abundance along watercourses, presence of water is not considered essential. [3]

It prefers to live in areas with dense vegetation, such as bushes, thickets, and evergreen oak forests. [11] As resting sites it uses trees with dense foliage in the canopy and dense thickets overgrown with climbing plants. [12] In northern areas, it prefers low altitudes with high temperatures and low rainfall. [13] In the Manzanares Park in central Spain, it lives foremost in areas of 1,000–1,200 m (3,300–3,900 ft) elevation with many rocks and shrubs. It tolerates proximity to settlements. [14]

The common genet and wood mouse share the same habitats and niches, specifically Mediterranean forests. [15] [16]

In the East Sudanian Savanna, it was recorded in the transboundary DinderAlatash protected area complex during surveys between 2015 and 2018. [17] In northern Ethiopia, it was recorded in the mountainous Degua Tembien district. [18]

Ecology and behaviour

The common genet is solitary. Adults are nocturnal and crepuscular, with their highest levels of activity following sunset and just prior to sunrise; juveniles may be active during the day. They rest during the day in hollow trees or among thickets, and frequently use the same resting sites. In southern Spain, adult individuals occupy home ranges of about 7.8 km2 (3.0 sq mi) in average. The ranges of males and females overlap, but those of members of the same sex do not. [19] In northern Spain, home ranges of three females ranged from 2.1 to 10.2 km2 (0.81 to 3.94 sq mi). [20]

During a study in northeastern Spain, males have been found to be more active than females at night because of their greater size, which indicates that males have greater energy requirements to satisfy their physiological needs. Females typically weigh less, and they have been found to be less active overall. Females' home ranges are also smaller than those of males. [21] Males had a mean annual home range of 113 ha (280 acres), and females of 72 ha (180 acres). While males have larger home ranges in all seasons, the differences between males' and females' territories are most significant during the winter. Their home ranges are slightly larger during the spring because they are more active, not only nocturnally, but in seeking a mate. Because of their increased activity, they require more energy and are more active to acquire the necessary sustenance. [22]

Both male and females scent mark in their home ranges. Females mark their territory using scent glands on their flanks, hind legs, and perineum. Males mark less frequently than females, often spraying urine, rather than using their scent glands, and do so primarily during the breeding season. Scent marks by both sexes allow individuals to identify the reproductive and social status of other genets. Common genets also defecate at specific latrine sites, which are often located at the edge of their territories, and perform a similar function to other scent marks. [3]

Five communication calls have been reported. The hiccup call is used by males during the mating period and by females to call the litter. Kits purr during their first week of life and, during their dependent weeks, moan or mew. Kits also growl after the complete development of predatory behavior and during aggressive interactions. Finally, genets utter a "click" as a threat. Threatening behavior consists of erection of the dark central dorsal band of hair, an arched-back stance, opening the mouth, and baring the teeth. [3]

The common genet uses five distinct calls. The "hiccup" call is used to indicate friendly interactions, such as between a mother and her young, or between males and females prior to mating. Conversely, clicks, or, in younger individuals, growls, are used to indicate aggression. The remaining two calls, a "mew" and a purr, are used only by young still dependent on their mother. [3]

It has a varied diet comprising small mammals, lizards, birds, bird eggs, amphibians, centipedes, millipedes, scorpions, insects and fruit, including figs and olives. The wood mouse is a favourite prey item, [23] It also prey on red squirrels (Sciurus vulgaris) and dormice (Eliomys quercinus).[ citation needed ] Genets locate their prey primarily by scent, and kill with a bite to the neck, like cats. Small rodents are captured by the back and killed with a bite at the head, then eaten starting with the head. [3] [24]

In Spain, common genets can suffer from infestation of parasitic helminths, as well as ticks, fleas [ verification needed ] ( Hippobosca )[ verification needed ], and lice. Common genets also host the phthirapteran Eutrichophilus genettae and Lorisicola (Paradoxuroecus) genettae. [25]

In Africa, predators include leopard, serval, caracal, ratel and large owl species. [26] Potential predators are also red fox and northern goshawk. [12]

Reproduction and development

In Spain, common genets breed between January and September, with a peak in February and March and another one in the summer. [24] Mating behaviour and development of young has been studied in captive individuals. Copulation lasts about two to three minutes, and is repeated up to five times in the same night. After a gestation period of 10 to 11 weeks, up to four young are born. Newborn common genets weigh 60 to 85 g (2.1 to 3.0 oz). They start eating meat at around seven weeks of age, and are fully weaned at four months of age. When five months old, they are skilled in hunting on their own. When 19 months old, they start marking, and are thought to be sexually mature at the age of two years. Captive common genets have lived up to 13 years. [27] [28]

Threats

No major threats to common genets are known. In North Africa and some localities in southern Africa, they are hunted for their fur. In Portugal, they get killed in predator traps. On Ibiza, urbanization and development of infrastructure cause loss and fragmentation of habitat. [1]

Conservation

Genetta genetta is listed on Appendix III of the Bern Convention and in Annex V of the Habitats and Species Directive of the European Union. [29]

Taxonomy

Viverra genetta was the scientific name proposed by Carl Linnaeus in 1758. [30]

More than 30 subspecies of the common genet have been described. The following are considered valid: [2]

Genetta felina has been reclassified as a species based on morphological diagnoses comparing 5500 Viverrinae specimens in zoological collections. [34]

Along with other viverrids, genets are among living carnivorans considered to be the morphologically closest to the extinct common ancestor of the whole order. [35] [36]

Related Research Articles

Mongoose A family of mammals in Africa and Asia

A mongoose is a small terrestrial carnivorous mammal belonging to the family Herpestidae. This family is currently split into two subfamilies, the Herpestinae and the Mungotinae. The Herpestinae comprises 23 living species that are native to southern Europe, Africa and Asia, whereas the Mungotinae comprises 11 species native to Africa. The Herpestidae originated about 21.8 ± 3.6 million years ago in the Early Miocene and genetically diverged into two main genetic lineages between 19.1 and 18.5 ± 3.5 million years ago.

Viverridae family of mammals

Viverridae is a family of small to medium-sized mammals, the viverrids, comprising 15 genera, which are subdivided into 38 species. This family was named and first described by John Edward Gray in 1821. Viverrids occur all over Africa, southern Europe, and South and Southeast Asia, across the Wallace Line. Their occurrence in Sulawesi and in some of the adjoining islands shows them to be ancient inhabitants of the Old World tropics.

African palm civet species of mammal

The African palm civet, also known as the two-spotted palm civet, is a small feliform mammal widely distributed in sub-Saharan Africa. It is listed as Least Concern on the IUCN Red List.

African civet largest representative of the African Viverridae

The African civet is a large viverrid native to sub-Saharan Africa, where it is considered common and widely distributed in woodlands and secondary forests. It is listed as Least Concern on the IUCN Red List since 2008. In some countries, it is threatened by hunting, and wild-caught individuals are kept for producing civetone for the perfume industry.

Small Indian civet Species of mammal

The small Indian civet is a civet native to South and Southeast Asia. It is listed as Least Concern on the IUCN Red List because of its widespread distribution, widespread habitat use and healthy populations living in agricultural and secondary landscapes of many range states.

Genet (animal) genus of mammals

A genet is a member of the genus Genetta, which consists of 14 to 17 species of small African carnivorans. The common genet is the only genet present in Europe and occurs in the Iberian Peninsula and France.

Crested servaline genet species of mammal

The crested servaline genet, also known as the crested genet, is a genet species endemic to Nigeria and Cameroon. As the population has declined due to loss of habitat, it is listed as Vulnerable on the IUCN Red List. It was first recorded in the Mamfe Division in Cameroon and initially considered a subspecies of the servaline genet. But now it is regarded as a distinct species.

Servaline genet species of mammal

The servaline genet is a genet species native to Central Africa. As it is widely distributed and considered common, it is listed as Least Concern on the IUCN Red List.

Aquatic genet species of mammal

The aquatic genet is a genet that has only been recorded in the northeast of the Democratic Republic of the Congo. Since it is only known from about 30 specimens in zoological collections, it had been listed as Data Deficient on the IUCN Red List since 1996, as it is considered one of Africa's rarest carnivores. In 2015, it has been reassessed as Near Threatened.

Abyssinian genet species of mammal

The Abyssinian genet, also known as the Ethiopian genet, is a genet species native to Ethiopia, Eritrea, Somalia, Sudan, and Djibouti. It is listed as Data Deficient on the IUCN Red List. It is one of the least-known genet species.

Angolan genet Species of mammal

The Angolan genet or miombo genet is a genet species endemic to Southern Africa. It is considered common in this region and therefore listed as Least Concern in the IUCN Red List. Little is known about its ecology.

Egyptian mongoose Species of mammal

The Egyptian mongoose, also known as ichneumon, is a mongoose species native to the Iberian Peninsula, coastal regions along the Mediterranean Sea between North Africa and Turkey, tropical and subtropical grasslands, savannas, and shrublands in Africa. Because of its widespread occurrence, it is listed as Least Concern on the IUCN Red List.

Rusty-spotted genet species of mammal

The rusty-spotted genet, also called panther genet and large-spotted genet, is a genet that is widely distributed in sub-Saharan Africa. It is considered common and therefore listed as Least Concern on the IUCN Red List.

Johnstons genet species of mammal

Johnston's genet is a genet species native to the Upper Guinean forests. As it is threatened by deforestation and conversion of rainforest to agriculturally and industrially used land, it is listed as Near Threatened on the IUCN Red List.

Giant forest genet species of mammal

The giant forest genet, also known as the giant genet, is a genet species endemic to the Congo Basin. As it is considered as widely distributed and common, it is listed as Least Concern on the IUCN Red List.

Large Indian civet species of mammal

The large Indian civet is a viverrid native to South and Southeast Asia. It is listed as Least Concern on the IUCN Red List. The global population is considered decreasing mainly because of trapping-driven declines in heavily hunted and fragmented areas, notably in China, and the heavy trade as wild meat.

Cape genet species of blotched genet, large-spotted genet, or muskeljaatkat in Afrikaans, a carnivorous mammal related to the African linsang and to the civets

The Cape genet, also known as the South African large-spotted genet, is a genet species endemic to South Africa. As it is common and not threatened, it is listed as Least Concern on the IUCN Red List. Like other genets, it is nocturnal and arboreal, preferring to live in the riparian zones of forests, as long as these are not marshy areas.

Viverrinae subfamily of mammals, the viverrids

The Viverrinae represent the largest subfamily within the Viverridae comprising five genera, which are subdivided into 22 species native to Africa and Southeast Asia. This subfamily was denominated and first described by John Edward Gray in 1864.

Pardine genet species of mammal

The pardine genet, also known as the West African large spotted genet, is a genet species living in West Africa. As it is widely distributed and common, it is listed as Least Concern on the IUCN Red List.

References

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